Skip to main content

Full text of "History of the counties of Argenteuil, Que. and Prescott, Ont., from the earliest settlement to the present. --"

See other formats



 t, .:.,.. '. · .& 
.. . .... . 

t TORONTO · ;.... 
. "LIBRARY \ · 
a.. .." _ 
". - 
.!" ' 


t. · 

'" ,- 
"." ! 


. . 

":;. 1 > 
., þ 
t" i.... . .' l: · 
. ..... 
.... ".. 
. .. .......... 
.. : 




... '-' 


. · 4 
.. . 




., :,.": 
.... " 

, _t - 
. , 



. . 



M4W 2GB 




... ferr' +; 
d-:! -
 t:' I 
'v rT J 




. . Of THE . . , 


. . . . Of . . . . 


, . . fROM THE . , . 








23 AND z:; Sr. NICHOLA!; 8rREET. 


r J 



I ' 


Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-six, by C, THOMAS, in the office of the Minister of Agriculture and Statbtics at Ottawa. 

\ 1.... 
{\\ 1\ 



In a volume of ordinary size it would be impossib[e, of course, to give 
a sketch of all the pioneers in a district of much extent; in the outset of the 
present work, therefore, it was the intention of the \\ riter to give biographi- 
cal sketches of only the very eady pioneers and those who) in different ways, 
had become prominently identified with the history of the two Counties, It 
was in pursuance of this plan that a few of the longer sketches were written 
but among so many of the early settlers who arrived Í-n the country about 
the same time, it was no easymatter to decide which was the more justly 
entitled to notice. To obviate this difficulty, and to avoid the very common 
complaint against Local Histories-that they mention only the rich and 
fortunate-it was determined to notice, by giving shorter sketches, all who 
evinced sufficient interest in the work to subscribe for it. But in pursuing 
this plan, we have by no means neglected to mention any individual or 
event whose history is at all likely to add interest to the work. Numbers of 
individuals, therefore, who have passed away, leaving no descendants in the 
country, have been accorded quite as much space as those sUf\riving, In OUr 
desire to do justice to all, and record every incident brought to our notice 
which seemed worthy of preservation, we have enlarged the book considerably 
beyond our intention at first, and, beyond the size stated in the prospectus. 
In a book of so many and varied subjects, it would be scarcely less than a 
miracle should not errors be found and, especially, when the writer in several 
instances has discovered serious mistakes ia notes \\ hich the individuals who 
gave them regarded as perfectly correct. It is believed, however, that what- 
ever errors may yet be discovered, if any, will be of so trifling a nature that 
they will not seriously affect the value of the work. 
That the work has been a very laborious one, the reader will at 
once perceive,-indeed, the writer, from ill health, has more than once almost 
despaired of completing it ; but He who tempers the wind to the shorn lamb 
has enabled him to persevere through many discouragements and brinJ' 
it to completion. He would acknowledge himse
f profoundly grateful for 
the assistance rendered by the different clergym
n whose contributions 
appear in these pages, as well as for that exten.led by \V, J. Simpson, :\r.p. P. ; 



G. W. Parmelee, Secretary of the Council of Public Instruction; G. F. Calder, 
Esq., Cols. Shields and Higginson, Sheriff Hagar, G.}, \Valker, Esq., Colin 
Dewar, Esq., Duncan Dewar, Esq" T. T, Higginson, Esq" and several 

., He that writes 
Or makes a feast, more certainly invites 
His judges than his friends; there's not a guest 
But will find something wanting or ill-drest." 

However true the above lines, the value of local history increases with 
the progress of culture, and Its benefit no one wiN deny. This volume is 
presented to the public with the belief that it will be accorded a reception 
sufficiently cordial to save the author the unpleasant reflection, that his labor 
has been performed in vain. 


Page 109, line 6, the legal Tight of any protestant clergyn1'1n except tho5e of 
he established churches of Eng\and and Scotland to keep registers of civil status or 
to officiate at marriages. 
Page 12 3, line 8, The late James Middleton. 
Page 125, 4th line from bottom, Lord Reay. 
Page 147, line Ig, For Catherine McLean, read Catherine McLaurin. 
Page 222, last line. read Mr. \Valker's present dwe1lÏng. 
Page 223, line 25, for an Elder read Manager. 
Page 4 61 , 1st line, for \Vestern read Eastern, 
Page 4 6 (J, line Ig, for this çompany, read their company. 



The Ottawa..,. ,. . . , .. . , . . . . . " . , .. ..,. 
Champlain's Astrolabe. . " ,...,. , . , .. , , , , 
The Heroes of the Lon
 Sault.,.... ....,. 
The Indians descent o(the Ottawa with furs 
do do do 
Opening of the fur trade on the Pacific.". 
Mr, Philemon Wright's ascent of the Ottawa 
Navigation on the UUawa... .....,...... 
Places of interest on the Ottawa..". ...,. 
County of Argenteuil. . .. ..",....., . . . . . 
Census of 1891 .,. , ,. . . ., , . . .. .......,. 
Geology of Argenteuil.,..... . . ,. . . .. .", 
Representati yes . . ,. . . . . . . . .. . . ,. . . . . . . . . 
Sir J. J. c. Abbott...... ...... ..... . .. .. 
Agricultural Society. . . . ,. ",.. ....'. , . . , 
Count y Council, . . . . . . , , . , .. ,.. . .. ,.",. 
A rgenteuil Rangers..,. . , , , . , . . , .. .." .. 
Fenian raids.",. . - ,.,.., ...' . . . , . .. . . . . 
The Schools of Argenteuil...,..... . . ., .. 
Inhabitants of Argenteuil...... ....,. .,.. 
Scotch settlers of Argenteuil. . . . . . ,. ".." 
Seigniory of Argenteuil.., ",. ,..", 
Sir John J olmson . . , . " . , . . . . . . .. . . . . , . , 
St. Andrew's Parish..,." . . ., ".". 
do Village. . .. ".", . '" . . , 
Churches. . .. , . " . . .. .". .", . , ., ,..... 
Anglican Church. . .. . . , , ,. . , .. .,., ".... 
Presbyterian Church. . . . ..,. ."..,...,.. 
Roman Catholic Church..,. . . , . . . ., .... . 
Baptist. . . , .. , , . , , . . . . , . , . , . . . . . , ,. ,." 
Congregational. . , . . , .. . . , , . . . . . , . . . . . . . 
Methodist, . ., . . . , , , .. ",."." . , ,. . , , . 
Bible Society,. . , ,. , . ,. , . . . .. . . . ..." .. 
C. E, Society,.".. ...,.. ..,.., .,., ..,. 
'V. C. T. U. Society, '" .. , ". . , ., ."... 
'V oman's Missionary Society.., ,. ,...... 
11asonic Lodge. , " ,. .. .. , , . " .. . . . . . , . . 
Mercantile. , ., , . . , .. ..,...' , , " ..,.', .. 
Cote du Midi and the Bay. . . . . . . . , ., . . . , . 
River Rouge.",.. . , .. . , . " . . , . .. ",." 
Beech Ridge.,.", ...... ,...,. .",., . . . 
Geneva. , " . , .. . , . , . . " ..., . . . . . ., , . . . . 
Carillon, , , , ., ".... . , ,. . , . . . ...... .... 
Employees on Carillon Canal. . . , .. . . . . , ., 
Municipal Council...... ...... ",.,. . . . . 
The Dam, . . . .. ""., ,... ,. ,.,. ",. .... 
Isle aux Chats. , .. . , .. . , .., ,....",.,.. 
Town of Lach ute.. .. .. . . ... . ...... 
Reminiscences of early days",. ,..... ..., 
Professional. . , . . . .. . . " ..,..", . ,. ,... , 
Rise and Progress of Education. ,.. . . . , . ,. 
Lachute Academy..".,...,...... .",.. 
Rise and Progress of Religion. , ., ".. .... 
Presbyterian Church.,...".....,." ,.., 

3 2 
4 2 
4 8 
4 8 
7 0 
10 3 
10 3 
10 4 
12 3 
12 3 
12 3 
12 3 
12 4 
13 1 
13 8 
15 1 
15 6 
19 0 
19 1 
21 3 
23 8 

Henry's Presbyterian Church. . , . ... . .. . . , , 
Anglican Church..,. ."... , , .. , , . . . , " . 
Baptist. , ,. . , , , , , . . , . . 
 . .. . , ,. .,., . . , . . 
Methodist. , ,. .. ,. . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . , . . . , 
Roman Catholic Church....".",.,...., 
W. C. T. U. and C. E. Societies.......... 
Mechanics Institute, , , . . . ., . , .. ...... ... 
Manufactures, . , . .. .",..... ,'.,., ".", 
Paper 1Iills. . ,. .,., . , ,. , . . . . . , , . . , . . , . . 
Newspapers, . ., , , ,. ".", . , , . .. . .. . , .. . 
Bridges and railroads, , , . . . .. . . ,. . . .. ... 
Mercantile establishments. . . . .. . , . . . . . , , . 
Hotels. , . . . . .. .,.. . . . . . . . . . ,. ... , .. . . , . 
Parish of St. Jerusalem d' Argenteuil... .. . . 
East Settlement.", .".,.............. 
Bethany. . . . . . . . . , ,. .. .. ...."... . . .. . 
V idesac , , " . . . . . . ' . . , , . . ,. . , . , . , . . . . . . . 
Hill Head , . . . . . . . .. .". .... .....", 
Chatham., ., ., .,., . . ,. . . . . ... . .. ".. 
Cushing. . .. . . .. . . . . .. .". . , " . , . .. . . . , 

t. :\I
 Church. .. ..".,.,.."..... 
Greece s POInt. , ,. ."... ""., . . . ,. . . ., . 
Stonefield. . " ,.,... . , , . . . , ., .." . . . . . , 
St. Phillip....,' ..., ..., .,.., .... ,.,.., 
Roman Catholic Church".." . . , .. .."., 
Stavnerville,." ..""...,. .". ..", .... 
Brö'wnsburg, _ . . .. .".., . , ., ." . " . , ., .. 
Dominion Cartridge Factory. . . . . . , ,. , , ,. . 
f\fount Maple,.,. ..., ,.,. .,. .... .,.... 
DalesviUe . , . , .. .,.,., . . .. ..,. ....". . , , 
Baptist Church.". ..,.", ....,. ",. .,.. 
Edina. . , . .. . , " , , .. ...... .,."....... 
Grenville. , . . . , . . . , .. ."". , . . , . . , , . . 
Grenville Village.. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. ... ... . 
Angl ican Chu rch. . .. .. .. . , . . . . . . . . . , . . , 
Presbyterian. . ,. ..",."..,...,...",. 
Roman Catholic.". .,.,., ..,." . . . . . .. , 
1f ethodist , . ., .,. , " , . . , . , , . , , ,. .,..... 
Baptist, . ., ,.,. . , ,. . . .. ."", ,..,. . . . . , 
Mercantile, . .. , . . . . . , " . . ,. ... . " ....., 
La Belle Falls.." , , . . . . . , , . , . . , ., ,.,. , 
Calumet. . " . . ,. ..". .. ., .. .."...". 
Augmentation of Grenville. . , ,. . , . , 
Point au chêne . , " . . " ... . . , ., . , ., "" . 
A voca , . .. . . . , " ..., "., . , ,. ., , , . , . . . . 
Harrington. . .. .", _ . ., . . . . ..", . . .. . 
Lost River,... ... . ,. , . , . .. . . . 
Lakt> View. , . , .. ... . .. ...... . 
The Glen, . .. . , " . , ,. "., . . " ..... .". . 
Wentworth.... ..,....... .,.. ..., ,.. 
Louisa. . , . ., . , " , . , , , , ,. .. . . . . . . . . , . . . 
\Ventworth Glen,. . . . . o' ..... , . ,. . . .. , . 
Laurel. . .. , , ., .." . . . . .. , . . . , , " . . . . . , 
Montfort, . .. , . .. . . .. . , , . ,. .",.,....., 

24 2 
24 6 
24 8 
24 8 
25 0 
26 3 
26 3 
26 9 
27 2 
27 8 
3 02 
3 0 7 
3 0 9 
3 1 3 
3 16 
3 22 
3 2 4- 
3 26 
33 6 
3 6 5 
3 66 
3 6 7 
37 8 
3 8 3 
3 8 4 
3 88 
39 6 
39 8 
4 0 3 
4 0 4 
4 11 
4 16 
4 18 
4 21 
4 2 2 
4 2 4 
4 2 5 
4 28 
4 z8 



Gore. . . . .. . , . . . . ,. . . ., ... , . .. , . ,. . . .. 43 0 
Lakefield . . . . . . . .. ...,....,........... 432 
Shrewsbury. . . . , . , . . . . . .. . , ,.. ..,..... 436 
Mille Isles ..........,. .."..."..,. 43 8 
Canl bria. , .. . . " .. ,..... ....,.,..",., 44 I 
Morin. , ., .... . .'. , .. ., ..,.. . . .. . . .. .. 444 
110rIn Flats. . . . . . " . . . , . . . . ,. . , " ..,... 445 
Arundel. . .. . . ., . ,.. . . ,. . .,.....,.. 447 
Montcalm. . , . ,. ...". .". ,..", . . ... 4 60 
Howard. , .. ., . , , ,. . , ,. ., , , . 460 
Prescott.. .. . , .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . ., ., ., 461 
Census of 1891 . . . . .. . . .. ...,.. . . . . . . . ., 461 
Representatives of Prescott. . .. .,.. .,. . .. . 462 
Inhabitants. . . . .. ...... ...,'. .... . . . . .. 464 
Militia ufficeJ s of 1838.... . . " .. 467 
18th Battalion of Militia.... ......... .... 467 
Schools of Prescott. , ., .... . , ., .' . , .. ..,. 468 
Progre<;s of the timber industry. ."... ..... 471 
Agricultural Society.... ...... ..... ...... 475 
Point Fortune...... .,..........,.-.. 477 
The H. H. and N. W. Companies..... ..... 485 
A Canadian IIeroine.... . ... ...... ..,... 495 
Longueuil. , . , . . .. ...... .".....,.... 5 02 
L'Orignal. . .. . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . " .. . . . . . .. 513 
Methodist chure h. . . . - , . . . . . . . . . ., ...", 5 1 5 
Presbyterian. , . , . . .. ... . .. . . ., . . . . . . . ., 517 
Roman Catholic. . " ...... ...." ... .". 520 
Anglican Church. ,...,...........,.... 520 
Professional Men and Officials...... '" . .. 520 
Mercantile and Business Men. . . . 524 
Ne\\spapers..." .,... ..,... .,.,...", 528 
Cassburn. . . . . . .. . .. . .... . .. . . .. . , .. . , " 529 
Hawkesbury Mills.,. . ., ....., '" . ., . . ,. 533 
Churches. " , " .,..., ...... ...... ". . ., 542 
Presbyterian Church. , ., . . ., . , . . . . , " . , .. 54 2 
Anglican Church.... ., .............. 543 
1\Ianufacture!> . .. . .. .." .. ...,.....,. . ,., 547 
11ercantile. . ,. .,..".,.".",.,.",... 549 
Evandale .,. . .. . . .. . - . . .. . . " . .. . . . . ,.. 551 
Green une.,., . . .. ...,.. . . ., ., .. .. . .. 553 
West Hawkesbury.. .. . . .. . ... . .. . .. 554 
I-Ienry. . . . ., . , .. . . . . . . , ., . . . . ,. .... , , " 563 
Vankleek Hill.... ...... . ... ....... .. ... 564 
Presbyterian Church. , . . . , . . . . . .. . . . . . , ., 570 

Anglican Church....,..... ...... . , .. . ., 571 
Methodist Church...... ... .......,..... 572 
Baptist Church. . . , ,. ...,., ,.,.., . . , , . ,. 573 
Roman Catholic Church.. 
. ..,. ...... . . _ 574 
Schools. . , . , , .. .. . . '. . , '. . . ., .." . . . ., 575 
Hotels. . " .".,. , , ,. . , .. ........ . '...., 577 
!\I anufactories. . .. .".. . "...,........ 5 7 8 
Newspapers. . ., . . . . . , " . . . , . . . .. .", . ., 580 
East Hawkesbury,...,. ",.., .,.. ,..... 588 
Chute au Blondeau.". . . .. .",...,..,., 5
Little Rideau....,' ...... .,... ,....... 597 
Stardale . . . . .. ...,.. .".. . . . . .. . . ,. . , ,. 604 
S1. Eugène . . . . .. ....,. . . , . .. . . . . . .. .". 60 9 
do R. C. Church.... ...., ....... 610 
BJ.r b . . . , . . . ... ..... . ..........,..... 6 I 5 
Caledonia. . . . '. ..., . , .. .... .. .. . . . . .. 621 
Fenaghvale.... .,., .."., ...... .....,..622 
do St. Paul's Church,... 62 5 
St. Amour ., .,......."..,....,...". 62 7 
Caledonia Springs.... . . ,. . . , . ,. ...,.. .. 628 
Alfred.,...... .,..',....."..... ,."..63 0 
do R. C. Church.".,. ... . '. .. . , ,. .. 630 
Lafaivre.. ,. . . . . . . . , ., ....,.. . , . , ., . . .. 631 
Holmes Settlement. . .. . . , . . . , , . . _ " . ., ., 635 
Alfred Village..., . ,., , , , , ,. . . .. . . .. . .. 635 
T ames Settlement . . .. .. . . . . . .. .... 63 8 
North Flantagenet. . " . . " . . .. . . . , ,. 638 
Plantagenet Mills........ ......... ...... 638 
do chUl ches. . ., ....,. " . . . . . , " 641 
do Hotels. ,. . .. . . . . ,. .. . . . . . . .. 642 
Treadwell... ,.. .,.,.. ,..... . . . . . 644 
Hughes Settlement...,.. '.. . ... .... ..., 645 
Jessup's Falls. , . , ,. ..,... . , . .. .,...... 645 
Curran..,... .... ....., ..., ,.. .". ..., 64 6 
CeDterfield ...,..""..........".,.,.. 647 
Rockdale. , , . . . . . . . .. ..,.,...", . , . , . . .. 649 
Pendleton.... .... "., ".... .... "., ....65 1 
Smith Settlemen
. . . . . . ,. .. , . . . .. ,...,.. 653 
do Prest. Church.. , , . . . ., ... 654 
South Plantagenet.... ... .......... 655 
l<.icevillc. . .. . . .. .......,.,...". "... 65 6 
Franklin's Corners. , .. . . . . . . . . . " .." . " 662 
Len1Ïeux. , ,. . , . . . , ,. . . .. "......".... 663 
Fournier. . , . , . .. ....,. ,."" .......... 663 




GJ, \
S this noble river is the dividing line between the two Counties to the history 

 of which this volume is devoted, and, moreover, is the stream upon which 

 thousands of their inhabitants have toiled for the maintenance of them- 
 selves or families, it naturally deserves more than a passing notice, 
Fine, charming, beautiful, lovely, wonderful river, are expressions anyone 
or all of which may be heard daily on the steamers which ply its waters; and ex- 
travagant and ridiculous as seem these adjectives when applied to many objects, no 
one ever regards them inappropriate when applied to the Ottawa. 
Corning from the far North, from regions almost unknown, there is a certain 
mystery about it, which awakens our curiosity and engenders a spirit of romance. 
'Vhile its beautiful islands and the picturesque scenery of its shores are continually 
demanding our admiration, as we ascend its current, its breadth is an ever-present 
source of wonder. 
From the moment we leave Lake St. Louis, where it unites with the S1. Law- 
rence, till we have plssed two hundred miles beyond the Dominion Capital, we 
look in vain for any perceptible decrease of its breadth and volume; there is the 
same oft-recurring change from river to lake, from lake to river. The Ottawa is 
emphatically a river of lakes, and of the la5t fifty miles of its course, they form no 
small proportion, 
Scarcely have we left Lake St. Louis, ere we enter the beautiful Lake of Two 
Mountäins, every rood of whose shores is replete with historic interest. Leav_ 
ing this, we are soon on the expansive bosom of St. Placide Bay, and anon on 
Rigaud Bay, each vying with the other in beauty and area, as well as in the importance 
of its historic associations. And thus we may sail, seeing river after river, and some 
of them large in size, r.dùing their waters to those of the mighty Ottawa, without 
causing the slightest apparent differeU(;e in its size; indeej, it is saiù that it is broader 
280 miles from its mouth than it is artt::r 
ecei ving twenty tributaries, and several of 
them such streams as the Gatineau, the Lièvre, the North and South 
ations, the 
Rouge and the River du Nord. Wonderful indeed! But our interest increases as we 
cast our eyes along the history of the past, and see the important events with which 
the Ottawa has been connected. It was the highway of the early French explorers, 



traders and missionaries who brought the first tidings of the Gospel to the natives of 
New France. It was traversed by the red man when he first in peace bartered the 
products of the chase with the whites at Montreal; also, when he stole stealthily upon 
them to dye his tomahawk in their blood. This was the route pursued by the coltrClIrs 
du bois, as they went to and from their far-off haunts for game, and many decades 
later the Ottawa bore the canoes _of the Nor' \Vesters, and returned them with rich 
cargoes of peltries. 
The earliest event with which the Ottawa is associated, which we find mentloned in 
Canadian history, is its ascent by Champlain, in 1613, on a wild goose chase, to 
discover the North Sea. A person named Vigneau had accompanied him on se'"eral 
visits to the Indians, and spent a winter among them. He reported that the river of 
the Algonquins (the Ottawa) issued from a lake connected with the North Sea; that 
he had visited the shores of this sea, and there witnes::,ed the wreck of an English 
vessel. The crew-eighty in number--had reached the 
hore, where the inhabitants 
had killed and scalped them all except a boy, whom they offered to give up to him, 
with other trophies of their victory. Champlain had this decìaration made in writ- 
ing, and signed before two notaries, at the same time warning Vigneau that if it were 
false, he would be liab1e to punishment by death. Vigneau adhered to his statements, 
and Champlain, having learned that some English vessels had been wrecked on the 
coast of Labrador, no longer doubted, and prepared to depart for the North to 
explore that section of the country, 
\Vith two canoes containing four Frenchmen-including Vigneau--and one Indian, 
he proceeded up the Oltawa, during which voyage he experienced severe hardships 
and encountered many difficulties. Owing to frequent rapids and cataracts, they 
were obliged, often, to carry their canoes and stores overland, and sometimes this 
was impossible, on account of the dense forests and undergrowth. The latter diffi- 
culty was overcome only by dragging their boats through the rapid current, where 
their lives were in constant jeopardy. Another danger, also, continually menaced 
them,-that of meeting wandering bands of Iroquois, to whose ferocity they would 
doubtless have fallen victims. At last they were obliged to abandon their corn and 
trust entirely to their success in hunting and fishing for provi<;ions. 
They finally reached the habitations of Tessonat, a friendly chief, whose 
country was eight days journey from that of the Nipissings, where the shipwreck was 
said to have occurred. He received them courteously; but in a council which was 
heJd later, he promised, only on the most earnest entreaty, to comply with Cham- 
plain's request for an escort of four c
.noes. Findmg the Indians still reluctant to 
fulfill this plOmise and averse to accon:pany him, he demanded another meeting, in 
which he reproached them with their intendfd breach of faith; and to convince them 
that the fears which they expressed were groundless, referred to the fact of Vigneau 
having spent some time among the Nipissings. 
Yigneau being then called on to state whether such was the case, after some 
hesitation and evident reluctance replied in the affirmative. The chief immediately 


1 [ 

called him a liar, asserted that he had never been beyond the limits of theirowncountry, 
and declared that he deserved torture for his dis
one5ty. Being submitted to a rigid 
examination by Champlain, Vigneau was obliged to admit that what the Indians said 
was true, and that his tale, by which Champlain had been led to encounter such hard- 
ships, and neglect matters he had so much at heart, was a fabrication. Leaving him 
with the Indians as punishnwnt for his perfidy, Champlain returned to Quebec, and 
soon afterward to France. 
In 1867 no little interest was awakened among antiquarians by the finding of 
an Astrolabe, which there very is go od proof was lost by Champlain on his trip up 
the Ottawa which is described above, 
'Ve are indebted to :\Ir. Colin Dewar, of Ottawa, for the account which follows. 
He says:- 
I have a distinct recollection that an article appeared in the Montreal 1Vitllus, in the summer 
of 1867, giving an account of the findingufan Astrolabe near Porlage du Fort, on the Ottawa. 
This was a most interesting relic, on account of its heing (as was conjectured) the one used by 
Champlain on his voyage of exploration up the Ottawa in 1613. In order to ascertain the truth of the 
report, and to obtain, If possible, the fullest information regardint; it, I instituted a vigoruus search 
(for a time with very little prospect uf success) ; but considering that no trouble would be too great to 
secure the proper information legarding such a valuable relic, "I persevered in myendeav ors ,an-1 
ultimately was rewarded by finding a very complete account in pamphlet form, from the pen of the 
late A.J. Russell, Esq., Crown Timber Agent in Ottawa, whose son, John Alex. Russell, Esq., of the 
Public \Vorks Department, has also contributed some exceedingly valuable information. The account 
given by Mr. Russell is so ,'ery interesting, and deals with the subject in such a scientific manner, that 
it will be both pleasing and profitable to the readers of these sketches to ha\e it faithfully transcribed. 


LOST ON THE 7TH ]urm, 1613. 

 AUGUST, 1867. 

In the preface, Mr. Russell says: "This brief treati
e was not 01 iginally WI iUen with a view to 
" publication; but as the subject is connected with the early history of Canada, and throws a little 
"additional light on an obscurity in a part of Champlain's journal of his first voyage up the Ottawa, 
" I have been induced by the flattering recommendations of a few friends to have a '"ery limited edition 
" of it published, trusting it may be in some degree interesting to Cånadian readers." 
l\Ir. Ru!'sell now goes on to wy: "The Astrolabe which is the subject of this treatise was 
" she\\n to me by Captain Ovelman of the Ottawa Forwarding Co. lIe afterwards gave it to R" W. 
" Cassells, Esq., then President of that Company, now of Toronto, who obliged me with the loan of 
" it. Knowledge of the Portage on which it was found led me to believe that it was the one that 
"Champlain's journal contains evidence of his having lost there, in 1613' 


"This Astrolabe, of which a photo is prefixed, was found in 1867, on the rear half of lot 12, in the 
"second range of the township of Ro
s in the county of North Renfrew, Province of Ontario, on the 
"river Ottawa, by Captain Overman's people in cultivating a piece of ground, at a 
manlake near the 

] 2 


" road from the Onawa to Muskrat Lake, and is believed to have been lost by Champlain in traver- 
" :;ing that portage on his way up the OUawa in the year 1613, "-" '1 he follo\\ ing particulars lespect- 
" ing it, and reasons for believing it to be Champlain's, may perhaps be found intere
ting to Cana. 
.. dian readers. Its diameter is 5
 inches, of plate brass, very dark with age, and }8 of an inch thick 
.' above, increasing to 6)f,ç of an inch below, to give it steadiness when suspended, which apparently 
.. was intended to be increased by having a weight on the ring at the bottom uf it, in using it on ship 
,. board. Its suspending ri ng is attached by a double hinge of the nature of a universal joint, Its 
.. cirCle i:" divided into single degrees, graduated from its perpendicular a},.is of suspension. The dou. 
h ble bladed inde},., the pivot of which passes thlOugh the centre of the A
trolabe, has slits and eyelets 
.. in the projecting sights that are on it, and by turning the index directly to the sun at noon, so that 
" the same ray may shine fully through both eyelds, while the Astrolabe hangs freely. The sun's 
.. MC:lidian altitude, and thereby the latitude of the place of observation, can be taken to within 
"about }.( uf a degree, or even less, which is as close as Champlain's latitndes generally were taken. 
., The d:tte of 1603 is engraved on the face of the Astrolabe. 
" Champlain made his first voyage up the Otta'wa in 1613, and his journal contains conclusi\e 
" evidence that he lost his Astrolabe on the 6th or 7th June of that year, in passing through the por- 
.. tage on which this Astrolabe was found, It is singularly remarkable that this evidence lies chiefly 
.. in an elfor in Champlain's latitude of what is now the village ufPembro1..e, which attracted the spe- 
.. cia] attention oi our Canadian histÐrian, 1\Ir. Ferland, and is the subject of a copious note on page 
., 3)7 of the splendid illustrated edilÎon of the works of Champlain, edited with copious and interesting 
h notes by ALbé Laverdière of the Laval 17niversity, and publi!>hcd by Mr. DesLalat in 18 7 0 , while 
" it is equally worthy of remark that the loss of his Astrolabe accounts sufficiently for Champlain 
I' not afterwards detecting and correcting this error of his hy subsequent obsel vat ions, and his having 
"lost it accounts alsu for his having made no more observatiuns for latitude on that vuyage, which he 
'. certainly othelwise would have done. It will he 
een on examinatiGn that Champlain's error in ob- 
., servation of latitude took place near Gould's Landing, beluw Portage du Fort (which seems to have 
,. e
capfd the notice of Mr. F er1and and others), and that his error in speaking of the latitude of Pem- 
"broke is :,imply a continuation of his first error, mising from its being merely an estimation or rough 
" dead rec1..oning of his Ncrthing from Gould's Landing, in consequence of his not having the means of 
" determining it by actual observation owing to his having lost his A!;trolabe. 
., This will be more clearly apparent by following the course of Champlain, and noting what he 
ays about his observations for latitude. 
" He left the Island of Ste. Hélène, where his barque lay at anchor, on the 27 th May, 161 3, with 
,. a party of four Frenchmen and one Indian, (There was no Montreal in those days,) Being delayed 
"by bad weather, he did not leave Sault St. Louis till the 29th. On the 30th he took an observation 
" for latitude at Lachine. His words in the Frcnch of his lime are: 'J e prius la hauteur de ce lieu, 
" qui est par les 45 degrez 18 minu
es de latitude,' \\ hich is only about five minutes less than the true 
"latitude of the place, a very insignificant error when it is taken into consideralÎon that the Vemiers 
" we now have On all scientific instluments for reading the sub-divi
ions of deglees were not then in 
"common use, though invented about that time. Giving a brief but vivid and highly intelesting 
" description of the danger he experienced in towing his own canoe up the Long Sault Rapids, of the 
" fair and spacious tributary livers, the beautiful islands and magnificent woods as he passes along, 
" and exchanging one of bis Frenchmen for an Indian of a war pal ty that he met at an bland near 
" what is now the site of the antique-looking and picture
quely situated manor house of the late Hon. 
" Louis Joseph Papineau, and passing the Rideau Falls, 
hich excite his admiration, he reaches the 
"great' Asticon,' as his Indians called it, and which in their language meant 'Chaudière,' and des- 
"cribes that great waterfall of the Ottawa, in all its native grandeur, which all old Bytonians so well 
U remember, though now impaired and desecrated, On passing it on the 4th June, he took an ouser- 



"vation for latitude at what is now the overgrown busy village of Hull. He says; e J e prius la hauteur 
"du lieu, et trouvay 45 degrez 38 minutes de latitude,' that is only about I2J{ minutes in excess ofthe 
"true latitude, whieh is 45 0 25' 33" N. Passing the Chaudière Lake and the Eardley mountains on 
" the 5th, and the gre:t fal!s of the Chatts, where, singularly enough, they left their provisions and part 
" of their clothing, to avoid the fatigue of carrying them, he ascends the Chats Lake and camps on an 
Cc island at the head of it, where he first meets the Ottawa red pine trees, and admires their beauty. He 
c e there erected a cross made of one of them with the arms of France cut upon it, Lea vin
 it On the 
" 6th he paddled up the Cheneaux Rapid. The reader who has passed th:ll way will remem ber the 
H narrow between the rocky islands and the lofty precipitous rocks, whose shadows darken 
I'theswi{t and surging waters through which the steamer sways and struggles before entering the pic- 
" turesque reach of smooth water leading to Portage du Fort. 
e' Here Champlain says he crossed to the west side of the river, 'where it turns to the "orth, 
II and landed for the purpose of taking the route by the Muskrat portage and lake to Pembroke, by 
Ie the advice of his Indians,-to avoid the many rapids and fans on the main river. The place of his 
" landing is very (definitely apl-'arent on the sketch with this, which is copied from the plan of the 
" Ottawa canal survey, and here he says he took an observation of the latitude: e Nous traversames 
" dunc à l'ouest la rivière qui courait au nord, et pris la hauteur de ce lieu qui estoit par 46 0 2' 3" 
'e de latitude.' 
" It is here that he makes the error of a full degree, in additio'1 to t he usual amount of error due, 
" to the imperfection of the instrument, for the latitude of hi,> landing place is only about 45 0 3)', and 
" this, it is to be observed, is the last ohservation that he says he took during the voyage. He then 
" says: 'We hacl much hardship in making our way by this land route, being loaded, for my own 
" part, only with three Arquebuses, as many paddles, my capot and some little bagateIJes. I 
" encouraged my people, who were a ltttle more heavily loaded, and more harasse,l by the mosquitoes 
" than by their burdens. Thus after having passed four small lakes or ponds (fetits itangs), we were 
" so fatigued that it was impossible for us to go further, as for nearly 24 hours we had eaten nothing 
" but a litde rO.lsted fish without sauce, for, as I have said, we had left our provisions; we rested en 
II the banks uf a little lake, which was pleasant enough, and made a fire to drive away the mosqui- 
"toes. The next day, June 7th, we passed this pond, which may be a league in length, and then made 
'e our way by land for three leagues through a more difficult country than any we had yet seen, owing 
II to the wind having blown down the pines one ovel the oHler, which is no small inconvenience, 
" h'lving to pass s
metiml's over and sometimes uncier these trees, Thus \\e came to a lake 6 
" leagues long (Muskrat Lake).' 
" The four little lakes that he p:lssed on the 6th are shown on the sketch, and his di"tance made 
H that day of 2J/z leagues from the Ottawa is very nearly correct, so also is the length of the lake he 
"traversed on the momin
 of the 7th, hut th
 dIstance from it to the Muskrat Lake is estimated by 
" him at nearly double what it really is, hut that is exactly what might be expected from any persOn 
" little accustomed to the woods in !>trugg1ing through windfalls. The small lake near whid.. I was 
e, informed hy Capt. Overman, the Astrolabe was fuund, and which is most accessible at that end, 
" would be a most suitable halting place. He reached Muskrat Lake early enough in the d IY to 
" be entertained formally with the pipe of peace and friendship in Indian fashion, followed by a 
" speech and refreshments from Nehachis, the chief of the Indians, who cleared and cultivated lanri 
" there, aml hari field;; and gard",ns which they took him to see. 
" Nebachis had a couple of canoes equipped, and took him down Muskrat Lake, and across the 
" short portage of three miles by a welI beaten easy path (now the stage route to Pembroke), to see 
"the Chief Tessonat. He arrived there on the 8th June, so early that after visiting Tessonat, and 
" some :Jrrangements with that chief, he had time to go over to Allumelte Island, the chief 
" abod
 ani stronghold of that branch of the Adgonl}uin,> called the' Kichsipim' (men of the Grand 



.. river). characteriled in 'Les Relations des Jésuites' as ex/rf11le1llcll/ suþerbe. There examin- 
" ing at leisure their land and burying grcunds, he conferred with their chiefs and principal men, and 
.. invited them to attend the feast or public dinner that the' bon deux Capitaine Tessonat' was to 
" give on the 9 th at Pembroke, on which day, after Tessonat's formal state dinner had come off in 
" its various courses, such like as tiley were, attended by the chiefs and great men, each bringing with 
.. him his own wooden howl and spoon, and after solemn smoking and speechification, Champlain, 
'0 to pass the rest of the day, walked about in their gardens. But neither during this time nor the day 
,. after, nor indeed during the remainder of the voyage, does he speak at all of taking any more 
"observations for latitude. What he says of Pembroke is simply that it is ahout the 47 th degree of 
.: latitude: · Elle est par les 47 degrez de latitude,' that is, in speaking of Allumetle Island and the 
" foot of Al1umette Lake. In noticing this as an error of fully a degree in the absence of any other 
" means obvious to him of accounting for it, M. Ferland, in page 1 6 4 of his · Cours d'Histoire du 
" Canada ' 
ays: · P:lreil1e erreur n'a rien qui doive surprendre. Gan:> une expédition où il lui devait être 
" difficile de faire des observations exactes.' But we cannot accept of this explanation as adequate 
" to account for the difference between the true latitude of Pembroke, which is about 45 0 50' \V. 
" and that of 47 0 given by Champlain, for in examining his errors in latitude in the cases quoted, 
" and those made on his voya
e to Lake Huron two years later, after having been again in France (if 
.. it be right to designate as errors differences, his instruments were not graduated minutely enough to 
,. indicate), we find that they are comparatively insignificant, 
eldom amounting to the third part 
.. of a degree, which conesponds closely with the c Ipacity of the Astrolabe found. \" e see there- 
" fore that this error of a degree in the latitude of Pembroke could not arise from imperfect power of 
" his instrument, as 1\1. Ferland's explanation seems to suggest. In fact, a little further consi:iera- 
" tiun enables us to see that ,he circumstance of this great error of a degree having been originally 
" made below POItage du Fort, demonstrates conclusively that -he took no ob-ervation at all at 
" Pembroke. For we all know, e!'pecially those of us who are accustomed to the use of instruments 
" for the observation of altitudes, or have even the ordinary knowledge of the doctl ine of chances, that, 
" as Champlain knew well that he was travelhng northward, the certainty is, that if he had made an 
" observation of Pembroke at all, he would have assuredly detected his elror made on the 6th, for by 
" it he would be necessalily made to appear to have been going south. \Ve are not at liberty to 
" suppose he would have made the error of a degree a 
econd time accidentally, for we know that on 
"the common principle of chances, the probability \\ as more than ten thousand to one that he 
" would not make the same accidental el ror twice in succe!'sion. Also, as we see that he was in the 
"habit of taking observations for latitudes of less important points, as he went along, and very 
" formally noticing his observations, we may be very well assured that he would not have failed to 
" determine, hy actual observation as usual, the latitude of a position so important as the extreme 
" point he had reached, if he had had the means of doing so, and no other cause that can le assigned 
" accounts sufficiently for his not having the means of doing so, and for his having taken no observa- 
" tion on this voyage after the 6th of June, excepting the loss of his Astrolabe on th
 portage where 
" this one was f0l1.nd. 
" Taken altogether, therefore, there is strong circumstantial evidence that this was his Astrolabe, 
" and that his loss of it, there and then, was the cause of the extraordinary error in his latitude of 
" Pembroke which attracted the attention of his commentatOiS. 
" \Vhile we look upon this Astrolabe as a relic of the founder of civilized society in Canada, her 
" greateiit man and most daring explorer, the fuunder of her most ancient cities, of her great com- 
" mercial metropolis; anù while we regard it with additÍ'>nal interest as a memento of early adven- 
" ture on what was even then Canada's great interior highway of commerce, and is by the same des- 
4. tiny now the site for her great Pacific Railway, we may also look upon it as a relic of ancient and 
.. even pIe-historic scienc
 and civilization. 



" The day of Astrolabes, like that of the men who used them, has long gone by. This was pro- 
U bably One of the la
t of them that were used. One of the la'lt works on them is Clavius' · Treatise on 
" Astrolabes,' printed at 
hyence in 1611. They were soon after superseded. Vernier, the inventor 
" of the Vernier scale now in use on the indexes of all scientific instruments for reading 
"of degrees, publi
hed a tract on 0 La Construction, l'Usage et les Propriétés du Quadrant 
"Nouveau de !\Iathématique' at Brussels en 1631. In it the nature and use of the Vernier is 
" explained, and it had indeed been known for a number of years before. It will be readily under- 
co stood by all acquainted with scientific instruments that the' Quadrant Nouveau' with its Vernier 
" would speedily supersede so imperfect an instrument as the Astrolabe before us. The Astrolabe 
c, was found in general use among the Southern Arabians by Yasquez de Gama, when he discovered, 
" as it is commonly held, the way round the Cape of Good Hope to India, known in the days of 
" Pharaoh Necho. The origin of the use of it by them is I )st in the remote past. From the days 
" of de Gama back to the earliest notices of commerce in existence, the commerce of the Arabians 
" and their predecessors, the Cushite Arabians, extended to every coast, and almost to every island of 
CI the Indian Ocean · from India to Abyssinia,' as Rawlinson says in his work on Herodotus. Our 
Cf · Alchemy,' , Arabic figures,' · Almanac' and' Algebra,' indicate the channel through which our 
" sciences came." 

Champlain returned to Canada in 1815, and the same ye
r, in company with his 
Huron and Algonquin a])ie
, once more ascended the Ottawa, and explored the 
country towards Lake Nipissing, and thence to Georgian Bay and Lake Huron. 
The most important event, however
 associated with the Ottawa is the brave 
defence on its shores by the "Heroes of the Long Sault," The exact site of this 
heroic fight is unknown-different parties locate it in different places, and all sup- 
port their olJinions with argumen ts equally good. But there are strong reasons for 
believing that the fight occurred in what i<; now known as Greece's Pt., or at a spot 
nearly opposite, in the township of Hawkesbury, Ont., traditi<}n, and the finding of 
many Indian weapons there, strongly sustaining the claims of th
 latter place to 
this honor. 
The following account is taken from "The Old Régime in Canada II by Francis 
Parkman :- 


In April, 1660, a young officer named Daulac, commandant of the garrison at 

fontreal, asked leave of Maisonneuve, the Governor, to lead a party of volunteers 
against the Iroquois. His plan was bold to desperation, It was known that 
Iroquois warriors in great numbers had wintered among the forests of the Ottawa, 
Daulac proposed to waylay them on their descent of the river, and fight them with- 
out regard to disparity of force; and Maisonneuve, judging that a display of enter- 
prise and boldness might act as a check on the aud of the enemy, at last gave 
his con.sent. 
Adam Daulac was a young man of good family, who had come to the colony 
three years before, at the age of twenty-two. He had held some military command 
in France, though in what rank do:;s not appear. He had been busy for some time 
among the young men of Montreal, inviting them to join him in the enterprise he 



meditated. Sixteen of them caught his spirit. They bound themselves by oath to 
accept no quarter; and having gained Maisonneuve's consent, they made their wills, 
confessed, and received the 
After a solemn fareweIJ, they embarked in several canoes, wen supplied with 
arms and ammunition. 1 hey wer
 very indifferen t canoe-men, and it is said that 
they lost a week in vain attempts to pass the swift current of Ste. Anne, at the head 
of the Island of Montreal. At length they were successful, and entering the mouth 
of the Ottawa, crossed the Lake of Two Mountains, and slowly advanced against 
the curren t, 
About the 1st of May they reached the foot of the formidable rapid called the 
Long Sault, where a tumult of waters, foaming among ledges and boulders, barred 
the onward way. It was needless to go farther. The Iroquois were sure to pass 
the Sault, and could be fought here as well as elsewhere. Just below the rapid, 
where the forests sloped gently to the shore, among the bushes and stumps of a 
rough clearing made in constructing it, stood a palisade fort, the work of an Algon- 
quin war-party in the past autumn. It was a mere enclosure of trunks of 
mall trees 
planted in a circle, and was already in ruin, Such as it was, the Frenchmen took 
possession of it. They made their fires, and slung their kettles, on the neighboring 
shore; and here they were soon joined by forty Huror1s and four Algonquins. 
Dllulac, it seems, made no objection to their company, and they all bivouacked to_ 
gether. Morning, noon and night, they prayed in three different tongues; and when, 
at sunset, the long reach of forest on the farther shore basked peacefully in the level 
rays, the rapids joined their hoarse music to the notes of their evening hymn. 
In a day or two their scouts came in with tidings that two Iroquois canoes were 
coming down the Sault, Daulac had time to set his men in ambush among the bushes 
at a point where he thought the strangers likely to land. He judged aright, Canoes, 
bearing five Iroquois, approached, and were met by a volley fired with such precipita- 
tion that one or more of them escaped, fled into the forest, and told their mischance to 
their main body, two hundred in number, on the liver above, A fleet of canoes suddenly 
appeared, bounding down the rapids, filled with wanion eager for revenge. The 
allies had barely time to escape to their fort, leaving their kettles still slung O\"er the 
fires, The Iroquois made a hasty and desultuy attack, and were quickly repu1sed, 
They next opened a parley, hoping, no doubt, to gain some advantage by surprise. 
Failing in thi
, they set themselves, after their custom on such occasions, to building 
a rude fort of their own in the neighboring forest. 
This gave the French a breathing time, and they used it for strengthening their 
defences. Being IJrovided with tools, they planted a row of stakes within their pal- 
isade, to form a double fence, and filled the intervening space with earth and stones 
to the height of a man, lea\.ing some twenty loop-holes, at each of which, three marks- 
men were stationed, Their work was still unfinished when the Iroquois were upon 
them again. They had broken to pieces the birch canoes of the French and their 
aJ1ies, and kindling the bark rushed up to pile it bJazing against the palisad
; but so 



brisk and steady 'a fire met them that they recoiled, and at last gave way, They 
came on again, and again were driven back, leaving many of their number on the 
ground, among them the principal chief of the Senecas, 
This dashed the spirits of the Ircquois, and they sent a canoe to call to their aid 
five hundred of their warriors, who were mustered near the mouth of the Richelieu. 
These were the allies whom, but for this untoward check, they were on their way to 
join for a combined attack on Quebec, Three Rivers and l\1ontrea
, It was madden- 
ing to see their grand project thwarted by a few French and Indians ensconced in a 
paltry redoubt scarcely better than a cattle-pen j but they were forced to dige
t the 
affront as best they might. 
Meanwhile, crouched behind trees and logs, they beset the fort, harassing its 
defenders day and night with a spattering fire and a constant menace of attack. 
Thus five days passed, Hunger, thirst, and want of sleep \\ rought fatally on the strength 
of the French and their allies, who, pent up together in their narrow prison, fought 
and prayed by turns. Deprived as they were of water, they could not swallow the 
crushed Indian corn, or "hominy," wbich was their only food, Some of them, under 
cover of a brisk fire, ran down to the river and filled such sm<J,ll vessels as they had; 
but this pittance only tantalized their thirst. They dug a h
le in the fort, and were 
rewarded at last by a little muddy water oozing through the clay. 
Among the assailants were a number of Hurons adopted by the Iroquois, and 
fighting on their side. These renegades now tried to seduce their countrymen in the 
fort. Half dead with thirst and famine, they took the bait, and one, two, or three at 
a time climbed the palisade, and ran over to the enemy, amid the hootings and exe- 
crations of those whom they deserted. Their chief stood firm, and when he saw his 
nephew join the other fugitives, he fired his pistol at him in a rage, The four A 19on- 
quins. who had no mercy to hope for, stood fast with the courage of despair, 
On the fifth day an uproar of unearthly yeUs from se-;en hundred savage throats, 
mingled with a clattering salute of musketry, told the Frenchmen that the expected 
reinforcemen t had come j and soon, in the forest and on the clearing, a crowd of war- 
riors mustered for the attack. Knowing from the Huron deserters the weakness of 
their enemy, they had no doubt of an easy victory. They advanced cautiously, as 
was usual with the Iroquois before their blood was up, screeching, leaping flOm side to 
side, and firing as they came on ; but the French were at their posts, and every loop- 
hole darted its tongue of fire. The Iroquois, a&tonished at the persistent vigor of the 
defence, fell back discomfited. The fire of the French, who were themselves com- 
pletely under cover, told upon them with deadly effect. Three days more wore away 
in a series of futile attacks, made with little concert or vigor, and during all this time 
Daulac and his men, reeling with exhaustion, fouóht and prayed as before, sure of a 
martyr's reward. 
The uncertain, vacillating temper common to an Indians now began to declare 
itself, Some of the Iroquois were for going home, Others revolted at the thought, 
and declared that it would be an eternal disgrace to lo-;e so many men at the hands 



of so paltry an enemy, and yet fail to take revenge. It was res3lveð to make a general 
assault, and volunteers were called for, 10 lead the attack. No precaution was 
neglected. Large and heavy shields, four or five feet high, were made by lashing to- 
gether, with the aid of cross bars, three split logs. Covering themselves with these 
mantelets, the chosen band advanced, followed by the motley throng of warriors. 
In spite of a brisk fire, they reached the palisade, and crouching below the range of 
shot, hewed furiously with their hatchets to cut their way through. The rest followed 
close, and swarmed like angry hornets around the little fort, hacking and tearing to 
get in. 
Daulac had crammed a large musketoon with powder and plugged up the muzzle, 
Lighting the fuse inserted in it, he tried to throw it over the barrier, to burst like a 
grenade among the crowd of savages without; but it struck the ragged top of one of 
the palisades, fell back among the Frenchmen, and explojed, killing or wounding 
several of them, and nearly blinding others. In the confusion that fol1ow
d, the Iro- 
quois got possession of the loop- holes, and thrusting in their guns fired on those 
within. In a moment more they had torn a breach in the palisade; but, nerved with 
the energy of desperation, Daulac and his followers sprang to defend it, Another 
breach was made and then another, Daulac was struck dead, but the survivors kept 
up the fight. 'Vith a sword or a hatchet in one hand and a knife in the other, they 
w themselves against the throng of enemies, striking and stabbing with the fury of 
madmen; till the Iroquois, despairing of taking them alive, fired vo1!ey after volley, 
and shot them down, All was over, and a burst of triumphant yells proclaimed the 
dear-bought victory. 
Searching the pile of corpses, the victors found four Frenchmen still hreathing. 
Three had scarcely a spark of life, and, as no time was to be lost, they burned them 
on the spot. 1 he fourth, less fortunate, seemed likely to survive: and they reserved 
him for future torments. As for the Huron deserters, their cowardice profited them 
little. The Iroquois, regardless of their promises, fell upon them, burned some at 
once and carried the rest to their villages for a similar fate. Five of the number had 
the good fortune to escape, and it was from them, aided by admissions made long 
afterward., by the Iroquois themselves, that the French of Canada derived all their 
knowledge of this glorious disaster, 
The story of the Heroes ofthf L01lg Sault has been admirably told by Mr. George 
Murray, B.A., F.R.S.C., in his celebrJ.ted poem, How Canada was Sa v td. 

Daulac, the captain of the fort in manhood's fiery prime, 
lIath sworn by some immortal deed to make his name sublime j 
And sixteen soldiers of the Cross, his comrades true and tried, 
Have pledged theil faith for life and death, all kneeling side by side. 
And this their oath, on flood or field, to challenge face to face 
The mthless hordes ofIroquois-the scourges of their race- 
1'\0 qualter to accept or grant, and loyal to the grave, 
To die, hke martyrs, for the land they had shed their hlood to save. 



Sofe was the breath of balmy Spring in that fair month of May) 
The wild flower Lloomed-thp. Spring bird sang on many a budding spray- 
A tender blue was in the sky, on earth a tender green- 
.\nd peace seemed brooding, like a dove, o'er all the sylvan scene, 
When loud and high. a thrilling cry dispelled the magic charm, 
And scouts came hurrying from the woods to bid their comrades arm. 
And bark canoes skimmed lightly down the torrent of the Sault, 
Manned by three hundred dusky forms-th
 long expected foe. 
H Eight days of varied horror passed; what boots it now to tell 
How the pale tenants of the fort heroically fell ? 
Hunger and thirst, and sleeplessne"-s, Death's ghastly aids, at length 
Marred and defaced their comely forms, and quelled th
ir giant strength; 
The end draws nigh-they yearn to die-one glorious rally more, 
For the saI..e of Ville-Marie, and all will SOon be o'er; 
Sure of the martyr's golden crown, they shrink not from the cross, 
Life yielded for the land they love, they scorn to reckon loss." 
The fort is fired. and through the flame, with slippery, splashing tread, 
The Redmen stumble to the camp o'er ramparts of the dead. 
There, with set teeth and nostrils wide, Daulac, the dauntless, stood 
And dealt his foes remorseless blows, 'mid blinding smoke and blood, 
'Till, hacked and hewn, he reel'd to earth, with proud unconquered glance, 
Dead-but immortalized by death-Leonidas of France! 
True to their oath, his comrade knights no quarter basely craved- 
So died the peerless twenty-two-So CalUTda was saz'ed. 

A visit by the French to the scene of this obstinate fight confirmed the story of 
those Hurons who had escaped, and for many years, subsequently, Daulac was re- 
membered by his countrymen in Canada as their deliverer, and his name was rever- 
enced as that of a hero and martyr. 
The fact that the Iroquois, after this fight, returned to their homes without mak- 
ing their contemplated attack on the cities, also confirmed another report of the 
Hurons, viz., that the Iroquois were comlJletelr disheartened with their victory, and 
had no relish for another contest with the French. If twenty of the latter without 
support or co:nfort-J.lmost without food and water-could perform such a prodigy of 
valor, what m:ght they expect when confronting hundreds sl
pplied with abundant . 
stores of food, arms and ammunition? Such was the question pondered by the 
Iroquois, and the consideration of which induced them to abandon the war-path 
and seek their homes. 
But to the shame of Canada, be it said, no monument marks the spot of this 
memorable defence, and even its location is now a subject of conjecture. Indeed, it 
is surpri
ing to finà how great the numher, even in this section of Canada, who declare 
that they never heard of the event. \\'e can well understand why Daulac's cúntem- 
poraries failed to mark the spot with an appropriate monument, as they were few in 
number, :1l1d waging incessant warfare with poverty, as wen as Indians. For a cen- 



turyafter this event, also, its site was remote from civilization, in an unbroken wilder- 
ness; and anything of the kind erected there would, doubtless, have been destroyed 
by the savage. But for a century past, no such obstacle to a proper recognition of 
this gallant band has existed, and every pa triotic Canadian should desire to show 
to the foreign visitor who passes up and down the Ottawa, that Canada has her Ther- 
Let him read on enduring material, the fact, that on the shores of this beautiful 
river, long ago, died twenty heroes, as brave as ever Spartan mother nursed, as patrio- 
tic as those of whom Roman or Grecian poet ever sung. 
The French are proverbially proud of their heroes, and ever ready to perpetuate 
the fame of their honored dead. They point with pride to the statues adorning their 
galleries of history, and gladly expatiate on the deeds performed by their great and 
good. But let the patriot Frenchman, when he points to the monumelllS of Maison- 
neuve, Montcalm and Chenier, remember that Daulac and his nineteen comrades, 
deserving the highest niche in the temple of fame, have never been duly honored;- 
that for nearly two and half centuries, the only reminder of the hallowed 
pot where 
these martyrs fell has been the swift, roaring, turbulent waters of the Long Sault. 






'Ve are indebted to Parkman, also, for the account of the two following incidents 
with which the Ottawa is connected. 
During the second administration of Frontenac as Governor of Canada, he left 
Quebec for a visit to Montreal, at which place he arrived July 3 1st , 16 9 0 . 
A few days after his arrival, the officer commanding the fort at La Chine sent 
him a messenger in hot haste, with the startling news tha t Lake St, Louis was "all 
covered with canoes." Nobody doubted that the Iroquois were upon them again, 
Cannon were fired to call in the troops irom detached posts; when alarm was sud- 
denly turned into joy by the arrival of other messengers, to announce that the new- 
comers were not ene n 1 i es, but friends. They were the Indians of the upper lakes 
descending from Michillimacinac via the Ottawa to trade in 
lontreal. Nothing 
so auspicious had happened since Frontenac's return. The messages he had sent 
them in the spring by Louvigny and Perrot, reinforced by the news of the victory on 
the Ottawa and the capture of Schenectady, had had the desired effect; and the Iro- 
quois prisoner, whom their missionary had persuaåed them to torturc, had not been 
sacrificed in .vain. Despairing of an English markt.t for their beaver skins, they 
had come as of old to seek one from the French. On the next day all came down 
the mpids and landed near the town. There were fully five hundred of them- 
Huron", Ottawas, Ojibway:;:, Poltawtamies, Crees, and Nipissings, with a hundred and 
ten canoes laden with beaver skins to the value of nearly a hundred thousand 
crowns. Nor was this all, for a few days after, La Durantaye, late commander at 

Iichillimacinac, arrived with fifty-five more canoes manned by French traders, and 



filled with valuable furs. The 
treal11 of wealth dammed back so long was flowing 
upon the colony at the moment whet! it was most needed, Never had Canada known 
a more prosperoüs trade than now, in the midst of her danger and tribulation. It 
was a tri 1 1mph for Frontenac. If hi<) policy had failed with the Iroquois, it had found 
a crowning success among the tribes of the Lakes. 
Four or five years later, when the country was again i!i a great state of destitution 
on account of the frequent raids of enemies, which compel!ed the settlers or colonists 
to neglect the implements of agriculture for those of war, another arrival of furs quickly 
changed the country from misery and destitution to happiness and plenty. 
It was shortly after the repulse of Phipps at Quebec, and some other sucr.::esses of 
the French, that " the Governor achieved a success more solid and less costly." 
The indispensable but most difficult task of all remamed : that of opening the 
Ottawa for the descent of the great accumulation of beaver skins which had been 
gathering at Michillimacinac for three years, and for the want of which, Canada was 
Iore than two hundred Frenchmen were known to be at that remote post, 
or roaming in the wiJderness around it; and Frontenac resolveå on an attempt to 
muster them together, and employ their united íorce to protect the Indians and the 
traders in bringing down this mass of furs to Montreal. A messenger, strongly es- 
{'orted, was sent with orders to this effect, and succeeded in reaching Michillimacinac, 
though there was a battle on the way in whi
h the officer commanding the escort was 
Frontenac anxiously waited the issue, when, after a long delay, the tidings reached 
him of complete success. He hastened to Montreal, and found it swarming with 
Indians and coureurs du bois. T\vo hundred canoes had arrived filled with the coveted 
beaver skins. It is impossible, says the chronicle, to conceive the joy of the people 
when they beheld these treasures. Canada had awaited them for years. The mer- 
chants and the farmers were dying of hunger. Credit WJ.S gone, and everybody was 
afraid that the enemy would waylay and seize this last resource of the country. 
Therefore it was that none could find words to praise and bless him by whose 
care all this wealth had arrived, Father of the Peoþle, Preserver of the Coulltry, 
seemed terms too weak to express their gratitude. 

Few, comparatively, are aware of the fact, that the Ottawa was the route pur- 
sued by one of the partners and his voyageurs, in the great enterprise of opening up 
the fur trade on the Pacific, The following account .of this enterprise is of interest 
to the citizens of Argentcuil, from the fact that Capt. McCargo, a pioneer of Beech 
Ridge, 8t. Andrews, before settling here was connected with one of the expeditions 
to the Pacific, described below. 

III 1810 articles were entered into between John Jacob Astor of New York, and 
four other gentlemen-Alexander McKay, Duncan McDougal, Donald McKenzie 
and Wilson Price Hunt-for the purpose of prosecuting the fur trade on what was 



then almost a terra illcogllita-the Northwest coast of the United States; the company 
was chartered under the name of" The Pacific Fur Company." 
In prosecuting his great scheme of commerce and colonization, two expeditions 
were devised by 
lr. Astor,-one by sea, the other by land, The former was to carrr 
ou t the people, stores, ammunition and merchandise requisite for establishing a forti- 
fied trading post at the mouth of the Columbia river. 
The latter, conducted by 
Ir. Hunt, was to proceed up the 
liswuri, and across 
the Rocky Mountains to the same point, exploring a line of communication across the 
continent, and noting the places where interior trading posts might ue established. 
A fine ship called the" Tonquin " was provided, carrying an assortment of mer- 
chandise for trading with the n3.tives of the seaboard and the interior, together with 
the frame of a schooner to be employed in the coasting trade. She was commanded 
by Jonathan Thorn, a lieu:enant in the United States Navy, on leave of absence. 
The ,e Tonquin," after a long voyage around the Cape, and much trouble between 
the captain and his passengers, and an interesting though dangerous visit to the Sand- 
wich Islands, arrived at the mouth of the Columbia, Several days were spent io 
attempting to cross the bar and effect an entrance into this river, and some of the 
crew were lost. 
The object, however, was finally accomplished, the men and stõres hmded, and 
then the" Tonquin," according to instructions, put to sea with the purpose of sailing 
to other more northern coasts to obtain furs, before returning to the mouth of the 
Columbia and thence to New York. She arrived in a few days at Yancouver Island, 
and very much against the advice of his Indian interpreter, who warned him against 
the perfidious character of the natives of that part of the coast, Captain Thorn 
anchored in the harbor of N eweetee. He was a very harsh, headstrong, conceited 
man, though brave and a thorough seaman, and regardl
ss of the cautions to him 
by Mr. Astor, that he should Tlever allow but a few of the Indians on shipboard at a 
time, he allowed boat-load after boat-load with furs to approach and clime on deck, 
No' was this all-he spread his wares before them, making a tempting display of 
blankets, cloths, knives, beads, fish-hooks, etc., expecting a prompt and profitable 
sale. But the Indians were not so eager and simple as he had supposed, having 
learned the art of bargaining and the value of merchandise from the casual traders 
along the coast. Finally, angered at the insolent way in which they reproached 
him for not trading with them according to their ideas of the value of articles, he 
kicked their furs to the right and left, and ordered them from the ves...el. They 
accordingly left, scarcely concealing their vengeful feelings for the indignity with 
which Captain Thorn had treated their chief, The next morning they returned, 
apparently in a pleasant mood, seemingly unarmed, and soon the deck was once more 
swarming with them. The interpreter noticed that many of them wore sho t mantles 
of skins, and intimated his suspicions that they were secretly armed; hut the captain, 
pointing to his cannon and muskets, merely laughed and made light of any iÒtlmation 
of danger from a parcel of filthy savages. A brisk trade was opened, and the Iudians 



were soon all supplied with knives. Meanwhile the crowd had been constantly increas- 
ing, and seeing that other boat-loads were putting off hom the shore, Captain Thorn 
became alarmed, and ordered the vessel to be cleared and put under way. At this, 
a yell frum a savage gave the signal; the Indians fell upon the crew with knives and 
war clubs, and a terrific fight ensued. But greatly out-numbered and taken unawares, 
the latter were soon nearly all slaughtered, 
Capt, Thorn fought bra \ ely, and being a powerful man he laid several dead at his 
feet, but at length, weak from his wound
, he was stabbed in the back and then thrown 
over the side of the vessel, where the squaws dispatched him with knives and hatchets. 
Four of the sailors had the good fortune to escape into the c
bin, where they found 
1\1r. LewIs, the ship's clerk, badly wounded, and barricading the cabin door, they broke 
holes through the companion way, and with the muskets and ammunition which were 
at hand, opened a brisk fire that soon cleared the deck. The survivUls now sal- 
lied forth and discharged some of the deck guns, which did great execution, and drove 
all the savages to the shore. 
After this, the four who wÇre still alive endeavored to persuade Mr. Lewis to 
attempt with them to escape in a boat to their friends at the mouth of the Columbia, 
He refused, saying that his wounds would not permit him, and that he was dder- 
mined to entice as many savages as possible 011 board and then blow up the ship. They 
Idt him, therefore, but they were captured the next day, and put to death with the 
most terrible torture
. The following morning after the trclgedy on the "Tonquin," 
everything appearing quiet on her, a boat-load of the Indians drew near. Mr. 
Lewis was on deck, and made friendly signs for them to come on board. 
After a considerabl.e interval of time, other canoes having joined them, they did 
so j the decks were soon crowded and the sides covered with clambering savages, all 
intent on plunder. No one was to be seen on board, for lVIr, Lewis, after Ì11\'iting 
them, had disappeared, In the midst of their eagerness and exultation the ship hlew 
up with a tremendous e:xplosion. Arm
, legs 
nd mutilated bodies were blown into 
the air, and dreadful havoc was made in the surrounding canoes. Upwards of a 
hundred savages were destroyed by the explosion; many more were shockingly 
mutilated, and for days afterward, the limbs and bodies of the slain were thrown 
upon the beach. The fate of the" Tonquin," and allthe details connected therewith, 
were made known to the whites by the interpreter, who, being an Indian, had been 
spared by the n3.tives, and was therefore a witness of the destruction of the vessel 
and her crew. 
As before stated, the land expedition of the Pacific Fur Company \\as in charge 
Ir. \Vilson Price Hunt, About the end of July, 1810, he, in company with his 
coadjutor, Mr. Donald McKenzie, an experienced Nor'wester, and a capital shot, 
repaired to :\Iontreal, the ancient emporium of the fur trade, where everything requi- 
site for the expedition could be procured. One of the first objects was to recruit a 
complement of Canadian voyageurs from the disbanded herd usually to be found 
loitering about the place. The Northwest Company, howevu, who maintained a 



long established control at Montreal, and knew the qualities of every voyageur, 
secretly interdicted the prime hands from engaging in this new service; so that, 
although liberal term') were offered, few presented themselves but such as were not 
worth having. From these :\lr. Hunt engaged a number sufficient for present pur- 
poses, and having laid in a supply of ammunition, provisions, and Indian goods, 
embarked all on board one of these great canoes at that time Ul
iversally med by the 
fur traders for navigating the intricate and often obstructed rivers. The canoe was 
bel ween thirty and fony feet long and several feet in width, constructed of birch bark, 
and capable of 
lIstaining a freight of upward of four tons, yet it could be readily 
carried on men's shoulders. 
The expedition took its regular departure as usual from St. Anne's, near the 
extreínityof the island of Montreal, the great starling place of the traders to the 
interior. Here stood the ancient chapel of St. Anne, the patroness of the Canadian 
voyageuas, where they made confession and offered up their vows previous to 
departing on any hazardous expedition. Mr. Hunt with the crew made his way up 
the Ottawa liver, and by the ancient route of the fur traders, along a succession of 
small lakes and rivers to Michillimacinac. Their progress was slow and tedious. 
1\1r, Hunt was not accustomed to the management of II voyageurs," and he had a 
crew admirably disposed to play the old soldier, and balk their work, and ever ready 
to come to a halt, land, make a fire, put on the great pot, and smoke and gossip and 
sing by the hour. It was near the end of July wì1en they reached Mackinaw, the old 
French trading post. Here Mr. Hunt spent some time in obtaining recruits for the 
eJ\.pedition, and when supplied, they followed the Fox and Wisconsin rivers to the 
Mississippi, descended to St. Louis, thence up the Missouri, crossed the plains, 
went overthe Rocky Mountains, and after many months of the severest trials reached 
the members of the other expedition at the mouth of the Columbia. 
For a detailed account of these expeditions the reader is referred to " Astoria," a 
10llg and intensely in teresting narrative to be found in the works of Irving. 
The approach of the war of 1812 prevented the carrying out of the plans of Mr. 
Astor, and he lost heavily in this first effort; but with characteristic energy, he subse- 
quently pushed his plans to a successful issue, 
The following sketch of Mr, Philemon \Vright's ascent of the Ottawa, and his 
pioneer labors, together with the comments of the editor, is taken from The Ottawa 
Free Press: 
'I The north shore of the Ottawa. river deserves more than a passing glance or 
reference as we gave at the outset, It was the beginning, the centre, the very soul 
and life of the whole settlements of the Ottawa VallFY. The belt of table-land be- 
tween the river and the mountain range is perhaps not surpassed in b
auty and fer- 
tility on this continent. The rich deep alluvial soil with its clay bottom, protected on 
the north by the Laurentian hills, 1,750 feet above the sea level, with easy available 
passes into the back country, so likely to reward the toil of the cultivators, must have 
appeared to one brought up in the hills and narrow valleys of New England as the 



shadow at least of an agricultural paradise. It was an untouched, unbroken forest of the 
finest samples of lumber; white pine, oak, elm, ash, white walnut, spruce, cherry, poplar, 
basswood, with vast groves of maple, bird's eye and curly, must have delighted the eyes 
and filled the mind of a sharp lumbermaü with dreams of wealth absolutely incalcul- 
able. This was the enchanting scene presenting itself to the eye and mind of Mr. 
Philemon "Tright, a man of mature judgment, and in the very prime of life, verging 
towards 40. His practised eye, his keen intellect, took in the whole as equalling the 
broad acres of an English dukedom. The value of the timber on the stump was 
equal to twice the expense of clearing the lands. The ashes of the refuse to be burned, 
when converted intn potash, would realize enough in Montreal to cover the erection 
of the necessary buildings for all farming purposes in those days. There were many 
obstacles in the way, all to be got over, that would have appeared fatal to many a 
ce But a descendant of heroes that fol1owed Harold the Second to the defeat of so 
many foes, and made such a stand on the field of Hastings, giving so mighty a work 
to the Normans-yielding at last, it is admitted, but not so much vanquished as 
wearied out with slaughtering-was not to be deterred by difficulties and trials, and 
\Vright was of Kemish descent, though now Americanized. The courage has not 
been lost in his postelity, as everyone knows the late M.P., the Gatineau's monarch, 
if exposed, would sway his sceptre with as undaunted unconcern as any other, in calm 
defiance of his foes, 
" The squire had made several explorations of the St. Lawrence on both sides and 
above and below Montreal, but pitched on Hull and the Chaudière Falls, at last, as the 
field of his future operations, delighted equally with its forests, its soil and its river. 
It was not easy to induce men, even for a large reward, to enter his employ and settle 
down to labor in the woods 75 or 100 miles from civilization of any kind. In October, 
 Mr. \Vright i5 said to have reached Hull with two trusty neighbors from \Voburn, 
:Mass., and having explored the township returned and reported progress, Four fami- 
lies united with his own, and with twenty-five men, seven span of horses, four yoke of 
oxen, and probably a cow or two, sleighs, implements and provisions, began their jour- 
ney to Montreal on 2nd February, 1800, and passed through it and the settlements 
above it, cut their way in the woods and deep snows for some days, camping out at 
night, till they met an Indian, who, becoming their guide, took them by the ice on the 
river till they reached the Chaudière Falls on the 7th March,-33 days. It is said that 
every man took a hand chopping down the first tree. 
"Thus the clearing away of the woods commenced and continued, The sounds 
of the axes and the falling trees brought the Indians from their sugar-making on the 
sunny slopes of the hill sides, to wonder and ask themselves what brought these 
destroyers of the forest into their hitherto quiet and silent retreats? This led to a long 
pow-wow, Mr, \Vright had plenty of the Jamaica spirits on hand, treated them all to 
a 'good horn,' as Conroy would have said, and they returned-some full, others 
glorious. Gifts blind the eyes. A season was spent in friendly intercourse, exchanging 



presents, and there being no old Anchises to interpose hi5 'Timeo Danaos et dona 
ferentes,' the Indians con tinued to come with sugar and venison and get in return 
what rare things to them the new comers freely gave them. The unlimited maple 
forests ran sugar for the evaporation, and deer flocked in plenty to be shot for the 
occasion. This pleasant condition of things was not
of long duration, for the Indians, 
beginning to see that their sugar groves would disappear: and the deer probably follow, 
took an interpreter, Geo. Brown, who was a Nor'wester, and had married a squaw, and 
marched in grand procession to demand the reason for all these new things. The 
negotiations began, and the proceedings were sometimes amusing, at others thl eat- 
ening. Mr. \Vright, as the chief of his party, was up to the exigency. and gave his 
authority for everything. They expressed their amazemEnt that their Great Father, 
King George, would permit, without consu1ling them first, any men to cut clown their 
sugar plantations and chase away tlleir game. 'I hey were assured that all was done 
by authority; that if any harm came to his men, Sir John Johnson, the Indian agent, 
would hold back their rations; so with firm maintenance of his dignity, as well as his 
rights, using soft answers,the Indians were brought to terms on payment in cash being 
promised for all the sugar they could spare, and they would not have to carry it to 
"The nearest market had its attractions for the Indians, as well as for the Grit, 
who hates to portage to England, and compete there with the whole world; so to 
save their backs and limbs, and especially their rations, they agreed, So they were 
plied once more with the Jamaica, and went back happy. They soon brought im- 
mense quantities of sugar, and asked only $5.00 for what was perhaps worth ;C5 o . 
They were promptly paid, treated again, and returned home in high good humor 
after a long palaver. Afterward they demanded a small payment for their lands, but 
that was refused till Sir John of Montreal would be consulted. They regarded their 
lands as merchantable as the sugar. Mr. \Vright on coming from Montreal delivered 
them Sir John's reply that they must not disturb the colony. 
"The redskins now took a new turn, made Mr. \Vright their chief, and we suppose 
put him through all the ceremonies of a barbarous coronation-the squaws a
e said 
to have all kissed him. The chroniclers do not say how much Mrs. \Vright herself 
admired the ceremony. But the braves buried the hatchet, and feasted Mr. \Vright 
and party for a week on all the delicacies of an aboriginal cuisine, from roast dog and 
muskrat to boiled rattlesnake and skunk." 
The author of this extract must have been an expert in natural history, or the 
tribes, like St. Patrick, must have exhausted the stock, as rattlesnakes have never 
been very common in the Province of Quebec, since or before, as far as we are aware, 

For the following history of navigation on the Ottawa we are indebted to the 
late R. ,V. Shepherd, sr., president of the Ottawa River Navigation Company:- 
The first steamer on the route between Lachine and Carillon was the "\Villiam 
King," Captain De Hertel. This steamer began to run about the year 1826- 2 7. A 



year later, the "St. Andrews" was built-Captain C. J. Lighthall-who had been 
captain of one of Judge McDonnell's Durham boals, th3t were employed carrying 
freight and passengers between Montreal and Puint Fortune. I remlmber one of the 
old settle] s nameà Parsons saying to me, a few years since, that his family came to 
1\Ionlreal from the north of England, having sailed from 
Iary Port in the county of 
Cumberland in the year 1829. They were going to juin friends in Cote St. Charlc
county of Vaudreuil, not far from where the village of Hudson is now, The family, 
after landing in Montreal, took passage by Captain Lighthall's Durham boat, and were 
hnded in a couple of days at Harvey's Point near the village of Hudson. The 
steamers ,. \Ym. King "and "St. .\ndrews" were owned by merchants in :Montreal 
and St. Andrews; during high water they ran between Lachine, Carillon and St. 
Andrews, and during the low water season the ,. 51. Andrews" ran between Lachine 
and St. Ann's, and the "\Vm. King " between St. Ann's and Carillon, [n the year 
18 33, the Carillon and Grenville canal was opened for traffic, and in the meantime a 
company was fOi med, cailed " The Ottawa & Rideau Forwa.rding Company." The 
stockholder;; numbered among others Hon. John Molson, father of the present Mr. 
John Molson, Thomas Phillips the brewer, John Redpath and Emery Cushing, who 
formerly owned the stages that formed a line to St. Andrews by St. Eustache. 
This company, knowing the difficulty of the St. Ann's channel in low water, had 
arranged with H()l1. R. N. Howald of Vaudreuil for the right to build a lock near 
where the Grand Trunk R. R. now passes. This lock was finished and ready for work 
in the spring of J 833. In the meantime, the new company had built the steamer 
"Ottawa,"-Captain Lyman, who carne from Lake Champlain. About this time 
the company built a steamer called the "Shannon," to ply between Grenville and 
Ottawa with other small steamers forming a through line to Kingston 'i'ia the Ottawa 
River and Rideau Canal. Stages from Montreal to Lachine, boat from Lachine to' 
Cari]]on, thence to GrenviHe by stage, and from Grenville to Ottawa and Kingston 
by steamer. The trip to Ottawa occupied two, and from Ottawa to Kingston about 
three days. The freight was generally carried in barges towed by these steamers. 
Previous to 1833, the steamer " Union" plied on the route between Hawkesbury I 
and Ottawa; this boat was built in the year 1819 and was commanded by Capt
Grant; Thomas Johnson, afterwards M.P., an extensive merchant at Yankleek Hil1, 
was the purser. This steamer was owned by some Montreal and Hawkesbury mer- 
 ; she had two heavy marine engines, side level s that had been imported by the 
Hon, John Molson, grandfather to J. H. R, Molson of this city (Montreal). Emery 
Cushing was the first agent of the Ottawa & Rideau Forwarding Company. In 
1837 Messrs, MacPherson and Crane became the managers, In 1835 Captain Light- 
hall from the Island of Arran commanded the steamer "Ottawa," and Archie Stewart 
WaS pilot; Kenneth McLeod, an old man-of-wars man, was second pilot-both good 
In 1836 John Crossman was captain of the "Ottawa;" in 1837, R. S. Robins 
was promoted to the command of this steamer, He had been captain on one of the 



Rideau Canal steamers in 1835-36. In 1834 the Company built a steamer called the 
" Non-Such"; and she was well named, for there never was one of the sort before or 
since. She was built square, with recess in the stern for the wheel to ply. This boat 
was built at Ottawa, and was taken through the Rideau canal to Kingston, and down 
the St. Lawrence. It was supposed she would draw l
ss water and be able to take 
the route in low water. The engines of the "Union" were placed in this boat. It 
need hardly be 
aid she proved a failure, After being kept in commission three or 
four years, she was used as a boarding house for the men, in spling. A few years 
later, she was laId on the beach near the present house of the late Sir Antoine Dorion 
at Yaudreuil, and served as wharf for some years under the management of McPherson 
and Crane. Nearly all the carrying trade passed by the Ottawa, the barges being 
towed by the steamers of the Ottawa & Rideau Forwarding Company. I may men- 
tion that the "Non-Such" was commanded by Capt, J ames Greaves, afterward chief 
of Rural Police at Vaudreuil, whose headquarters were in the old seigniorial Manor 
House on the site of the 'V. Lotbinière hotel, lately destroyed by fire, 
Captain Robins continued to command the "Ottawa." The writer joined that 
steamer under him in J 83 8 , and remai ned three yeals in the service. In the year 
184 1 , I engaged with Messrs. H. & S. Jones, and Hooker & Henderson, as captain of 
one of their steamers. In April of that year I was appointed to the steamer "St. 
David," then being built at Brockville, and was ordered early in May to proceed to 
Brockvi11e to superintend the finishing of the steamer, Late in the month of June we 
made a trial trip to Prescott and back. 'Ye had no regular CI ew, bu t picked up some 
men for the purpose. One Russell, a clerk in Messrs. Jones' sto re, insisted on acting 
as pilot. 'Ve managed to get to Prescott all right, and went alongside the steamer 
"Canada," property of the late Hon. John Hamilton of Kingston. This steamer was 
about finished, and intended to ply between Dickinson's Landing and Kingston. She 
was afterward commanded by Captain lawless. On our way back to Brockville, 
Russell was steering and taking the Maitland stearn mill for a steamer, he kept to the 
light hand side, and I only discovered the mistake just in time to save the boat 
from running high and dry on the Maitland shure. I made up my mind never to 
start on a trial trip again without having a proper crew. 
In the month of July we left Brockville, this time with a full crew from Lachine, 
:Mr. Sidney Jones, .one of the owners (a fine old gentleman of the olden times), was 
on board. After running all the rapids successfully, we arrived at Lachine the 
same evening. The next day, I started for Ottawa by the St. Ann's route, and picked 
up all the barges belonging to the different owners, and made the first trip by steamer 
with barges through the Grenville canal. After this, the company placed the 
steamer" Albion II on the route between Grenville and Ottawa, so that we were em- 
ployed on the route betwe
n Lachine and Carillon. 
Early in September, 1841, I towed the first raft on the Lake of Two 
belonging to Messrs. Hamilton and Low. John 'Vaddel, who managed that part of 
their business, acted as pilot, as I had no pilot on board that knew the route towards 
the "Dutchman's (raft) Channel." 

Towards the middle of August the water became so low at St. Ann's that we 
had to get another steamer, the ,; Grenville," Captain John Fraser, of Prescott, com- 
mander. The "Grenville II towed the barges between Lachine and St, Ann's j the 
steamer" St. David" between St. Ann's and Carillon. However, the water became 
so low, by the end of August or beginning of September, that we could not get an 
empty barge up through the gap that had been left outside the darn by Mr. H. 'Vil- 
kinson, who had the contract for the lock, The New Company was at a stand still; 
the barges and steamer were idle. I had an idea that there was a channel outside 
of th
 old lock at Vaudreuil, so, after waiting for a day or two, I decided to run my 
boat over there and try to find a channel. After a hard day's work sounding and 
buoying out the passage, I became convinced there was a good channel. 'Vhile we 
were delayed at St. Ann's, a barge from Perth came aìong,-Captain McQueen, I think. 
After we left for Vaudreuil he sailed over there and begged of me to run his barge over 
the rapids; she wa,> drawing tlHe
 feet of water. I replied that I would not run the risk 
but if he would assume the responsibility, I would do mybe,>t. He agreed to this 
arrangement, alJd I steered the barge over; we nearly touched on one side, but did no 
damage. Of course, the channel was an accomp1i
hed fact, and that evening I left 
for Mcntreal to inform my employers. I ca11ed on l\Ir. Sidney Jones at the Exchange 
Coffee House, then one of the best hotels in l\1ontreal, kept by Doolittle & 
This was on a Sunday morning, just as Mr. Jones \vas getting ready for church; he 
attended the old church Cathedral on l\otre Dame street, "ftcr telling him of my dis- 
covery, he sc(med n.uch pJeased, and invited me to dine with him at six o'clock, 
"hich I did, and returned on Monday morning to Vaudreuil, 
Ir. Jones and Mr. 
Holton were to leave en Tue
day with the steamer" GrenviJIc" and t\\"o harges for 
Vaudreuil; the barges Wtre not to draw over three feet of water. They reached 
uil in the afternoon. 1 had attached a rope to an anchor dropped at the 
head of the rapids with a buoy attached to a rope at the foot, to be ready to fasten to 
the capstan of the barge. I got all my crew anù the crews of the balges on the one 
barge, attached rope to the capstan, and in less than half an hour had the barge 
safe alongsiùe the "St. David," and within another half hour had the second barge 
up also, This, of course, showed that we could take barges up outside, with same 
depth of water that they had in t 1 1e lock, which was private property. 'Vithin a few 
days, alfangements wele made between the old 2.nd new companies to a11o\\' the new 
company's barges to pass the lock by the payment of a to]) of eight do])ars for each 
Large, and further, that the old company should tow aU barges with the steamer 
"Ottawa," between Vaudreuil and CaliJIon, and the new company would have all 
the towing between Lachine ar,d Vaudreuil. A few days later, I received a letter 
from Messrs. H, & S. Jones, saying that I had been promoted to the steamer 
" Oldfield." 
This, I considered the greatest promotion I ever had. I was ordered to take the 
steamer "St. David II to Lach1l1e, which I did without delay, and transferred my 
crew to the" Oldfield," Captain John Chambers taking command of the " St, David." 


3 0 


'Ye continued to tow between Lachine and Vaudreuil, the remainder of the season of 
]841. In the winter of ]841-42, I was employed fitting up the "Oldfield" as a 
passenger boat. 1 n the spring of 1842, we began a regular passenger line between 
Montreal and Ottawa j the ., Oldfield" plying on the bwer reach between Lachine 
and Carillon, and the steamer "Albion," Captain Johnson, on the upper reach 
between Grenville and Ottawa--a daily line (Sunday excepted). This was the first regu. 
lar passenger line on the Ottawa; steamers running without barges, This continued 
till 184 6 , when the St. L
wrence canals were opened, and the old proprietors wanted 
to carryon their business by the St. Lawrence route. I with other friends pur- 
chased the ., O:dfield " in 1846, and began business on my own account. 
The St. Ann's locks were opened in 1843. 'J he proprietor:. of the steamer 
" Oldfield II were Sir George Simpson, A. E. Montmarquette, J. J, Gibb and the 
writer, who was appointed captain and manager; this was not a joint stock company, 
but the ship owners registered at the Customs D
pL1rtment as to their r.:spective 
The business cont;nued profitable, and, in the autumn of 1847, it was decided to 
d a new steamer for the route between Lachine and Cal illon. A contract was 
made with 
Ierritt, shipbuilder of Montreal, for the hull of a new steamer, J So 
feet keel and 26 feet beam. 'Ve also made arrangements with 1\1 r. George Brush 
(fathel to the present G. S. Brush) for a beam engine 34 inch diameter cylinder and 
10 feet length of stroke. This steamer, a very fast one, was called the ." Ottawa 
Chief," and made a trial trip to Carillon in November, 1848. This boat after it trial was 
found to draw too much water for Sl. Ann's channel. The contract called for 3 feet 
3 inches, and instead it was 4 feet 8 inches, much to the disappointment of all the 
proprietOls, as we:I as the travelling public. In the spring of 1849, we decided to 
sell or charter this boat and build another one suitable. In March of th>)t year, 
the Hon. John Hamilton of Kingston came to Como to see the ., Ottawa Chief" j 
he was much pleased with her, and made us an offer to ch:uter her for fi-..e y
ars, but 
would not buy her. Arrangements were finally completed, and a charter was passed 
bdween our company and the Hon. John Hamilton of Kingston, who then controlled 
the steamers of the mail line between Montreal and King.;ton, 
The next thing to do was to arrange for the building of another steamer for the 
route, On the 11th of April, 1849, I started from Como for Montreal on hor.,eback, 
the only way to travel at that time of the year, owing to the bad state of the road:;. 
I had to cross two ferries, viz., Vaudreuil and St. Ann's. It took me all day to reach 
Lachine, where I called on Sir George Simpson to arrånge the finances for the new 
boat. This done, I proceeded to 
lontreal, and bargained with :\[r. A. Cantin for the 
building of a hull of a sleamer to draw only 3 feet of water, with wood and water on 
board j also, with M r, George Brush for an engine of 32 inch diameter cylinder 
and 8 feet stJoke, all to be ready by the month of August of the same year. 
Ho\\ever, we made a trial trip in October, 1849. This boat W.IS called the "Lady 
Simpson," after the wife of Sir Geo. Simpson, She was laid up for the winter- at 


3 1 

Como, and the j.)iner work was finished and the boat furoished during the winter of 
18 49-5 0 ; the joiner work was all done by hand, by the day, and Mr. James Shearer, 
the well-known manufacturer of Montreal, \Va') the foreman. This boat, the ,: Lady 
Simpson," answered every purpose. She drew 2 feet 10 inches aft, and 2 feet 6 
inches forward, and could run during the lowest water, and was a great favorite with 
the travelling public. 
In the spring of 18::0 the "Lady Simpson" too k the route between Lachine 
and Carillon, and the" Oldfield" was put on the Lake of Two Mountains to tow rafts, 
which at that time was a profitable business. In 1852, I contracted with Mr. Cantin for 
a new huH to take the place of the "Oldfield," ] 50 feet long, 25 feet beam; and with 
1\1r, Geo, Brush for a new engine, 32 inch cylinder, 8 foot stroke; this boat carne 
out in 1853, when we sold the "Oldfield" to Captain S1. Louis. The new tow boat 
was caned the" Atlas," and pJOved to be a splendid boat; Captain Jos. Blondin, 
formerly of the " Oldfield," was her captain, and a good faithful man, exceUent pilot 
and good manager for the towing business. Mr. A. E. Montmarquette, one of the 
owners, acted as agent for the towing business at CariUon. I continued to command 
the" Lady Simpson II tiJ1 the faU of 1853, when I letired, partly from ill health and 
partly from a wish to visit my native country, which I did in 1854. My brother 
'William, who stiU commands the" Sovereign," was appointed to the command of the 
" Lady Simpson"; having served nine years under me on the different steamers, he 
was qualified for the promotion, He has now been forty years commander, and a 
very popular and exceedingly fortunate one. 
Afler my return from England, in the fall of 1854, I had to undertake the 
management of the estate of my late father-in-law, P. F, C. Delesdenier, as well as 
the 110mestead farm. Between the farm and the estate I \Vas fully occupied. In the 
year 1857, Sir George Simpson, who was the financial agent of the company, asked 
me if I would take charge of the company as general manager. 'Ve h'id now 
become owners of the upper portion of the JOute, by the purchase of the steamer 
" Phænix," formerly the property of MacPherson & Crane, 
I agreed to undertake this work, which I performed until the spring of 1882. 
In 1859, we began to build the steamer" Queen Victoria," to replace the " Phænix;" 
also to build the steamer "Prince of 'Vales" to replace the "Lady Simpson," 
Captain Bowie, who had been purser on the" Prince of 'Vales " since 1854, was in 
1857 or 1858 promoted to the captaincy of the "Phænix," afterward to the "Queen 
Victoria," and in 1873 to the " Peerless," now caUed the "Empress." In 1865 the 
market business hecame EO important a factor in our business, that we built the 
steamer" Dagmar " for the trade. Captain Peter McGowan was promoted from the 
"Prince of \Vales," where he acted as pilot to the command of the" Dagmar." A 
few years later, we built the steamer" Maude" as an extra boat; Thomas Ryan, 
formerly engineer of the" Prince of Wales," was appointed captain. In the year 
1864, we purchased the shares of the Cari1l0n & Grenville Railway from Hon. 
John J. C. Abbott, afterward Sir John J. C. Abbott, Judge Cross and Courtland 

3 2 


and Freer, and formed a joint stock company under an act of Parliament. The Hon. 
John Rose, afterward Sir John Rose, took charge of the Act, and procured the char- 
ter. The company was, and is to this day, called The Ottawa River Navigation 
Company. On my giving up the management of the company, my son, R. 'V. 
Shepherd, jr., was appointed gellerai manager, and has continued as such until the 
present time, Mr. John McGowan was appointed manager of the Carillon & 
Grenville Ry., in 1860 or thereabout; and has continued so to this day, and has 
been a faithful servant to the company
 as I may say of all our present captains and 
.The principal b03.ts for the Ottawa River Navigation Company, which have been 
in use in recent years, are the "Sovereign," "Empress," "Princess)' and ".Maude," and 
during the summer 1895 a new boat, the" Duchess of York," has been constructed. 
The" Sovereign," which succeeded the " Prince of 'Vales," has been running but 
a few years, She is a fine boat commanded b) Capt. '''m. Sheppard, and during 
the season of summer travel plies between Montreal and Carillon. 
Passengers are conveyej from Carillon to Grenville by and thence to Ottawa 
by the commodious steamer" Empress," commanded by Capt. A. Bowie, Capt, 
Bowie was born in Montreal; his father was a railway contractor, and besides many 
other railroads, he constructed lhat from St. Johns to Laprairie, the first one built in 
Canada. The Captain engaged as Purser on the "Lady Simpson" in 1854, and has 
held the position of Captain since 1859. 
The" Princess," commanded by Capt. Peter :\IcGowan, has been both a market 
and passenger boat for many years. Under the present arrangeme11l for the Fall of 
18 95, the" Princess" makes a weekly return trip from Montreal to Ottawa, and the 
" Duchess of York," commanded by Capt. John McGowan, makes a semi-wcekly trip 
between Montreal aud Carillon. 


Brief mention is here m 
de of a few places along the lower QUa wa, besides those 
described in the succeeàing page", which are locatej in Argenteuil and Pr
The first point ofint
rest after leaving L3.chine is St. Ann's, which contains many 
beautiful residences and is a favorite summer resort, Rapids in the riyer at this 
point necessitated the- C()llstruction of a canal and lock. The canal is about an 
eighth of a mile in length, and was constructed in place of one built early in the pre- 
sent century. It was rebuilt by the OUawa Forwarding Company, but, as they 
claimed the right of use: thus causing much inconvenience, the Legislature of U)Jper 
Canada took the matter in hand, and constructed the present canal. At St. Ann's, 
also, are the costly and imposing iron bridges of the C.P, R. and G.T, Railway Com- 
p:mies. Here, too, is the chapel of St. Anne, the patroness of the Canadian voyageur, 
where, as stated above, they made confession and offered up their vows before start- 
ing on a dangerous expedition. 



The shrine formerly, it is said, was decorated with relics and votive offerings, 
hung up by the voyageurs to propitiate her favor, or in gratitude for some signal 
It was here that Tom Moore witnessed enough of the fur-trading vocation and 
the voyageurs to gain inspiration for the writing of the" Canadian Boat Song." 
Under the French régime, a fortification was erected here, which did service ill 
repelling the attacks of the fierce Iroquois. _-\ brief account of one of their raids 
will be found in this volume, in the history of Calumet. The remains of this 
fortification are still to be seen here. 
Some distance farther up the river is Oka, celebrated not only for being the 
residence of the Oka Indians-a remnant of the Iroquois and Algonquin tribes-but 
also of the Trappist monks. An imposing Roman Cathúlic church, with beautiful 
grounds and stately trees, is in the foreground, and at a short distance in the rear 
rises .Mount Calvary, whose summit has several shrines to which devout Catholics 
often make a pilgrimage. The occupation of these monks is the cultivation of a large 
farm and orchard; their life is one of seclusion, and their rules are of the strictest char- 
acter. Fema]es are not admitted to the monastery, nor are the monks permitted to 
converse with each other. They rise at 2 a:m., and soon afterward breakfast, this 
being their only meal during the day; and they retire at sunset, 

Iany of the Indians at Oka are Protestants, and have a chapel in which they 
attend divine worship. 
Still further up the Ott3wa, and on the opposite side from Ok a, is Rigaud, its 
mountain at a little distance from the village forming a prominent landmark f:u up 
and down the river. Rigaud College, also, which is an institution of consicierable note, 
occupies an elevated plateau, and can be seen from a long distance. 
On the slope of this mountain is a Itts ' lS Ilatllræ of great interest to visitors and 
scientists, This is a spot embracing two or three acres, entirely destitute of soil, and 
filled to an 11nknown depth with stones about the size of a man's head, and smaller. 
It is said that certain parties, prompted by curiosity, explored this singular spot to the 
depth of forty feet, and finding nothing, still, but stones, abandoned their undertaking. 
'Vhat is still more remarkable, the stones, chiefly, are of a character entirely diffèrent 
from the mountain rock, Geologists class this curiosity with Moraines, but it is 
generally known as " Ðevil's Garden," and it is often visited by picnic parties and 
The next place of interest after passing beyond the counties of Argenteuil and 
Prescott is Montebello, the town of the great patriot, Louis Papineau. 

County of Argenteuil. 

The territory embraced by this county was formerly included ill the county of 
York, subsequently in the county of Two Mountains; but, in 1855, the county of 
Argen teuil was formed, which is bounded on the north by the county of Terrebonne j 
on the east, partly by the county of Terrebonne and partly by the county of Two 
Mountains; on the south by the Ottawa River, and on the west by Ottawa county. 
It comprises the following municipalities: 
Villages.--Grenville and Carillon. 
Parishes.-St, André d'Argenteuil, St. Jerusalem de Lachute, Mille Isles. 
To'Zullshps.-Arunde1, Chatham, Gore, Grenville, Howard, Montcalm, 'Vent- 
worth and Harrington. 
Part of a Towllshzþ.-Morin. 
Chif-Licu,-St. Jerusalem de Lachute. 



21 7 
1, 62 3 
4 1 8 
29 6 
37 2 
5 1 4 

Argenteuil. " ... .."... ........,.. 
Arundel.,.... ",... ...... .,.... ... 
Carillon (Village) ...... ....... . ... .. 
Chath anI. . .. . . .. ... ....", ..,... . . 
Gore "., ...... .,.... ...... ....,. ., 
Grenville".... .." .." ...... .... 
Grenville (V ilIage).. . .., ...... . . .. .. . 
liarr ington . . . . . , , . . " .,.." .... . . , . 
Howard ."..,..... ..,.,.......,.. 
Lachute (Town) .." ,." . , " ..."" 
r.IiHe Isles..,... ...... . ."". ,..... 
r.lo rin . . . . .. "".. . . . . , . , , , . , ,. . , , . 
S1. Andrew's..,' ,.., '" ...., 
St. J t:rucalem . . . , . , . . . . . . 
'Vent worth and Montcalm...... .... .1 

... . 
.... t.Q 
::: c 

. c 

.0 .:- 
If> - 
CI) CI) 

13 1 
3 1 4 
3 06 
3 0 
27 0 
3 6 

7 20 

, .;, 



1 m';' 

c c 
o .S 

CI) . 
If> CI) 




34 8 
3 6 
53 6 
5 08 

25 1 
19 K 
3 0 


7 1 3 53 212 
13 ...,.. 


39 1 
3 8 



I 9 
I ..,. 
I . . . . . 


9 0 
I ,.".. 

4 2 

CENSUS OF 1891. 



::; ::> 

ö c 




Argenteuil. , " . , . . .. . . .. . . .. I 15. I 5 h I 2,i 14 
ArundeL... ............. .... 743 123 
Carillon (Village).,., .,., .". 255 4
Chatham...... ...... ........ 3.37 1 1 5
Gore. . . . .. . . . . ....... . . .. . . . 533 100 
Gren\.ille.... ............... 2:183 3 6 4 
Grenville (\ïnag-e).,.. . . ., . . . 5 02 94 
Harrington.. .. . ... ....., .. .. 7 20 12 5 
Howard........,....., 44 8 19 
Lachute (Town)........... ... 1,75 1 344 
Mille Isles..........,.,.,.... 519 8:\ 
l\lorin...... .'....... .... .,.. 47 1 9 8 
Sr, Andrew's..,' ,..... ...... 1,7 02 334 
St. Jelu
alem.... ........ 1,062 19 8 
'Ventworth and Montcalm...,.. 
98 137 

5 65 
34 2 
19 2 
13 0 

CEXSUS OF 1891. 




297 ! 


48 I 


!2 g 

I U') rñ 
- E 
I _:::::: 

849 I 
16 1 
20 9 
12 9 

7 ...... 


If> . 
.... ... 
c CI) 
o 0 
\0 C 


4 ...... 




2, 26 3 
9 1 

9 6 
12 4 
13 0 

5 1 


9 0 







. If> 
. lö' 
]..; '
iL; .
 B.;, ü 0 ë:::ü z.ê 
 {} I 
,- ::; 
 ë r: g ;. - If> 
 :ü g. I c:: 

 (.);:: .": 0 = 
 - 0 _ 0 I 
 8 '"d'" ,:J.. g... ... (.) 

o:ð Æ 0.... 2 :::
a.I::3(.) _ :::
Argenteuil. -,..... 2:42, 
 -;-' 666 - 
 tO.041 1 8S,t04 53,633 1 I4I,8I 
i l,00
Arunde1...... ..........1 118 1 114 4 40 33 1 5.928 4, 02 9 1,8/ 2 16,533 37 
Carillon (Village)..".... '3 II 2 2 I 4501243 19 6 215 II 
Chatham......... ...... 522 442 79 145 55 3 9 ,0 93 1 22,22tJ 16,5
91 25,
82 3 08 
Gore".,.... .,.". ..... 1 III 106 .'5 40 21 8,5 0 5,4,3 6 4 4. 08 9 9.354 52 
Grenvï:le................ 302 275 26 83 55 15,126110,3
914,953 26, 08 9 74 
ille (Village) ......' 54 .p 12 I 812 495 3 12 .. 3 2 4 ) 5 
Harnngton.... ......... 132 126 6 48 19 ;,086 5,271 l,i9 2 12,4 1 4 23 
Howard.... ............ 78 77 I 23 21 2,803 1,953 83
 10,651 17 
La.chute (rown).. .... 3fJ4 193 / III 4 2 1,373 879 33:;( 882 1 159 
Mllles Isles............. 88 87 I 49 16 j.079 4,929 2,14 1 8,3i9 8 
Morin.................. 95 94 I 25 9 4,981 2,S64 2,079,6,281 3 8 
St. Andrew's.... .... .... 274 233 40 65 I 26 18,3 2 5 12,9 68 5;212 5,062 145 
St. Jerusalem..... ...,.. 198 186 I 12 80 I 39 22,13 6 11.4 1 6 10.626 5,4 1 7 94 
Wentwolth and Montcalm. 136 135 I 62 13 6,034 3,378 2. 62 3 q,6.p 33 


From 1M G
ologiCll/ Sltr'i'C)' of 
ir Hï/litllll Lf'gal1, 1863. 

The intrusive masses of the L:lurentian serie; cons:st chiefly of syenite and green-tone. They 
occur in many parts of the country, hut their relative ages have been ascertained almost altogether 
by investigations in the counties of Ollawa and Argent
uil. \Vhat appear to be the 01de,t intrusive 
masseS are a set of d} kes of a rather fine-grained, dark, greenish grey greenstone or dolelite," hich 



weathers greyish white, and consists of greyish-white feldspar mixed with pyroxene, occasional scales 
of mica, and grains of pyrites, Their width varies from a few feet to a hundred yards, and they possess 
a well marked columnar structure. Their general bearing appears to approach east and west, but 
the main dykes occasionally divide, a branch striking off at an angle of from twenty to forty degrees. 
One ofthe
e dykes cuts crystalline limestone on tI-e thirteenth lot of the fourth range of Gren- 
ville. Its breadlh is about thirty yards, and it has been tr3ced aCross the limestone and gneiss for a 
mile and three-quarters, in which, with a ft:w moder3te zig-zags, it maintains a courSf' of N. 85 0 E., 
until it :s interrupted by a mass of syenite on the eighth lot of the range already mentioned. Across 
the limestone it forms a ridge i but acroSS the gnf'i
s it is usually found in a depression, sometimes a 
very dt ep one. "'hen it mounts the side of any hill which I uns \\ ith the stratification, the columnar 
structure gives it the asJXcl of a flight of gigantic steps, well plesenting the character from which the 
Swedish name of /1 ap is derived. The columns ale so tl uly at right angles to the plane of the dyke, 
that they are a sure me3ns of determining the under lie, which is towards the north. A branch strikes 
off from the dyke on the eleventh lot of the range, and, after proceeding about a quarter ofa mile in 
the direction S. 300 E., it turns S. 500 E., and continues for three-qumters of a mile more. chiefly 
acrms limestone. in a remarkably straight line, to the eighth lot, where. having giadually diminished 
from the width of eighteen yards to five, it seems to split up into a blUsh-like arran
emel,t of small 
dykes, and is lost. In a we
ter1y direction from the thirteenth lot of the fourth range, the main 
dYke has bet:n traced between fonr and five miles, and in its whole course from the s}enile, the bear- 
ing is about five degrees north of west. 
Another dyke of the same character, with a widlh of twenty-five yalds. occurs in the eleventh lot 
of the fifth range of Grenville, and runs for ahout a mile in the bearing 
. 67 0 E., when it is inter- 
rupted by the same mass of syenite as before, on the eighth lot of the same lange. .\ prohable con- 
tinuation of lhe d) ke in an opposite direction is seen crossing thc gntiss on the fifth range. reaching 
the seventeenth lot, wIth a bealing K. 75 0 \V., and thence cros<;ing the River Rouge. 
From the sixth lot of the fourth range of Chatham Gore, i.vhere it cnts the crp,t:dline limestone, 
another oftheæ dYkes has been tracèd for upwards of two miles to the first lot of the third range of 
'Ventworlh. Its width vaIies from fifly to a hundred )ard,:, but it appears to maintain a very uniform 
course, and though an interval of seven miles is a long one at which to recogniæ it again, yet an 
exposure of greenstone on the front of the first langc of \\"entworth, in the di,ision between the 
twentieth and twenty first lots, is sufficiently near the line to make it probablf' that it is a continuation 
of the same d}ke. At the latter spot it is from 110 to 120 yards wiùe, ami about eleven chains to the 
t ward it is cut off by the syenite. It has becn met with again, however, on the western side of it, 
and traced aclOss the northwest comer of Chatham into Grcnville, and is probably continued to the 
t\\elfth lot of the ninth range of the latter township, where there is a d) ke of the same character. 
The whole di"tance from Chatham Gore ii about fifteen mile;o. and the bearing about fi\'e degrees 
south of weH. Still another of these dykes has been ob
crved in the seigniory of Argenleuil-, about a 
mile and a half from the Xorth Ri,'er, 011 the road from Lachute to Chatham Gore. It appears to be 
about twenty-five or thirty yards wide, and it bears N. &,0 \Y., for about a mile and a half to the 
town line of Chatham, which it crosses towards the rear of the ninth range; and nlthough it would 
requile a change in its course to bring it to a dyke seen on the road between the seventh and cighth 
ranges on the ninth lot, it appears probable that the two will be found to be the same. Running west- 
ward from the latter spot, it comes against the syenile in the eleventh lot of the seventh range, and is 
there cut off. These greenstone dykes being always interrupted by the syenite, when they have been 
found to come in cantact with it, it is plain the syenite must be of posterior date. This mass of 
intrusive syenite occupies an area of about thirty-six square miles in the townships of Grenville, Chat- 
ham and Wentworth; and a glance at the accompanying m:>p, showing the distribution of the crys- 
talline lime
tone, in the counttes of Ottawa and Argenteuil, will show its shape and clistribution. 



In its lithological character, the rock is very uniform, being composed for the mo!òt part of orthoclase, 
either of some tinge of fle or a dull white, with black hornblende, and a rather sparing quantity 
of greyish, vitreous quartz. The red tinge prevails more on the west siùe, the white on the east. In 
the spur which runs into \Ventworth, mica is occasionally found accompanying the hornblende. 
The rock is rather coarse -grained in the main body. but dykes of it are sometimes observed cutting 
the limestone and gneiss, in which the grain is finer; these have not as yet been traced to any great 
distance from the nucleus. 
The ,syenite is cut and penetrated by masses of a porphyritic character, which are therefore ofa 
still later date. The5e masses belong to what has been called felsite porphyry, hornstone porphyry, 
or orthophYle, having a ba
e of petro!:ilex, which may te regarded as an intimate mixture of onho- 
c1ase and quartz, colored by oXJd of iron, and ,>arying in colors from green to valious shades of 
black, according to the oxydation of this metal. 1 hroughout the paste, which is homogeneous and 
conchoidal in its fracture, are di
seminated well-defined crystals of a rose-red or flesh-red fddspar, 
apparently orthoclase, and, although le!'s frequently, small grains 01 nearly colorless translucent 
quartz. The larger masses of this porphyry have a fine-grained, reddish-buff base, in which well 
defined crystals of flesh-red feldspar of various sizes, from one-eighth to three-eighths of an inch, are 
thickly disseminated. J n addition to the crystals of feldspar, the base often contains a multitude of 
lagments of gneiss, greenstone and syenite, varying in size from small grains to masses several feet 
in diameter. These are occasionally so abundant, as to give to the rock the character of a breccia. 
\\'hen the base is green, it is rather more compact, and it does not usually contain so many imbedded 
crysta Is of feldspar. 
The principal nucleus of this porphyry occupies a pear-shaped area, the small end pointing south, 
on the tt.lId and fourth lots of the fifth and six ranges of Grenville, frum which, on the eastern side, a 
portion projects into the second lot of the fifth range, This mass is wholly surruunded by syenite, 
and a large part of it constitutes a mountain or group of hills intersected by one or two ravines. In 
about the centre of the mass on the summit of one of the hills, there is a circular depression of about 
a hundred yards in diameter, nearly surrounded by a tufaceous porphyritic rim, of about thirty feet in 
height. In this deplession there is a turf bog, supporting a grove of good siLed evergreen trees. On 
sounding the depth of the bog with a boring rod, the rock beneath was found to present the shape uf 
a cup, with the depth of twenty-five feet in the centre; so that, including the rim, the depression 
would be about fifty feet deep, with the exception of a break down to the level of the bog on the east 
5ide. The nature ofthe rock constituting the rim gives to the depre
sion, in some degree, the aspect 
<of a small volcanic crater. nut if it be the remains of one, it can only represent some deep seated 
}Jart of the vent; for there can scarcely fail to have been here a great amount of denudation of the 
ancient Laurentian surface, while the ice groves in the neighborhood shew that there ha<; been much 
erosion OYer the whole country in comparatively recent times. In this vicinity, some entangled beds 
of gneiss occur, one of which, running N. 80 0 \V. for upwards of a hundred yards, is completely 
surrounùed by the porl-'hyry. 
From this pOlphyritlc nucleus, one or two porphYlitic dykes can be traced, culling the syenite 
for 5holt di!:tances; and Some of a similar character are met with at such a distance as to make il. 
probable that there are other porphyritic nuclei. One of these dyhes, about seven yards \\ide, COn- 
taining beautiful red feldspar crystals set in a black base, occurs on the sOllth side of the road between 
the seventh and eighth ranges of Chatham, on the eighth lot. Its bearing S. 85 0 \Y. would carry 
it to the south of the porphyritic mass above described, flOm which the position in which Ole dyke 
cuts the gneiss is removed seven miles, though it is not more than one mile from the sycnite. 
;\notl1er d} ke of this aspect is seen in the ninth range near the Ime between the thir tcenth' and 
fourteenth lots; but in adllition to the elements mentioned, it holds disseminated grains of transparent, 
colorless quartz. Its course appears to be S. 44 0 \V., and it inter
ects a mass of porphyritic rock of 

3 8 


the same color and texture as the porphyry of the pear-shaped nucleus, which, however, like the dyke, 
contains grains of vitreous quartz. Grain> of this mineral are also observed in another porphyritic 
mass, whusecourseis N. 10 0 \V., about a quarterofa mile from the front of the twenty-fifth lot in 
the seventh range. A porphyritic dyke is observed on the road bet ween the sixth and seventh ranges 
on the twenty-third lot. It encloses grains of quartz and crystals of flesh-red feldspar, some of them 
half an inch in diameter, in a reddi
h, finely granular base. Of tl e tufaceo porphyritic rock a lenticu- 
lar noass CI o
ses tt e 
event h and eighth lots, clO!;e upon the rear oflhe fifth range of Grenville. It has 
a It:nglh of neady haIr a mile by a breadlh of about 150 yards in the miè(lle, and lies between gneiss 
on the north and syenite on the 
In the vicinity of the pear-sllaped porphyritic intrusion, there are met \\ ith two veihs of a special 
character, cutting the syenite, that de
erve to be noticed. They consist of a white, yellowish-bro.....n 
or flesh-red cellular chert, the coims in some cases running in band.,. parallel to one another, and 
sometimes being rather confusedly mingled, giving the aspect of a breccia. The cells are unequally 
distributed, some parts of the veins being nearly destitute of them, while in others, they are very 
abundant, and of various size
, from that of a pin's head (0 an inch in diameter. On the walls of 
some of these cells, small transparent crystals of quartz are implanted, and in some there me the Im- 
pressions of cubical fOlm!', resulting probably from crystals of fluor spar which have di
The stC're has the chemical characters and the composition ùÍ flint or chalcedony. 
One of these veins is on the nOlth half of the hrst lot of the sixth range of Grenville, where it was 
traced for about a hundred) ards, running about ea
t and we
t, and the other in the south half of the 
first lot of the sixlh range, belonging to Mr. James Lowe, who was the first person who drewatten- 
tion to it as affording buhrstone. On his ground, the vein has been more examined than ehewhere ; 
it appears to run in a very straight nearly east and west bearing, and stands in a vel tical attitude, 
while us breadth valie3 from about fourto seven feet. Where the vein is banded, the colors run parallel 
with the sides. The altitude and associations of the mass clearly show it cannot be of sedimentary 
origin, and its composition, taken in connection with the igneous character of the district, suggests 
the probability that it is an aqueous deposit which has filled up fissUles in the syenite, and is similar 
in its origin to the agates and chalcedony which, in smaller masses, are common in various rocks, 
For a distance of perhaps 200 yards on each side ofthese vein'> of chert, while the quartz of the 
syenite remains unchanged, the feld!'par has been more or less decomposed, and been converted into 
a sort of kaolin. As this plOcess involves a separation of silica from the feldspar, it is not improbable 
that it hils been the soun:e of the veins of chert. 
The intru!>ive rocks which have been described have a date anterior to the deposit of the Silurian 
series. None of a similar character have been met with breaking through this series, and the rela- 
tions of the base of the Lower Silurian group along the foot of the hills composed of the syenite are 
such as to make it evident that the Silurian beds in some places overlie eroded portions of the intru- 
sive rock. But all these intrusive masses are cut by a set of dyhes whose relations to the SilUlian 
series are not so cel tain. 'These d) kes are composed of a fine granular base, with an earthy fracture, 
consisting of feldspar and pyroxene, and having a dark, bro\\ nish-grey color. In this base are 
imbedded rounded masses of black cleavable augite, varying in size from a pin's head to se\"eral inches 
in diameter. These are associated \\ilh various size 1 nodules of calc spar filling cells that do not 
attain the diameter of the largest masses of augite, and with small scales of mica, grey in fresh frac- 
tures, but weatheling brass yellow on the sides of cracks and joints, Small crystals of sphene and 
grains.of titaniferous iron occur in the rock. 
One of these dykes, having a width of from three to ten feet, is traced from the first lot of the 
sixth range of Grenville, near Mr. Lowe's buhrstone, where it cuts the syenite, to the third and fourth 
lots of the same range, where it cuts the pear-shaped mass of porphyry; thence, it crosses to the 
eighth lùt of the fifth range, where it cuts both syenite and porphyry, and farther to the tenth lot of 



the same range, wher e it intersects the quartzite and the limestone. The whole distance is UP" ard s 
of two miles and a half, and the bearing S. 82 0 \V, Another dyke of this description intersects the 
limestone on the thi, teenth lot of the same range, and is traced for half a mile running east. These 
dykes bear a striking resemblance to some of the dolerites which intersect the Lower Silurian group in 
the neighborhood of the mountain of Montreal, and may possibly be of the same age, but none of 
them have yet been traced, continuously, from the Laurentian into the Silurian rocks. 


:Names of the members of the Legislative Assembly of the County of York, 
Two Mountains and Argenteuil-the latter having been detached from tbe former. 

I. COUNTY OF YORK, 31 c Geo, II I, Chap. 3 I, 
From 179 2 to 179 6 , Mr. C. de Lotl.Jinière, :\1r. p, A. de Bon ne. 
" 1797 to 1800, Mr. H, Lacroix, Mr. Hetien (}.), 
" 1801 to 180 5, Mr. J. Bédard, 
lr. L, C. Foucher. 
" 180 5 to 1808, l\1r. J. l\Iure, Mr. E. L. Dumont. 
180 9, ðlr. J. l\1ure, Mr. J. J. Trestler. 
1810, l\lr, J. 1\1 ure, 
Ir. St. Julien. 
From 1811 to 181 4, Mr. F, Bellet, Mr. St. Julien. 
" 1815 to 18 I 6, Mr. E, L. Dumont, 1\1r, \V. Forbes. 
" IS 1 7 to J S 19, Mr. Dumont, Mr. J. B. Fare. 
1820, Mr. E. L. Dumont, Mr. A. Perrault. 
From 1820 to 182 4, Mr. E. L. Dumont, Mr. A. Perrault. 
" 182 5 to 182 7, Mr. E. L. Dumont, Mr. J. Simpson, 
" 182 7 to 182 9, Mr. J. L. Labrie, Mr. J. B. Lefebvre. 
II. COUNTY vF Two MOUNTAINS, 9c Geo. IV, Chap. 73. 
From 18 3 0 to 18 3 4 , 1\1 r. J. Labrie, Mr. \Y. H, Scott. 
" 18 34 to 183 8 , 
1r. J, '1, Girouard, Mr. \V. H. Scott. 
" 184 1 to 1844-, 
Ir, C. Robertson, Mr. C. J. Forbes. 
" 1844 to 18 47, Mr. \V. H. Scott, 
" 1848 to 18 5[, Mr, \V. H. Scott. 
" 18 5[ to 18 54, Mr. Mr. \V. H. Scott, Hon. Louis J. Papineau, 
III. COUNTY OF ARGENTEUIL, 16 Vict., Chap. [52. 

From 1854 to 1857, S. Bellingham, his election declared null, 
Re-electcd in J 855-election again declared null; re-elected in 1856. 
From 1858 to 1861, S. Bellingham. The name of J. J. C. Abbott is sabsti. 
tuted for the name of S. Bellingham in 1860, 
From 1861 to 1863, Mr. J. J. C. Abbott-re-elected as Solicitor in 1862. 
From 1863 to 1866, Hon, J. J. C. Abbott. 
Sidney Bellingham was elected by acclamation 27th August, 1867-rc-e
23rd June, 1871, and re-elected by acclamation 30th June, 1875, 

4 0 


Robert J. Meikle of Lachute was elected 1St May, 18 7 8 . 
\Vm. Owens was elected 2nd December, 1881; re-elected by acclamation, 7th 
October, 1886; re-elected 17th of June, 1890, and resigned. 
\Villiam J. Simpson elected 8th March, 18 9 2 . 
Biographical sketches of several of the representatives named above-Colin 
Robertson, C. J, Forbes, R. J. l\leikle, \Vm. Owens and \Vm, J. Simpson-will 
be found on succeeding pages of this volume; of three others-Scott, Papineau and 
Bellingham-the sketches given below were gathered in part from Borthwick's 
" History and Gazetteer of Montreal." 
\V, H. Scott was the son of a baker, who was located on St. Lawrence street, 
Montreal, very early in the present century. The son engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness in St. Eustache, and was one of the prominent rebels of 1837. He was arrested 
and indicted for high treason, but after remaining in prison some time, was dis- 
charged. Like several other rebels of that time, he afterward became a supporter of 
the government he had attempted to subvert, and endeavored by his devoted loyalty 
to alOne for the errors of the past, In the latter part of his Parliamentary career 
he became a great admirer and friend of Sir George E, Cartier. 
Louis J. Papineau was a man of almost world-wide fame, and he is one of the 
t prominent characters in Canadian history. Few men outside the circle of 
royalty have been the 
ct of more pen pictures than he, and none, perhaps, are 
subjects of sketches so widely different in character. Eulogy and anathema have 
been bestowed on him in turn; he was a helO or a coward, a patriot or a traitor, a 
statesman or a demagogue, just accOlding to the views or political tendencies of his 
All, however, concur with the opil
ion, that he was a mau of brilliant talent, 
possessed of great personal magne tism, courtly manner, and was an orator. As time 
recedes, also, from the stirring events which called him into prominence, and animosity 
and prejudice give place to reason and justices he is no longer regarded as the 
rash, selfish, irrational being that he once was, and even his bitterest foe= are inclined 
to denounce his methods rather his aims, and even admit that we to-day are reap- 
ing some benefit from both. The more charitable even of his political adversaries 
endeavor to find excuse for all that he did, and ascribe to his efforts and that of his 
followers aJl that is good in our government to-day. 
He was born in Montreal, 17th October, 1786, and was the son of Joseph 
Papineau, a prominent notalY, and for many years a member of the Legislative 
Assembly, in which l.e was distinguished for his ability and eloquence. 
The H on. Louis J. Papineau, after receiving his education chiefly at the 
Seminary of Quebec, studied Jßw, and was admitted to the Bar of Lower Canada in 
1811. Two years previous to this, or in 1809, so popular had he become, and so 
flattering were his prospects, that he was elected to the Assembly for the County of 
Kent, now Chambly; and in 1815 he was appointed to the responsible position 
of speaker, which position lIe retained with little interruption till 1837-a period of 


4 1 

twenty years. In November, 1827, when Mr. Papineau, according to the custom of 
the Assèmbly, had again been chosen speaker, Lord Dalhousie, the Governor of 
whom Papineau had spoken disrespectfully, refused to ratify their choice. Some 
days of excitement and trouble ensued, the Assembly would not yield, and, in con- 
sequence, its members were sent home. The Governor soon afterward returned to 
England, and became Governor General of India. He was succeeded in Canada 
by Sir James Kempt, whose conciliatory policy allayed, in a measure, the bitter 
feelings in the Province towards the Government. This was only a delay, however, 
of the corning storm; troubles which had long since commenced between the 
different branches of Government continued to increase, till they culminated in 
the Rebellion of 1837-38. The important part which Papineau played in all these 
events is well known. 
After a residence of two years in the United States, whither he had fled in 1837, 
he removed to Paris, where he lived till 1847, when the issue of the proclamation of 
amnesty permitted him to return to Canada, He was again elected to Parliament, 
in which he remained till 1854, when he retired from political life-his last years be- 
ing devoted chiefly to horticultural and literary pursuits. 
He died at Montebello on the Ottawa, 23rd September, 187 I, at the age of 
SIDNEY ROBERT BELLINGHAM, who was long a popular figure in Argenteuil, was a 
son of Sir Allan Bellingham of Castle Bellingham, Louth County, Ireland, and was 
born 2nd August, 1808. He was educated in Ireland, and married to Arabella 
Holmes, the daugh tcr of a citizen of Quebec. He was a loyal actor in the Rebellion 
of 1837-38, and, as a magistrate, accompanied the valiant Co!. \Vetherall to St, 
Charles, whither he had been sent in command of a few soldiers. In 1841, Mr. Belling- 
ham was called to the 13ar of Lower Canada, and, some years subsequently, he was for 
a long time political writer for the press of this Province, chiefly of the Montreal Times 
and Daily Ne'lfIs. lIe became endeared to the people of Argenteuil County, not 
only from his association with them as their representative, hut in enterprises with 
which he was connected, He was interested in the construction of the Carillon & 
Grenville Railway, and in colonizin
 the northern section of the County. 
His residence for many years was on the north brow of Mount Royal, where he 
purchased a valuable tract of land, beautifully located, and erected a dwelling. Not 
long after his last election to the Legislative Assembly, in 1875, he returned to Castle 
Dellingham, Ireland, where he was living in December, 1895. 


From 1867 to 1874, 
" 1874 to 1875, 
" 1875 to 1880, 
" 1880 to 1886, 
" 1886 to 1890, 
" 18 9 1 to 1895, 

Hon, J. J. C. Abbott. 
Lemuel Cushing. 
Hon. J. J. C. Abbott. 
J. C, \Vilson, 
Thomas Christie. 

4 2 


(From the Watchma1l of Nov. 3, 1893, Lachute.) 
The tidings that have reached the homes of the County of Argenteuil, this week, 
cause great and deep sorrow. The greatest of our sons, the truest friend this county 
ever had, has passed away. None but an old resident can fully appreciate what he 
was to the County of Argenteuil. In almost every good and public work which had 
for its object the interests and progress of our people, Mr. Abbott was there with his 
advice-always golden-and with his financial aid. The Agricultural Society has 
lost perhaps its oldest and best friend, for whether in Parliament or out of it, Mr. 
Abbott's liberal donation was always forthcoming, 
But while his services to public objects have been innumerable, what must be said 
of the kindness, the patience, the ability and readiness which he displayed in listening 
to the private troubles and difficulties of a long list of his Argenteuil brethren? The 
legal advice which he gave to his County gratis would have been worth a small for- 
tune to any lawyer. The widow and orphan, the poor and friendless, always had in 
him one who would lay aside for a few moments the most weighty affair of State to 
listen to their wants and clear away their difficulties. 
But in no way did his character shine out more brightly than in his treatment 
of political opponents. The same kind word, the same free advice, the same pains- 
taking comideration of the case before him, was meted out to Argenteuil men, irre- 
spective of whether they were political friends or opponents. In this respect his 
example is one that should never be forgotten. The retention of political spite and 
animosity is very unfortunate, not only because of the harm it does, but because it 
is foolish and senseless. On several occasions, when the flames of political excite- 
ment had been fanned by hot-headed partisans on both sides, Mr. Abbott was heard 
to plead with the people not to quarrel with their neighbors over politics. He 
declared that his opponent and himself would remain good friends, and why should 
others make their battle so personal as to be unneighborly? 
The history of the life ùf the first Canadian born Premier will form an impor- 
tant chapter in the history of our Dominion. But there is one fact that is perhaps 
overlooked, viz., that to Mr, Abbott, more than to any other man, do we owe the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway. There is no doubt that the scheme of a great trans-continental 
railway was originated in the fertile mind of this gentleman, and the success of the 
enterprise, the opening up of the North 'Vest, and all the great benefits arising there- 
from, arc due in a great measure to Sir John Abbott. 
It has been said that he was a greater lawyer than a politician. Such was the case, 
for he was at the very head of the legal profession in Montreal, and, consequen tly, 
did not spend the greater portion of his time in studying politics. At that time, there 
was the old chieftain, Sir John 
Iacdonald, to conduct the affairs of the party, and 
time a.nd again did he show the confidence and dependence he placed upon 
the advice and counsel of Mr. Abbott. But, had the occasion a.risen, Wè feel 



SIR ,J. J. C. .AHBorr. 



sure that Mr, Abbott posses
ed the qualities, tact, discrimination, foresight and 
cleverness which would have made him the peer of his great leader, Sir John 
Macdonald. \Vhen that gentleman passed away, how instinctively the party fell 
back upon him in the hour of need; and he did not fail them. Never was there a 
time in the history of the Conservative party when its success was more doubtful, 
and where a strong, courageous hand was more needed to turn the tide than at the 
time when Sir John Abbott became Premier, But age was upon him, and, burdened 
with the cares of State, the old man felt his strength going. It was hoped that rest 
would make a change; but the only rest that came was the long last rest, upon which 
he entered on Monday evening, October 30th, at half-past eight, 1893. 
Any attempt to estimate the loss Argenteuil has sustained would prove utterly 
futile, but we are sure th3.t, from the most remote corner to the Ottawa River 
boundary, the general feeling is one of the deepest sorrow, Looking at the 
past and gazing into the future, we feel like saying :-" 'Ve shall never see his like 
Sir John Abbott was born at St, Andrews, in the county of Argenteuil, Lower 
Canada, 12th March, 1821. His father was the Rev. Joseph Abbott, M,A., first 
Anglican incumbent of St. Andrews, who emigrated to this country from England in 
1818, as a missionary, and who, during his long residence in Canada, added consider- 
ably to the literary activity of the country. He had not been long in Canada before 
he married Miss Harriet Bradford, a daughter of the Rev. Richard Bradford, first 
rector of Chatham, Argenteuil County. 
Sir John was Dean of the Faculty of Law in the University of McGill College, 
a D.C. L, of that University, and Lieut.-Colonel of the" Argenteuil Rangers," known 
in the Department of Militia as the I I th Battalion, a corps raised by him during the 
patriotic time of the ., Trent JJ excitement. He was also president of the Fraser 
Institute of Montreal, and director, or law adviser, to various companies and corpor- 
ations. Sir J olm's name came twice before the public, in a manner which gave him 
great notoriety. He was a prominent figure, aftc:r Sir Hugh Allan, in the famous 
Pacific scandal episode, Being the legal adviser of the Kn ight of Ravenscrag, all 
transactions were carried on through him, and it was a confidential clerk of his who 
revealed details of the scheme, which culminated in the downfaJI of the Macdonald 
cabinet. His second conspicuous appearance on the public stage was iT! connection 
with the Letellier case, when he went to England, in April, T 879, as the associate of 
the Hon. H. L. Langevin, on the mission which resulted in the dismissal of the Lieut.- 
Governor of Quebec. In 18-19, he married :\[iss Mary Bethune, daughter of the 
Very Rev, J. Bethune, D.D., late Dean of Montreal. 
Sir John's political life may be said to have commenced in 1857, by the 
contest of the County of Argenteuil, at the general election held in that year. He 
was elected a member of the Canadian Assembly, but was not returned until 18 59' 
He continued to represent the constituency in that Hous.e until the union of 186 7, 
when he was returned for the Commons. He was re-elected at the general eJections 



of 18 7 2 and 18 74. In October of the last named year, he was unseated. Mr. L. 
Cushing, who had been his opponent at the preceding election, again became the 
Liberal candidate, but Mr. Abbott retired. Mr. 'VOl, Owens ran against 
Cushing, and was defeated. Upon Mr. Cushing's election being contested and void- 
ed, Dr, Christie was chosen by acclamation. At the gener=11 election of September, 
18 7 8 , he was again a candidate, but sustained defeat at the hands of his old antagonist, 
Dr. Christie. The latter, however, was unseated in February: 1880; Sir John was 
again elected for the County. Then followed the most celebrated election trial in 
the history of Canada. It lasted about three months, the ellquête being one of the 
longest ever presented to a judge. The Court was presided over by Justice Belanger. 
Mr. N. ,V. Trenholme, now Dean of the Law Faculty of McGill, conducted the case 
for the petitioners, Thos. Hickson et al. Mr. Tait, now Judge Tait, and Mr. Lacoste, 
now Chief Justice Sir A, Lacoste, were associated with Mr. Abbott himself in the 
defence, The result was that the election was annulled, and 1\1r. Abbott was re- 
elected by acclamation, and sat until 1887, when he retired. In f 862, he was made 
Solicitor General in the Sandfield- Macdonald-Sicotte Administration, and prior to his 
acceptance of office he was created a Q.C, In 1864, while in opposition, he was 
instrumental in introducing two bills, which have added greatly to his legal fame, 
The first of these was the Jury Law Consolidation Act for Lower Canada. Its 
principal provisions were, to simplify the system of summoning jurors and the pre- 
paration of jury lists. The other law which he added to the statute was the bill for 
collecting judicial and registration fees, by stamrs. This was the most complete 
legislation that had taken place on the subject, and, as in the case of his other 
measures, the main principles have been retained in the subsequent legislation which 
has followed. Sir J olm's political labors also consist of meful amendments to bills, 
suggestions and advice as regards measures affecting law and commerce. His 
advice at such times always proved of the greatest value, and in this department 
it was that he achieved the most success. Upon the death of Sir John Macdonald, 
May, 18 9 1 , Sir John, then Mr. Abbott, was chosen to succeed him in the leadership 
of the Conservative party and as Premier of the Dominion, The onerous respon- 
sibilities of this high office were accepted by Sir John as a duty to his Party and 
the country, His services in this connection, ifnot brilliant, were able and conserva- 
tive, and, added to his weak state of health, doubtless helped to shorten his life. 
In the fall of 1892 he retired from active politics, and sought by foreign travel 
and the services of skilled physir:ians to banish the disease that racked his frame; 
but it '\-as too late, and he grew gradually worse until the er.d. 
In 188 7, Mr, Abbott was elected Mayor of Montreal by a majority of about 
2,000 votes over his opponent, Mr. Rainville. In 1888, he was re-elected by accla- 
mation, and the same year was appointed president of the corporation of the Royal 
Victoria Hospital, an institution which has recently been endowed withahout $1,100,- 
000 by Lord Mount-Stephen and ::;ir Donald A. Smith, in commemoration of Her 
Majesty's Jubilee. The construction of the stately hospital building, costing about 
$5 00 ,000, was conducted under :Mr. Abbott's supervision as president. 




Sir John was also president of the Citizens Insurance Company, and director 
of the Bank of Montreal and of the Standard Life Insurance Company. 


It is to be regretted that the records of this Society have not been kept, 
so that a connected history of it could be given from its formation, Fortunately, a 
little pamphlet, 6 by 4 inches in size, and em bcacing four pages, has fallen into our 
hands, from which we learn the date of the birth of this Society. This relic has 
on its cover the following :- 


Then follows a picture-emblem of Agriculture-and underneath, the words- 
Below, we give the entire contents, verbatim: 
At a general meeting of the Inhabitants of the COllnty of York, held in St. 
Andrews on the 2nd February, 1826, Mr, John Mc:\lartin being called to the chair, 
the purpose of the meeting was explained, and the following Resolutions were un- 
animously adopted, viz.:- 
RESOLVED, 1st. That the persons present form themselves into a Society, to be 
called the U County of York Agricultural Society," the. object of which will be to im- 
prove the mode of Agriculture in the said County by every mea'1S ill their power, 
RESOLVED, 2nd, That the officers of this Society shall be a President, two Vice- 
Presidents, a Treasurer and Secretary, and that a Committee of ten shall manage the 
business j all which officers shall be elected annually. 
RESOLVED,3rd. That James Brown, Esq., be President, Mr. John Mc
lartin and 
Thomas Barron, Esq., Vice-Presidents. 
Edward Jones, Duncan McNaughton, Henry Chapman, \Vm. Tennison, Jacob 
Schagel, Stephen Burwash, Thomas Cooke, John M'Ewen, Doctor C. Rice were 
elected to form the Committee, 
Mr. Guy Richards,- Treasurer. 
:\Jr. James :\lurray,-Secretal]'. 
RESOLVED, 4th. That the Committee draw up Rules for the better Regulation of 
this Society. 
RESOLVED, 5th. That those present immediately enter their names as members 
of this Society, 
'Vhich Resolution was unanimously complied with. 
(Signed), J A:\IES 
IURRAY, St,cy, 

4 6 


On the 25 th March, 1826, pursuant to public notice, a general meeting took place, 
when the following Regulations were unanimously adopted :- 
1St. The object of this Society is to promote, by its efforts and example, the 
science of Agriculture throughout the County; to give premiums in money or pieces 
of plate, agricultural publications or implements, to the practical farmers who shaH 
excel in the art of ploughing, cropping, raising stock of all kinds, in the dairy, plant- 
ing of fruit trees, and the general improvement of Farms and Home Manufactures, 
2nd. There shall be a general meeting annually, on the Twmtieth day of 
Jar.uary (or day following if it should fall on a Sunday), for the election of a Presi- 
dent, two Vice-Presidents, a Secretary and Treasurer, and ten members for a Com- 
mittee to superintend the general interests of the Society, and six of these with the 
President, or one of the Vice-Presidents, will be sufficient to proceed to business, 
call extraordinary meeting, etc. 
3 rd . The Committee shall remain in office for one year, and one-half of those 
comprising it may be re-elected, but may retire after serving one year, then the Com- 
mittee may elect others in their stead. 
4 th . The said Committee shall meet quarterly, or oftener, if required by the Pre- 
5 th . Any practical farmer or gentleman in the County may become a member 
of the Society, by paying the sum of five shillings, annually, No expulsion can take 
place unless at a general meeting, when two-thirds of those present may expel any 
member for misconduct towards the Society. 
6th. No person, unless a practical farmer, within the County) can partake of 
the benefit of premiums. 
7 th . All decisions to be made by a majority of members present, and the Presi- 
dent to have the casting vote. 
8th. The rules of competition to he similar to those adopted by the Highland 
Society ûf Scotland. 
9 th . The judges shall be named by the Committee from among the members, 
who shall determine in all cases. 
loth. At the annual general meeting of this Society in January, the proceedings 
of the year shall be read, a statement of the funds exhibited, the list of subscribers 
read, and the annual subscription received previous to the election of officers. 
J Ith, No member entitled to vote on any subject, till the preceding article is 
complied with. 
12th. That the general meeting in January shall serve for the first quarterly 
meeting; the second quarterly meeting will take place on the second Tuesday of 
March; the third, on the second Tuesday of June; the fourth, on the second Tues- 
day of September, At a general meeting of the inhabitants of the County of York, 
held on the 21st January, 1828, the following additional resolution was agreed to :- 
RESOLVED,- That in order to extend the benefits to be derived from the Associa- 
tion, ten new members from the neighboring Parishes be added to the number of 



the Committee, and that the twenty do constitute, in future, the number of the Com- 
mittee, exclusive of the president, two vice-presidents, the secretary and treasurer, 
JA:\IES BROWN, Jr., Seey. 
From this time onward for many years, the records are lost, but the Society con- 
tinued to exist, and" Cattle Shows II and plowing matches were held annually, Com- 
missary C. J. Forbes was president for some years, and Wm. Beaton, a teacher and 
bailiff of St. Andrews, was s
cretary, succeeded by Errick Harrington, who in turn 
was succeeded by Henry Howard. 
The eårIiest records we have been able to obtain after the above were those of 
a meeting held in Lachute, 31st DecemIJer, 186 9. 

Pusidelll, Edward Jones; Vice-Preside/d, John Hay; Secretary, Henry Howard, 

Wm. Albright, John :\lcGregor, Thos. Noyes, Geo. B, Hooker, \Valter l\IcOuat, 
\Vm. Gordon, Wm. McOuat, 
In 18 7 0 there were 95 members. Amount subscribed, $II3. In December, 18 74, 
John Burwash was appointed president, and \Vm. McOuat, vice-president; Gavin 
1. \Valker, who was appointed secretary in Decemb
r, [875, still holds the office, 

FROM 1876 TO 1895, 
Wm. l\IcOuat. 
Nelson Albright. 
Geo. B. Hooker, 
Geo, Morrison. 
John Martin. 
p. Lane. 
N, Albright. 
Ceo. Fraser, 
. 1880.-No, of members [91, amount subscribed $335. 00 . 
1890.-No. of members 240, amount subscribed $495,00, 
[886.-Amount paid {or premiums $743-75. 
I894.-Amount paid for premiums, $950.00. 
A Government grant of $2.00 is now received for every $1.00 subscribed. 
The grounds and buildings which are leased to the Agricultural Society for its 
exhibitions are neat and spacious, and their annual fairs are second only to those of 
the large cities of the Province, and invariably attract a large concourse of people. 

John Hay. 
Geo. B. Hooker. 
John Morrison. 
John :\Iartin. 
P. Lane. 

4 8 



On the 23 rd July, 18 45, a meeting was held in a room at M. D. Beattie's. The 
councillors acting at this time were John \Vainright, Charles Macdonnell, Alexis 
Cameron, Stephen Burwash and Andrew McGregor. John Wainright was unanimously 
elected Mayor of the Municipality of Argenteuil. 
Copied z'erbatim from the Records, 
On 23 rd August, 1855, the first meeting of the County Council of Argenteuil 
was held, at which meeting the follow:ng councillors were present :- 
Edwin Pridham, Esq., Mayor of Grenville. 
Lemuel Cushing, Esq., Mayor of Chatham. 
Robert Simpson, Esq., Mayor of St. Andrews. 
Thomas Christie, Esq., Mayor of St. Jerusalem Parish. 
George Rogers
 Esq., Mayor of Township of Gore. 
Andrew Elliott, Esq" Mayor of Mille Isle. 
Samuel Smith, Esq., Mayor of \Yentworth. 
George Hamilton, Esq., Mayor of l\Iorin. 
Thomas Christie was elected "Yarden, and served to March, 18 5 8 . 
Thomas Barron, sen., was then appointed, and served to March, 186 4. 
Richard D. Byers, from March to December, 18 6 4. 
Lemuel Cushing, to March, 1868. 
Thomas ]
arron, jr., to March, 1881. 
Alexander Pridham, from March, 1881, to March, 18 95. 
James B. Brown, from March, [895, to the present. 
The names of the present County Council are :-Patrick A. Dunbar, Joseph 
Derrick, John Chambers, Wm. D. Graham, jr., Oliver \Voods, John 'Vade, 1\1. 
Desjardins, Hugh \Valsh, James B. Brown, James Millway, Ed. Christie, Matthew 1. 
Strong, George Seale, 


The County of Argenteuil is deservedly proud of her rangers, though, like for- 
tresses scattered here and there in our land, once regarded as a bulwark of safety, 
they are now less an object of necessity, and serve more as a reminder of dangers we 
have escaped than of those anticipated. 
A troop of cavalry was organized in this County by McRobb in 1816. He had 
served in the British Army, and held the rank of sergeant, and on petitioning Gov- 
ernment for a grant of land, as a reward for his service, he was granted two lots in 
Chatham, which are now owned by John Kelly, He was always known as "Sergt. 
McRobb" , he died not many years after forming the Troop and becoming captain. 
Since that period, the command of the S1. Andrew's Troop has devolved on the [01- 



lowing :-Capt. Donald C. McLean, Capt. John Oswald, Capt. John Burwash, Capt. 
Martin \\"anless. 
IcLean had been a Nor'wester, and lived on Beech Ridge. He was a 
prominent, public-spirited, brave man, and was a J. P. of St. Andrews. During the 
disturbances of 1838, he marched with his company to St, Eustache, on the day that 
the rebels were vanquished. Some years later, he sold his property on the Ridge, 
and moved to Quio, where he died. One of his sons, a prominent business man, still 
resides there. 
Ca{.>t. Oswald, who was afterwards promoted to the rank of lieut.-colonel of l\Iili- 
tia, was 111 command of this troop several years; his home was in the County of 
Two Mountains, During the Rebellion he was one of the most active of the Loyalists, 
in consequence of which he was particularly obnoxious to the rebels. 
In 1879, the St. Andrew's troop and several troops were formed into a regiment, 
which afterward received the name Duke of Connaught Royal Canadian Hussars. 
Another troop of cavalry was formed in this County a number of years ago by 
Co!. John Simpson of Lachute, but the organization was not of long duration. 
The Argenteuil Rangers were organized in 1862, the Hon. J. J. C. Abbott, it is 
claimed, being instrumental in the formation of th e Ba ttalion. He was lieut.-colonel 
of it for several years, and was succeeded by James B. Cushing, who still holds the 
Henry Abbott, brother of Sir J. J. C. Abbott, was sen, major till 1866, when he 
was succeeded by Allen McDonald, who, in I8R3, was succeeded by 'Villiam Hoy. 
First Jun, l\Iajor, Sam Rogers. This position was vacant from 1883 to 1888, 
when Isaac Jekyll was appointed, succeeded in 1893 by Geo, B. l\Iartin. 
Paymaster, Archibald McDonald, tilJ 1872, succeeded by Thomas Lamb, 
Batt, Surgeon from 1862 to the present, Dr. Mayrand. 
The Companies were as follows :- 
Co. No. I, by Capt. John ::\IcDúnaid, St. Andrews. 
Co. No.2, by Capt. \Villiam Smith, Gore ('Vest). 
Co. No. 3, Ly Capt. Geo. McKnight, Gore (West). 
Co. NO.4, by Capt. A. Cleland, Lachute, 
Co, NO.5, by Capt. Sam Rogers, Gore. 
Co, No.6, by Capt. Geo. Sherritt, Gore. 
Co, NO.7, by Capt. Edward--"'JSridham, Grenville. 
Co. No.8, by Capt. John PoHúck, 1.Iille Isles. 
The following changes have occurred among the captains of the different com- 
panies since the Battalion was first organized: 


Co. No. I. 
Capt, John .McDonald died in 1864, and was succeeded by his brother, Allen 
McDùnald. In 1866, the latter became Major, and his brother Samuel McDonald 
succeeded him as Captain, He was afterwards promoted to the rank of Adjutant, 



and H. \\" Kempley succeeded him as Captain; and after the latter left St. Andrews, 
Archibald LeRoy held the captaincy till 1883, when he was succeeded by Capt. 
Thomas Weightman. 

Co. NO.2. 
Capt. \Vm. Smith was succeeded in 1866 by Capt. Jas. Smith, who, dying in 
1891, had as successor Capt. 'Vm. Good. 
Co. NO.3. 
Geo. McKnight was Ca!Jtain till 1882, followed by Capt, Isaac Jekyll, who dying 
was succeeded by his own son, Henry J ekyll. 

Co. No.4. 
Capt. A. Cleland was Captain till 1866. From 1866 to 1883, Capt. John Simp- 
son. Since 1883. Capt, Geo. D. \Valker. 
Co. NO.5. 
Samuel Rogers was Captain till 1866, The Company was disorganized this year. 
o. 6 became NO.5 at this time, NO,7 was disbanded, and No.8 became No.6. 

o. 7 (FOR:\IERLY No, 9)' 
Capt. Wm, T. Forbes till 1872, Cart. 'V. Hoy till 1883, then Capt. Edward 

Co, No.8 (FORMERLY No. 10). 
Capt. Jas. B. Cushing till 1883, then Capt, Geo. B. 
Iartin till 1887, Capt. John 
]gton till 1890; from 1893 to the present, Capt. John Earl. 
The first camp was held in 1868, at the Roman Catholic Church, St. Andrews, 
eight Companies and the St. Andrew's Troop present, In 1869, the camp \\as at 
Hill Head, 
In 18 7 0 , the Battalion, on account of the Fenian excitement, narrated elsewhere, 
was divided and sent to different places. 
187 I, Camp at Laprairie. 
1872, Camp at St. Andrews. 
1874, Camp at St. Andrews. 
1875, Camp at Bellevue, Carillon. 
18 7 6 } 
i8n Local drill
 at Head-quarter
 of the different Companies. 
18 7 8 
1879, Companies J, 4, 7 and 8 (part of Rut.), at L3.chute. 
1880, Companies 2, 3, 5 and 6 (part of Batt.). at Bellevue. 
188 r, Camp at St. J olms. 
1883, Camp at St. Johns. 
1884, Camp at St. Johns. 



1886, Camp at Richmond. 
1888, Camp at Sherbroöke. 
1891, Camp at East Farnham. 
1893, Camp at Laprairie. 
1895, Camp at Laprairie. 
\Vhen the second camp was at BeUevue, on the suggestion of the late Lemuel 
Cushing, l\I.P., a tent was erected by the Y. M. C. Association, and ever since, this 
has been an important feature in the camp. The opportunity thus afforded the V 01- 
unteers of obtaining good reading matter and attending religious exercises in the 
evening has been improved by many of them, and it is to be hoped that good has 
resulted. At all events, the suggestion of 1\1r. Cushing was a noble one, anù the 
custom which resulted from it cannot be too highly commended. 
In the years 1872 and 1874, when the camps were at St. Andrews, there were 
present besides the usual companies of the Battalion J the" Prince of \Vales Rifles," 
"Victoria Rifles," the 6th Reg..of Cavalry, 6th Fusiliers, and three independent 
companies from the region of the Gatineau. 
\Vhen at Richmond in 1886, the Rangers were presented with standard colors- 
Queen's and Regimental-by the ladies of Argen teui!. 
The Rangers have gained no little celebrity for their success in competing for 
various prizes. On the 25th May, 1885, a tug-of-war contest occurred at Lachute, 
between the Range::rs on one side, and the 5th Royal Scots and 6th Fusiliers on the 
ether. The prize was an ornate silver cup. Ten or a dozen men were chosen from 
each party, and after â vigorous contest, the Rangers were awarded the prize. In 
1893, when the camp was at Laprairie, a magnificent and val
able silver cup was 
offered by Sir Donald A. Smith to the Regiment displaying the best proof of pro- 
ficiency in the qualities essential to a soldier. The prize was again borne off by the 
Rangers, In i 887, on the occasion of the Queen's Jubilee, another tug-of-war 
contest OCClll red between two different companies of the Battalion. A l hallenge 
was made by Co. No.8, to any other one in the Battalion, and was accèpled by Co. 
No. I, commanded hy Cap!. Thomas Weightman. .\ prize ofa silver cup W3.S offered 
to the victor Ly Jas, Johnson, a lumber merchant living near Quebec. Five men 
were st::lected flOm each company; the team \Vas commanded by 
apt. \Veighlman, 
to whose company the cup was awarded. 
In 1866, the first Fenian invasion uf Canada occurred. For some years certain 
Irish demagogues in the United States, with the object of gaining notoriety and filling 
their pockets, had been concocting a scheme whereby-so they persuL\ded the ignoran t 
-Ireland would be released from British thraldom. The plan prop0sed was to raise 
and equip a grand and invincible army in the States, walk over and subjugate Can_\da, 
and after England had thus heen crippled, J.nd the Irish patriots had acquired ter- 
ritory on which to plan and prepare for future operations, the people of Ireland were 
to rise in their majesty, and declare themselves forever free from the:: yoke of English 



Such was the ridiculous scheme proposed and advocated by these demagogues, 
under the name and pretence of patriotism. Numerous individuals-generally the 
ones most blatant in their advocacy of the scheme-weré appointed to receive contri- 
butions towards its furtherance; and, forthwith, money began to flow into their coffers 
from the pockets of their deluded followers. Many a poor servant girl contributed 
to this hare-brained project the wages for which she had toiled for years. 
The disbanding of the Federal armies, at the close of the American Rebellion, 
gave an impetus to the cause of Fenianism. Thousands of men were thrown upon the 
country without occupation or means of support, and many of those whose social 
status is fitly described by the term vagabond were only too glad to enlist in any 
crmade, which promised food and raiment and an opportunity to plunder. "The 
.-\rmy of Ireland," as it was ostentatiously called, afforded the desired refuge: and to 
this they hied. Their number was augmented by mány from the cities-loafers and 
tramps-who had never seen a day of military service, and who, in their ignorance, 
had been led to believe that it would be but pastime to conquer Canada, and that 
they would riot in the spoils, 
It is but just to say, that the Fenians who crossed the boundary, and made a 
raid into Ontario, seemed to have more the appearance of men, and displayed more 
of the .bravery of soldiers. But the description given aoove is a true one of the 
majority of the Fenians who crossed the Line into the Eastern Townships in 1866. 
The discarded Springfield muskets of the Federal Government of the States pro- 
\"ided the Fenians with cheap arms, and in the month of June, 1866, several hundred 
of this fraternity suddenly appeared on the Frontier on the northern boundary of 
Vermont, and crossed into St. Armand, Que. So quietly had they done their work 
for a while, and so quietly had they gathered, that our people had no idea they were 
so near, until they were actually crossing the border. Notwithstanding all the 
boasts and threats of invasion made by the Fenians, the people of the Townships 
never reaily believed that it would be attempted, and, consequently, had made no pre- 
parations to meet them. Great was the surprise and consternation, therefore, when the 
news flashed through the country, one Sunday afternoon, that 2,000 Fenians had 
crossed the border, and were marching toward the village of Frelighsburg, about three 
miles distant from the Line in the parish of St. Armand East. 
Most erroneous impressions were current among our people, both as to the 
number and character of the Fenians. It was firmly believed, for a while, that the 
first detachment comprised two or three thousand, that this would be speedily aug- 
mented, and that they were the veteran soldiers of the Union army-men who, in 
every way, would prove formidable foes to British soldiers on the field of battle. 
Great was the mistake; their number was less than a thousand, and that number 
was largely composed of mere boys and such men as we have described. 
It took but two or three days to undeceive the people of the Townships and 
restore confidence. The Fenians soon gave evidence that their chief object was to 
obtain what they could eat and drink, and what booty they could ca:-ry away with 



They were careful root to venture far into the Province, but camped near the 
border, and spent their time between robbing stores, drinking the liquors found in 
groceries and hotels, and slaughtering such animals of the far mers as they found 
necessary for the sUlJply of their commissariat. Horses were taken in consIderable 
numbers, both from farmers and from such travelers as had the misfortune to meet 
them. But these marauders were not destined to prolong their carousal on Canadian 
soil. Only a few days elapsed, when the red coats marched into the west end of St. 
Armand parish, and simultaneously the Fenians 
ade their exit from the east end; 
not even stopping to get a glimpse of the British soldiers, much le
s did they atttmpt 
to wrest Ireland from their grasp, Several stragglers were taken prisoners and tried 
as criminals, but were finally released-it being the general impression that the Govern. 
ment d
emed it more generous, in view of their insignificance, to release them, after 
some months' imprisonment in jail, than to mete out to them severe punishment, 
and thus give them an opportunity to pose as martyrs, 
The raid made simultaneoùsly with the above, on the Niagara Frontier under 
General O'Niel, was of larger proportions, and resulted in more serious consequences. 
It was the design of the Fenians to assail Canada from three points-one from 
Chicago and places on the Lake Huron coast, a second from Buffalo and Rochester, 
and a third from Ogdensburg. The latter, which was to be the most formidable of 
these undertakings, was to threaten Ottawa, capture Prescott, and overrun the country 
toward the Eastern Townships. They soon found, however, that their plans were far 
too great for their resources, and ere they could put the least into execution, the places 
proposed to be captured were well protected by th ousands of our loyal Volunteers. O'Niel had crossed the Niagara frontier with a large force, a body of Can a- 
dians-I 800 men-composed of 750 regulars and the rest of V olunteers, with a Battery 
of Artillery, all under command of Co!. Peacock, took post at Chippewa, and awaited 
the arrival of Lieut.-Col. Booker. The latter was a Volunteer officer, with a force of 
nearly 900 men, composed of the Queen's Own-chiefly college student
 and other 
patriotic young men of Toronto,-the 13th Hamilton Volunteers, and the York and 
Caledonia Volunteer Companies, 
\Vhile marching toward Chippewa to join Peacock, this force under Booker 
uneJl.pectedly met the Fenil11s at Limeridge, where they were strongly fortified. As 
Booker had no military experience, and possessed more bravery than skill as a 
commander, he immediately commenced an action with this largely superior force. 
The Queen's Own was thrown out in skirmishing order, and gallantly drove back 
O'Niel's advanced line on his main body. But the Volunteers were all inexperienced; 
there was no force to support them; mistakes were made in the orders; a panic 
ensueJ, and the force was soon in full retreat. The V olun teers lost in killed, one 
officer and six men; while the dangerously as well as slightly woq,nded comprised 
four officers and nineteen men. The Fenian loss was known to be larger than our 
own, though it was never accurately ascertained, as they had possession of the battle- 
field, and buried their dead there. As several of the killed on our side were college 
students anù members of good families, their loss was greatly deplored, 



Soon after this, 0' Niel retreated to Fort Erie, which post he found in possession 
of Lieut. Col. Dennis, with seventy Volunteers. A little before this, Col, Dennis had 
arrived from Port Colburne with a tug-boat, in the hold of which were stowed sixty 
Fenian prisoners. An action at once ensued, which, as might be supposed, ended in 
the defeat of the sm
dl company of Volunteers, thirteen of whom were wounded and 
forty made prisoners. 
But O'Niel had been disappointed. Instead of finding any in Canada to join him, 
as he had anticipated, the inhabitants rose as one man to drive him and his mar- 
auders from the country. The spirit displayed by the few Volunteers he had met 
showed him what he might expect when they had all gathered, and he lost no time 
in returning to the States, where he was arrested by order of the U.S. Government, 
and his followers disbanded. 
rl'he trial of the Fenian prisoners took place in Toronto in October following, 
Many were discharged, but true bills were found against a large number, and several 
were convicted, and sentenced to death; but their sentences were afterwards com- 
muted by the Queen to imprisonment for a period in the Provincial Penitentiary. 
But the lesson had been a useful one to Canadians. The great expense to which 
the Fenians had put their country, and their wanton acts of robbery and cruelty, 
incensed our people, and confirmed their resolution not to be caught again unpre- 
pared, The next two 
or three years, consequently, the Yolunteer companies, raised 
in different parts of the Dominion, were tho!"oughly drilled and exercised in target 
practice, till every company, when occasion required, could turn out a full complement 
of sharp shooters. 
In 1870 the Fenians, encouraged, no doubt, by their previous pleasant sojourn 
in the Eastern Townships, again paid us a visit. As before, also, no one knew they 
were coming till they were near the border, They assembled in a large body in the 
town of Franklin, Vt., and intended to enter Canada by the road leading to St. 
.\rmand East, on which they had formerly encamped. Although no Volunteer com- 
panies were just at hand, the telegraph had conveyed the news of their approach, and 
before they reached the Line, our Volunteers were hastening from every point of the 
compass to meet them, 
The road enters the Province at this point by a somewhat lengthy and gradual 
descent, at the foot of which is a brook of considerable size, then several rods of 
comparatively level road which soon crosses the slope of a hill. On the left of the 
road, coming from the south, the hill rises to quite an altitude, and, at that time, part 
of its summit, which is broad and uneven, was l'artially covered with a grove oflargc 
trees, while its southern slope, towards Vermont, contains several huge boulders, 
affording admirable breashvorks which our men were not slow in lìtilizing. This is 
known as Eccles' Hill; and on the d:1Y in question, about sixty members of the 
Home Guard, \\ ho lived in that section, and who comprised leading farmers, mer- 
chants and business men of the locality, took possession of the hill. Co!. Asa 
'Vestover, an influential and intelligent farmer, who lived contiguous, usually com- 



manded the Home Guard, but on this occasion, all placed themselves under the 
command of Col. Brown Chamberlain, one of the proprietors and editors of the 
.J.Jlontreal Gazette, who had leceived information of the intention of the Fenians, and 
hastened to the defence of his former home and friends. 
On the same side of the road that the Home Guards occupied, a little more than 
half a mile distant on the V trmont side, stood at that time the house of a Mr. Rhicard. 
In the road in front of this house, the Fenian general drew up his men in two columns, 
and ordering them to cross the line on the double quick, and obtain possession of 
Eccles Hill, he withdrew to the house of Rhicard, ascended the stairs, and prepared to 
observe with his field-glass from a chamb
r window, the result of his orders. Rhicard, 
who was born and reared in Canada, promptly followed him, and ordered him from 
his house. "You have brought these poor fellows here," he said, " to invade Canada 
without any cause, and now, instead of facing the danger with them, you come back 
and seek refuge in my house. You cannot stay here ;" and the General of the" Army 
of Ireland" walked out. 
Another incident, related by an eye-witness, deserves notice. Before the general 
in command had formed his men to cross the Line, one of his captains, a soldierly- 
looking man, approached him and addressed him thus: 
"General, you have deceived us. You said we were to meet a regular army, 
and here I see no enemy. I claim to be a soldier; as you know, I have been in many 
engagements, and I do not shrink from danger, but I have not yet sunk so low a
make war on women or children or defenceless farmers. I tender you my sword! " 
handing him which, he jumped into a buggy near at hand, in which a man was sitting, 
and drove off. 
The incident shows that there were some men among the Fenians, and there is 
no doubt that many others felt that they had been deceived, 
The Fenians, according to instructions, went down the decline: on the double 
quick, crossed the bridge, and still went on, without hearing even the report of a 
pistol to warn them of any obstacle to their triumphant entra.nce into the fair fields 
of the Eastern Townships, They crossed the line, when 10 ! from the summit and side 
of the hill before them, a sharp and loud report and the messengers of death fell rapidly 
among them. They halted and returned the fire; but they might as well have fired 
at the moon,-trees and rocks being the only enemy in vie,,'. 
Soon came another volley, and then another, and by this time the valor of the 
" Army of Ireland" was on the wane. "Discretion i3 the bettt r part of valor," and 
Ireland might take care of herself; they were not going to stand longer on the road 
to be shot at, and taking their wounded and dead, with the exception of one poor 
fellow, who was left in the road, all, save a few who sought shelter beneath the bridge, 
made a rapid movement toward Vermont. 
The second Fenian raid into St. Armand was euded One of the Fenians, on 
getting back out of rifle range, remarked to the bystanders who had followed to 
witness the "Invasion," that he had been in several engagements in the great 



Rebellion, but had ne\'er been in one where the bullets fell faster than they did 
from Eccles Hill. 'VeIl might he so remark, as every man on the Canadian side was a 
crack shot, 
The writer with a friend drove on the battle ground that day, but the firing had 
ceased. 'Vith a glass we could see distinctly two Fenians who had been shot-one 
lying in the road and another in the field in the rear of Rhicard's house, where he 
was shot while running across the fie ld, 
Sp.veral reporters of the New York papers were present, and many companies 
of Volunteers had now arrived, and others were constantly coming, till orders were 
given them to return, 
It was never known what the casualties among the Fenians were during this raid, 
as they carried away their wounded, some of whom died subsequently, It is also 
stated that they carried away some who were killed. 
Toward nightfall, our Volunteers buried the Fenian who was shot on the 
Canadian side, He was a young fellow, and the next day his father and mother 
arrived, nearly heart-broken, from their home in Burlington, Vt" and took back with 
them his remains. They had made every effort to dissuade him from coming to 
Canada, but without avail. 
In March, 1866, the 11th Battalion, being called out on account of an anticipated 
Fenian invasion, assembled at St. Andrews; Companies I and 7 were sent to Ottawa; 
2 and 5 to Lacolle, As the other companies were not properly officered, having been 
newly re-organized, they remained at St. Andrews. 
The companies that were ordered to Ottawa roåe up in sleighs, and remained 
there a month; on their return in April, they went to Prescott, where special cars 
were to meet them. As they were boarding the two cars, they noticed eight men- 
strangers-occupying seats in one of them, As the cars were designed specially 
for the Volunteers, some one objected to taking other passengers, but the strangers 
maintained their seats, and expressed their determination to do so till they had 
reached their destination. 
The cars went on to Cornwall, when, on arriving there, to the surprise of the 
Volunteers, their two cars were quickly surrounded by soldiers of the Prescott Bat- 
The civil authorities at Cornwall had received a telegram from Toronto, inform- 
ing them that there were Fenians on the train. The Mayor and Sheriff of Cornwall, 
therefore, visited the train, and informed Capt. McDonald of the telegram. Believing 
that the eight strangers must be the Fenians referred to, he stationed Sergts. Thomas 
Lamb and Timothy Fitzgerald at one door of the car, Martin Weightman and 
another man of his company, at the other door, with strict orders to let no one enter 
or pass out. The Sheriff and one_or two others were soon admitted, and the strangers 
-much to their astonishment and chagrin-were arrested on the charge of being 
Fenian spie s. 
They loudly disclaimed any conn ec tion wit h the Fenian Order, or knowledge 



of it, but on being searched, everyone was found to be armed with two revolvers, 
and their valises were packed with ammunition and cartridges, They finally ac- 
knowledged themselves Fenians, and were marched off in irons to Cornwall jail. 
Care was taken by the officers engaged in the arrest to conceal the matter, as far as 
possible, from the Volunteers, being apprehensive of violence to the prisoners, such 
was the hatred borne toward Fenians by the V olul1teers. These, it is said, were the 
first Fenian prisoners taken in Canada, but they afterwards escaped from jail. 
In June, 1866, the Battalion was again called out, and the companies arrived at 
St. Andrews on Saturday evening. The following Monday night, they took a special 
boat to St. Anns, and the next day went to Cornwall, from which place they were 
sent, the next Sunday, to St, Johns, Que. After remaining there several days they 
About the first of August, 1866, two companies, I and 4, which were formed 
from Volunteers from all the companies of the Battalion, went to Cornwall, to relieve 
two companies of Prescott Volunteers, that for some time had been stationed there, 
The relief companies were there till November. 
In April, 18 7 0 , the Battalion was again called to St, Andrews, and from that 
place to Montreal, where they were despatched to different parts of the Eastern 
In the month of May following, they were once more called together at St. 
Andrews, but many of the officers and men being absent to aid in suppressing the first 
Riel Rebellion, the companies were not in proper condition to be sent out, Cot 
\Volsey, who was then captain of the Prince Consort Rifle Brigade, came to drill them; 
but when they were prepared, the trouble in the Northwest had subsided, and they 
were sent home. 
A rifle match was formed in connection with the Battalion, several years ago, 
It is held annually at St, Andrcws, and receives for prizes a grant from Government 
of about $5 0 yearly, and this is increased to $120 by private subscriptions, These 
matches are always well attended, and have been the means of developing many 
young men into crack shots. There are six different matches: the" Nursery match," 
" President's," "Vice-President's," "l\lilitary,"" Association," and "Extra-Series,JJ 
for each of which there is a special prize. 

Liat!- Co/, 
James B. Cushing. 

\Villial11 Hoy, 

George B. Marlin. 

John Pollock. 
fhomas 'Veightman. 
Geo. Dunbar 'Valker. 

Albert E. Hodgson. 
John Rogers, 
\Villiam Gurd, 

Henry J ekyll, 
\Villiam \Villiamson. 
John Earle. 



John McMartin. 
Lemuel Berron. 

'Villiam Watchorn. 
Samuel E, Smith. 

Isaiah Dows. 
Robert Evans. 

_\br, 'Vatchorn. 
John A. Morrison. 
Adley Shirrin. 
Pay maslt r. 
Thomas Lamb. 
Quarter J[ aster, 
\\'illiam Pollock. 

2nd LieutCllc11Zb. 
Andrew Rathwell. 
Walter A. Brown. 
E. J. 'Villiamson. 

Osmond Le Roy, 
F. Cushing. 

\\ïlliam 'Villiamson. 

'Ym. H. l\Iayrand, M.D. 



The history of education in Argenteuil begins with the struggles of the first 
settlers in the county. All efforts to provide an education amongst the early inhabit- 
ants were, as in all other parts of Canada at that time, purely voluntary. '''hen a 
number of inhabitants felt the need of a school, a subscription list was opened, for 
the purpose of raising sufficient means wherewith to pay the salary of some person 
who should be selected to conduct the proposed school. Such school was often held 
in the homes of some of the people, who gave the use of a part of their house as a 
contribution for the support of education, Another form of assistance was the prac- 
tice of boarding the teacher for a period in turn, according to the number of pupils 
the person sent to the school. Still another plan of supporting the school was by 
supplying wood for heating the school room. There were also other ways of contri- 
buting to its maintenance. Instead of paying cash, subscriptions were often paid in 
produce, especially when the teacher was a householder with a family. There was 
always a part of the salary paid in cash. In this way an exchange of services 
was made, and while the pupiis 0)1 the one hand received an education, the teacher 
on the other hand obtained a living, which is about all those who become teachers 
receive at any time. Under such circumstances the continuance of a school was 
very uncertain and irregular, but such was the practice which obtained for many 
years, until a system of education was provided by government. 
In these early days there were no diplomas to guide in the selection of a teacher, 
yet in most cases a person could be found who had sufficient education to conduct 
the school. Such persons kncw little of the method" of teaching, and often adopted 
inferior methods, yet many of their pupils were successful in study, and later, in their 
life's occupation. 
'1'he subjects taught in these early schools to which most attention was paid 



were reading, writing and arithmetic. Geography and grammar were taught,-the 
former without maps, the latter as a series ofrules of speech and composition,-a prac- 
tice too common at the present time. 
In these days of which we write, it was quite necessary that the teacher should 
be able to rule the school in every respect, since there were no school laws and no 
authorities to whom the teacher could appeal for assistance. Hence, we find that 
as there were many difficulties hard to overcome, especially in the discipline of the 
school, most of the teachers were masters, who é.re fittingly described by Goldsmith, 
when he writes of the master of Lissoy, thus:- 

" A man severe he was, and stern to view, 
I I I knew him well and every truant knew; 
-, \Vell had the boding tremblers learned to trace 
" The day's disasters in his morning face; 
," Full well they laughed with counterfeited glee 
" At all his jokes) for many a joke had he ; 
" Full wen the busy whisper, circling round, 
" Conveyed the dismal tidings, when he frowned; 
II Yet he was kind, or if severe in aught, 
" The love he bore to learning \\ as in fault." 

The experience of many of these men was very difficult and trying, and they are 
most properly characterized by the last two lines of the above quotation, The build- 
ings provided for school purposes were often small, cold, unhealthy, and poorly pro- 
vided with furniture and appliances for teaching; nevertheless, much of the work 
done was noted for thoro\!ghness, 
This condition of things, however, gradually improved, and was finally replaced 
in 1829 by a voluntary system of education. Under this system a community which 
desired a school had to provide a suitable building for school purposes, and had to 
pay a fee of admittance for each pupil attending the school, while the Government 
paid the teacher directly, upon the joint certificate of the clergy and the member for 
the county. 
This system was abolished in 1841, and the present educational system estab. 
lished, whereby taxes are imposed for the support of education, while the Government 
expends annually a large sum of money, paid to schools in proportion to the latest 
census returns, By the system of 1841, all teachers were to be examined and certi- 
fied, and although such test of scholarship was but simple at first, the examination 
for diplomas at present is a fair test of proficiency in the work prescribed. ì\[uch 
opposition was offered to the introduction of the new school system, chiefly owing to 
the taxation, and in some of the municipalities considerable physical force and threats 
were used to prevent the establishment of public schools. The better cause pre- 
vailed, however, and public schools have for many years been in operation in each 
township of the county. 
Some of these schools in the more populous parts are well attended, and accomplish 

6 0 


good work j others in less favorable parts are not so well attended, yet the work of 
the less favored school is often equal to those which have greater advantages. One of 
the great hindrances in the establishment of an elementary school system in our pro- 
vince was the difference amongst the people in race, language and religion. Many 
efforts were made to devise a suitable system, but none succeeded until 184 1 , when 
the present system was established, giving to Protestants and Roman Catholics alike 
the right to provide an education for their children, Thus we have what may be 
called a Dual System of education and two classes of elementary schools. For many 
years in the earlier days of the country's history, the inhabitants were entirely Eng- 
]ish-speaking, but for some years past the remaining portions of the county have been 
occulJied by people of French origin, and thus we have both kinds of schools estab- 
lished. There are at the present time 19 Protestant school municipalities, cont:âning 
60 elementary schools, and 13 Roman Catholic municipalities containing 18 elemen- 
tary schools. The total number of schools therefore is 78, while the total enrollment 
of pupils last year ( 18 94) was 3,403, giving an average of 43 to each school. The 
total value of the school buildings of the county is estimated at $64,79 0 , while the total 
assessment of taxable property is $1,903,624, The amount of taxes collected in 18 94 
was $16,576, to which must be added the Government grant of $2,63 1 , making the 
total cost of education $[9, 20 7. 
The average salary of elementary teachers in English schools is placed at $13 1 , 
and those of the French schools at $127 per year. Of the teachers in the elementary 
schools, 6 were without diplomas,-2 being in the English schools, and 4 in the 
French. Such is a brief outline of the efforts which led to the establishment of our 
elementary schools supported by public contributions and Government aid. 


Less than a centNry ago, the ancestors of the present inhabitants of Argenteuil 
were chiefly beyond the sea. Bravery and determination are qualities which, at all 
times and in all nations, have deservedly been admired, but usually they are so as- 
sociated with war, or rendered conspicuous by impending danger or serious calamity, 
that we are apt to disregard their presence in the peaceful pursuits of life. The Scotch 
are proverbially a brave people; their deeds of valor have been commemorated in 
sculpture, history and song. No more striking examples of heroism are recorded than 
those of Scotia's sons, when they gathered to repel Edward's invading hosts and 
rescue their country from a foreign yoke. 
From that to the present time, the martial glory of Scotland has not been 
eclipsed, The annals of a thousand battles fought in the wide domain of the British 
Empire attest the stoicism with which Scottish clans have marched to death to 
uphold the prestige of St. George's cross. 
And have the sons of Erin no share in martial fame? Are there no fields whereon 
Irish valor has vied with English and Scottish prowess to sustain the glory of Britain's 



flag? Every British engagement, from the days of Cromwell to the present, refutes 
the imputation, Side by side, in India, Afghanistan, the Crimea and Egypt, have 
Scotch and Irish soldiers with equal bravery marched to victory or defeat, 
\Vas the spirit of these men wanting in those of their countrymen who crossed 
the ocean to become pioneers in the wilderness of this distant and strange land? Did 
it require no bravery, determination or self-denial to sever the dearest associations, 
and leave for ever the home of their fathers, to engage in new struggles in foreign 
wilds? \Vas there no act of heroism in all this, which would compare with that of 
their brethren, who had volunteered to fight the battles of their country? 
Let us reflect. A sea voyage in those days was widely different from what it is 
in 1895. From two to three months was the time required for a sailing vessel to cross 
the Atlantic, and those vessels were but poorly constructed, compared with the 
staunch steamers of to-day, to resist the shock of the billows and storms of the deep 
During all this time, the hapless emigrant had naught to engage his mind but the' 
sorrowful recollection of the loved ones and scenes left behind; naught to attract his 
eye but the dreary waste of waters around
 which became more and more mono- 
tonous as day succeeded day. 
And when, at last, weary and dispirited from his long voyage, he reached port, 
a week or more was required for the conveyance of himself and family to the cabin of 
a friendly countryman contiguous to the wilderness, where he was to pitch hie:; 
tent, and, doubtless, remain for life, Here he leaves his family till he can erect a 
cabin on his own land, or take steps to secure a place that he can call his own. But 
what a change from the comforts and appearance of an old and populous country to 
that presented in the wilderness I Comforts of almost every kind were wanting. But 
what seems to lIS of the present as the greatest impediment to the happiness of the 
emigrant was his total ignorance of the work it was necessary to do-his destitution 
of the knowledge on which all his future success depended. Everything had to be 
learned, and comforts-unless he had money-he was obliged to forego. As very 
few had money, their lives, for many years, were a period of privation, and when we 
know that hundreds of these emigrants-chiefly Scotch, uut many Irish-
ndured all 
this privation\vith fortitude i that year after year, through tropic heat and arctic cold, 
they persisted in their endeavors to subdue the forest and transform the land they 
occupied into productive fields, we can but regard it as a display of bravery and 
determination of a most exalted character. 
It was the same spirit which animakd their ancestors to chivalrous deeds a 
Bannockburn, and at a modern date compassed the downfall of Sebastopol and the 
reiief of Lucknow. Indeed, many of the pioneers of Argenteuil, as will be seen on 
succeeding pages, were battle-scarred veterans, who had won laurels in India, in the 
Peninsular war, or on the field of \Vaterloo. 
Argenteuil, the legas:y which they bequeathed to their descendants, is the object 
of our present survey. 
Though distant from the seaboard, her frontage upon one of the broadest and 



grandest rivers upon the continent brings her into easy communication with the 
chief cities of the Province and the markets of the world. Two railways now cross- 
ing broad sections of her territory increase still further her commercial facilities, 
,1l1d bring together the people of districts that were remote. 
The strength and fertility of her soil compensate in part for the roughness of 
her exterior, while the beau ty of her scenery is a scource of wealth mOre lasting 
than that of the mines and the productive plains of the \Vest. The marvellous beauty 
of her inland lakes, the picturesqueness of her mountains, the wild gorges and water- 
fa11s of her rivers, are but in the infancy of their attraction, \Vhen they are better 
known, and the facilities for reaching them are improved, they will form a permanent 
magnet for visitors-the mountains will be dotted with villas, and the lakes with skiffs 
and yachts. 
Though Argenteuil has some good grain-growing sections, and usually produces 
good crops of oats, corn and potatoes. it is evidently a country better adapted to 
dairying and stock-raising than to other purposes. 
She has cheese factories and creameries, the produce of which holds fair rank with 
tiny in the Province. Her cattle, sheep and horses are of the best, and the annual 
fairs which are held at Lachute, the cllef-lieu of the county, exhibit a variety and 
quality of animals, as well as farm products of all kinds, that would be a credit to 
any agricultural district. 
The inhabitants of Argenteuil still retain the prominent characteristic"ì of the 
1 aces whence they sprang-thrift, honesty and hospit
 iity forming striking features in 
their character, which a stranger will not fail to observe. The farmer of Argenteuil 
is determined to live within his means, consequently there is but little, either about 
his home surroundings, his wearing apparel, or his travelling equipage, that savors 
of a love of display or extravagance in the use of money, If, now and then, one is 
in the enjoyment of an expensive dwelling or a fine carriage, it is conclusive evidence 
that he has been blesssed with fortune or shrewdríess above his neighbors, and that 
what he enjoys is paid for. It is not exaggeration to say that a11, or nearly all, are 
in comfortable circumstances, far better than the inhabitants of some sections of the 
Province where there is more outward display of wealth. Honest dealing, and a 
desire to observe the Golden Rule of doing as they would that others should do to 
them, is a prevalent trait. Hospitality is a quality found in every household. Into 
.. hatever family the stranger enters, he is welcome at the board, and a refusal 
to partake of refreshment, which is immediately proffered, is very likely to be 
attributed to fastidiousness or to .want of geniality. cautious and exacting 
our subject may be in making a bargain, he never wants sympathy for the needy or 
. ffiicted; and let him once become assured that a petitioner for help is deserving, 
,tssistance is never delayed. An additional quality of the inhabitants of Argenteuil 
is the love of their homes and their native land, 
It may be a knowledge of the alacrity with which their fathers responded to th
call to arms in J8I2, or the eagerness with which they raBied to the loyal standard 



in 1837, and their fr,lntic rush to arms to pre5erve their hearth-stones from Fenian 
touch, yet one cannot resist the impression, that a patriotic class is that which inhabits 
the hills and valleys of Argentellil-a danger menacing their homes and freedom would 
call forth a class of patriots as brave as ever responded to the call of Lib
" Princes and lords may flourish or may fade, 
A breath can make them, as a breath has made; 
But a bold peasantry-their country's pride- 
\Vhen once destroyed can ne\"er be supplied." 
'Vhile the yeomanry of .\rgenteuil are brave, hospitable, moral and industrious, 
a want of facilities for education in past years shows too plainly its baneful effect, 
especially in a few secluded rural districts; but the present encouragement given to 
schools will preserve the rising generation from the bane of illiteracy. 
While speaking of the inhabitants of the County, we should not omit notice of 
the French, who, through constant increase during recent years, have become no 
inconsiderable part of the population. It is generally conceded that the habit/lilt 
is a good citizen. 
He is simple in his habits, plodding and industrious, with little ambition save 
to supply the immediate needs of his family and to be regular in his attendLtnce at 
his church. 
Of his brethren who possess a little more education or ambition, many develop 
into able business men, and become prominent farmers, shrewd speculators or man- 
ufacturers, )Iany embark with success in commercial life, and become popular 
through their affability and the courtesy with which they supply the wants of their 
customers. Another class who fill the higher positions of 1ife-public offices or 
professions-are those who consider and discuss the social and political problems of 
the day, and desire the progress of their race. The representative of the latter 
class, like the natives of his mother-land, is proud-spirited. If the situation of his 
countrymen in Canada is subordinate, he knows that it is an exception to the parental 
stock-he springs from a land that acknowledges no superior. If piqued-as he 
somdÎmes is-at Anglo-Saxon boasts, he consoles himself with a glance at the fields 
whereon the cross of St. George has bowed before the jlclIr de lis of St. Denis. 
Whatever chagrin he may feel at the recollection of Quebec is dispe!led by a 
longer Hight of memory to the battle of Hastings. The Englishman may sing the 
L. >ngs and boast the exploits of :\Icrrie England, but the Frenchman has equal com- 
fort in the deeds and dilties of La Be!le France. 

.-\ renl1rkable feature of th
 Scotch selt
er:{ of the county was the distinct sep- 
Llration of the two faces: the Efighl/Ulders settling on the banks of the Ottawa 
river and around St. Andrews, while title LO'il/lalldtrs settled at and around Lachute, 
where fo:" ye.lrs the names of the B \rrons. J),)igs, Drenn.U1<; LlI1d Bllchanans, to



with the McOuats, McKimmies, McGregors and McClures, and a host of other equally 
worthy names, are remembered as household words. 
The early settlers in that part of the county, before the arrival of the Scotch, 
had very little knowledge of farming, their chief dependence for a living being in 
the manufacture and sale of potash; but when the timber was all cut off their farms, of 
course, the supply of material was exhausted, and then they had to pay more attention 
to their farms; but as the soil was of a light, sandy nature, and their facilities for 
cultivating it very few and of the most primitive character, they had uphill work. 
Their only implement in the shape of a plough, during the first and second decades of 
this century, was very properly called the II hog plough," which, as its name indi- 
cated, was not conduche to a successful course of farming, and in a short time their 
farms were completely worn out and exhausted. 
About that time, a few Scotch emigrants came to the place, and finding that farms 
could be bought cheap from these men who were glad to get rid of them at any 
price, secured their own, and wrote for their friends to come, and in a short time a 
sm,lll colony of thrifty, industrious farmers was established, who brought not only 
hnowledge of the, best system of agriculture known and practised in the Lothians, 
-which even at that time was considered the best in the United Kingdom,-but who 
also brought the best and most improved agricultural implements, and also the best 
tradesmen, representing the different handicr3.fts required in a new country, and 
heing careful and frugal, as well as of the most industrious habits, a marked change 
waS soon visible in the appearance of the country, and in a short time the "desert 
rejoiced and blossomed as the rose." 
In addition to all these worldly possessions and thrifty habits which they brought 
from their native land, they also brought the love and veneration for their religious 
institutions and privileges in which they had been nurtured and brought up. The 
remembrance of those blissful associations, with which they had been so familiar, 
particularly in the rest and observance of the Sabbath, was something they were very 
thankful for, as a Scottish Sabbath, as it was known to them, was a day of rest and 
gladness, a day wherein man held converse with his Maker, free from worldly cares 
and anxieties; and as they wended their way to the Kirk, which to them was the very 
gate of heaven, and the morning psalm went up in a grand, slow surge, perhaps to the 
tunc of" Elgin " or "Dundee" or plaintive ,I Martyrs, worthy of the name," there 
\\ as a sense of hallowed days in the very air, and in the words of the Psalmist they 
could say, " I was glad when they said unto me, Let us go into the house of the 
Lord. " 
In their new homes they had to forego these pleasures for a time; Zion was not 
forgotten, and in due lime they had the extreme pleasure and satisfaction of having 
their religious privileges as they were wont to have them in their native land. Manr 
a time, no doubt, their hearts ached with a home sickness and longing, as they listened 
to the words of a simple hallad written by one of their own poets, " 0 ! why left I my 
hame ? " one of the most plaintive and pathetic ballads in the Scottish dialect, begin- 



ning with a wail in the minor key, in which the home life, the family and social rela- 
tions are bemoaned, and closing with a wild, weird burst of sorrow, in which their 
religious privileges are lamented, The foJIowing story, which was published many 
years ago in one of the leading Scottish journals, illustrates the power of music and 
the effect it has on the Scottish peasant :- 
An emigrant vessel lying at the port of Leith, bound for Australia, was visited 
before sailing by one of these ballad singers, and the above-named simple ditty was 
sung as only could be sung by one of these singers, and the result was, that in a 
short time the greater part of these emigrants were weeping and wailing at the thought 
of leaving their native land, and it was only that better counsefs prevailed, or they 
would have deserted the vessel, their feelings were so wrought upon by this simple but 
touching song, 
Scotland is famed for a class of national airs of a peculiar style and structure, 
and the m
rtial music possesses a wild, spirited, strongly marked expre
sion of char- 
acter, which has often turned the tide of victory on many a bloody field of battle. 
Some of the descendants of the Scotch farmers are living in comfort and afflu- 
ence on the old homesteads, others are occupying positions of trust and responsibility 
in different parts of the Dominion, while others have left home and friends and native 
land to carry the glad tidings of salvation to heathen lands, and it does not require 
a great stretch of imagination to connect these devoted workers, who have given their 
lives to spend and be spent in the Master's service, with the religious training of their 
forefathers and their lo,'e of the Sabbath and Gaspel ordinances. 
" If thou tum away thy foot from the 
abbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day, and call 
.' the Sabbath a delight, the holy ofthe Lord honorable, and shalt honour him, not doing thine own 
(, ways. nOT finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words, then shalt thou delight 
"thyself in the Lord, and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and feed 
" tl1ee with the hel itage of Jacob, thy f..ther, for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.': 
l\Ir, Dewar also pays the following compliment to the French :- 
A tradition exists, which, in the main, is supported by history, that Argenteuil w.1.s 
chosen as the trysting place or relldtz-'lJvlIS of American emissaries (or Bostonnais. as 
they were called by the French Canadians), who endeavored to fan the flame of dis- 
content among the French habilallls, with a vit.w of helping the American nation in 
their subjugation of Canada, 
They did not succeed in their mission, especially in the rural districts, as the 
Indians remained firm in their allegiance to the British, and the French Canadians, 
to tht:ir honor be it narrated, remained equally firm alld true, as was witnessed a 
few year:; afterwards, during the war of 1812- I.J., when the 1l0wer of their best hmilies 
withstood and repelled with great loss, the invaders of the Province at Chaleauguay 
and Chrysler's Farm. On this subject, the Archivist's report for 1888 says :- 
" But the appeals (of these emissaries) to the better class of French Canadi.1.I1s 
"had little effect, as ic; strikingly shown by the list sent by Carleton to Lord George 
"Gtrmain on the 9th May, 1777, in "hich there does not appear the name of one 



I. French Canadian. Those of that nationality who took part with the Bostonnais 
,. were of the lower class in the rural settlements." 
The term " Rlstonnais" seems to be a corruption of the word Bos/0ll1lais, as 
Arnold's expedition was known to have starteà from Boston, and the corruption has 
extended to our day, for up to the last forty years, in speaking to old French Cana- 
dians in reference to the American invasion, they would invariably designate it as 
"la guerre des Daslonnais." We like these national solecisms, and we have retained 
this one. 


On the 15th of June, 16Hz, a promise of a grant of this fid to Sieur Chas. Jos. 
D'Aillebout was signed at Quebec by Count d
 Frontenac, Governor of Xe\\" France. 
The grant was to include" a tract of land lying on the north side of the Ottawa, 
e\.tending from the foot of the Long Sault two leagues towards 
lontreal, and four 
leagues back from the Ottawa, including all the islands, points and sand-bar
,)f which the island named Carillon forms a part." 
In 1697, Sieur D'Aillebout and his wife, Catherine Le GLHdeur, "old the grant 
to their son, Pierre D' Aillebout Sieur d' Argenteuil. The latter in I7 25 took the oath 
of fealty, and fyled the promise of Count de Frontenac. The heirs of Loui:5e Denis, 
widow of Pierre D' Aillebout Sieur d'Argenteuil, sold this fief to Louise Panet, who 
took the usual oath in 17 8 1. In "I 800 Panet sold to :\Iajor Murray, who suld to 
Sir J.ohn Johnson in I8q, and the only SeigIliorial c;aim against .\rgenteuil now 
existing is held by his heirs. 
Thi::. Sc:igniory was erected into a parish by proclamation of loth :\Iay, [822, 
The following i<.: a description of the Seigniory copied from Bouchettt s Topo- 
..;raphy of Canada puhlished in 1815 :- 
"The Seigniory of Argenteuil is on the north bank of the Ottawa, in the county 
.)f York. It adjoins the seigniory of the Lac des Deux Montagnes on the eastward, 
,le township of Chatham on the westward, and a tract of waste Crown land" on the 
northward; its front extend:) two leagues along the river, by four ill depth. It was 
granted 7th 
Iarch, [725, to Mons. D'Aillebout. The present proprietor is Sir John 
Johnson, Rart. Perhaps through all the upper part of the district of Montreal, no 
tract of equal extent will be found of preater fertility, or possessing more capalJilitiès 
of being converted, within a few years, into a valuable property, The land is lu
iantly rich in nearly eve,y part, while the ditTerent species of soils are ')0 well varied 
as to afford undeniable situations for raising abundant crops of every kind. The 
lower part bordering on the Ottawa is tolerably well c:eared of wood; there are 
large patches of fine meadows and pastures; from hence the ground rises with a 
gradual ascent towards tl:e rear, In the back parts the wood" rUll to a great extent, 
and yield timber of the different kinds of first
rate size and goodness, which hitherto 
have he en very little thinned hy the labors of the woodman. The Rivière dll 



crosses the upper part of the Seigniory in a direction f[Om east to west, discharging 
itself into the Ottawa, about four miles below the great falls, and nearly half way 
between the lateral boundaries; it is navigable as high up as the fir:;t mill-a distance 
of three miles, There is a small stream called Rivière Rouge, running in the same 
direction across the lower part of the grant as the Rivière du Nord, and falling into 
the navigable part of the latter, The settlements that are already formed in Argen- 
teuil hardly amount to a third part of the whole; the remainder, however, presents 
many temptations to agricultural speculation. Of the present concessions, some are 
situated on the bank of the Ottawa, where they seem to be the most numerous as 
well as the best cultivated; others on the Rivière Rouge, in a range between it and 
Rivière du Nord, and along both banks of the latter; all showing strong indications 
of a thriving industry in their occupiers. There are two grist mills, two saw mills, 
and a paper mill, the only one, I believe, in the province where a large manufacture 
of paper in aU its different qualities is carried on with much success, under the 
direction of the proprietor, .\Ir. Brown of Montreal. Not far below this mill is a 
good bridge, over which the main road to the township of Chatham and the upper 
townships upon the Ottawa leads. On the left bank of the Rivière du Nord, upon a 
point of land near its mouth, is very pleasantly situated the residence of Major 
.Murray, formerly owner of the Seigniory; this stream and the bays uf the Ottawa 
that indent the front abound with a great variety of excellent fish, as do the low 
lands thereabouts with wild fowl and game of several sorts. The island of Carillon, 
three miles long by three. quarters broad, is very good land, but not put to any use; 
this with a smaller one near it, and another at the entrance of the Rivière dll Nord, 
are appendages to the grant. If fertility of soil and easy access to water conveyance 
be deemed of influence in the choice of situations wherein to clear and breJ.k up 
new lands, probably it will not be easy to select a tract where these advantag-.s ar"" 
better combined than in the S
igniory of Argentcuil." 



Sir John was a son of Sir 'Vm. Johnson, an officer in onc of the King's regi- 
mcntg in the then Province of New York, and who re ded at "Johnson Hall:' in 
the beautiful valley on the ùanks of the Mohawk, when.. he had [) large tr,lct of land, 
and where many of his cOl
ntrymen and othcr
 had s
ttlcd and lived together in 
peace and harmony for many years, Sir 'Villiam had alst) receivLd the d.ppointment 
of Superintendent of Indian Affairs, which doe:, not app....,u to h.lve been much of a 
sinecure, as his letters or despatches are dated from diITcrent parts of th
from Johnson Hall to Oswego, Niagara and Lake Champl.tin, tl1U
howing that h
trave]]ed e>.tensively. On the breaking out of the troubles which eventually ended 
with the gaining of their independence, many ()fhis ncighh,)f't (under his ad\": c nd 



influence, no doubt) refused to join the movement, preferring to sacrifice all they 
possessed, and remain loyal to what they called their king and country; and as it 
was impossible to remain neutral, the only alternative was to flee to Canada, which, a 
short time previously, had passed into the hands of the British. 
Arrangements were therefore made by which they were escorted by Indians to 
Oswego, whence they went to different parts of the country. 
I would not have dwelt so long on this subject were it n
t that I am descended 
from one of these so called U. E. Loyalists, my mother's grandfather, Arch. 
McDeirmid, having left his comfortable home on the Mohawk river, and, after suffer- 
ing almost incredible hardships, arrived at Caldwell's Manor, on Lake Champlain, 
where he had to begin life anew, without deriving any substantial benefit for his 
loyalty to his king and country. 
To Sir \\'m. Johnson belongs the honor of capturing Fort Niagara in 17 59-and 
on the 8th September, 1760, the whole of Canada was surrendered to the British, 
Sir \\'illiam has been accused of being the instigator, if not the actual leader, of 
the raid made by Indians on the peaceable inhabitants of the vaIley, when so many 
were ruthles
ly massacred, Indian fashion, and their houses and property destroyed by 
fire. There is no proof whatever, that he was in any way connected with that raid; 
besides, his influence and actiQnsJwere always on the side of clemency and mercy. 
However, it is a weIl authenticated historical fact, that a raid by Indians and others 
was perpetrated in that place, as above described. There could not have been any 
glory or honor attending it, as Colonel Guy Johnson, St.. Claire and Brant all deny 
having any part in it. 
Sir 'William's intimacy and connection with Mollie Brant, which has furnished 
material for writers of fiction as well as history, may have been an advantage to him 
in his dealings with the Indians, but it 
must have been a root of bitterness in his 
own family, as she lived with him as his wife, and was always regarded as such by 
the Indians, and arrer his death was treated as his relict, (Archivist's Report B. II..J.- 
As a woman, she had great influence among the different tribes, and one word 
from .her is more taken notice of by the Five Nations than a thousand from any 
white man without exception. (Ibid.) 
Sir \Villiam died in July, 1774, after a few months severe illness, and was much 
and deservedly regretted by a]] classes, and especially by the British Government, 
who had great confidence in him, both as an officer in the army and in filling the 
important office over the Indians, 
His son: Sir John Johnson, was also an officer in the 28th Regiment of New 
York, and shortly after. his father's death was appointed to the position which his late 
father had held, as Superintendent of Indian Affairs-a position which he faithfully 
filled for many years, even to the detriment of his own private business. 
He was at one time nominated for Lieut.-Governor of Upper Canada; and 
Lord Dorchester, in a letter to the Home Secretary, also recommended him, but 
before the letter arrived, Simcoe had been appointed. 



In 1808, he wrote to Mr. Granville, stating that he wished to resign his office of 
Superintendent, and asking that his son, Lieut.-Co!. Johnson, be appointed in his 
stead; but the Home Government did not entertain the application, as they consi- 
dered Co!. jJ ohnson was not sufficiently acquainted with the peculiarities of the 
Indian tribes, It was, therefore, given to Co!. r;lans, a son-in-law of Sir Wm. John- 
son, who had been for some time acting as Deputy Superintendent. It was a great 
disappointment to Co!. Johnson, as his father, 
ir \Villiam, considered that this 
appointment was to remain in his f.1mily. (Ibid, 311-11.) 
About the year I8J 4, Sir John Johnson purchased the Seigniory of Argenteuil 
from Major Murray, and built the manor house on a beautiful spot on the left bank of 
the North River, near where it flows into the Ottawa, It was built on the same 
model (only of smaller dimensions) as "Johnson Hall," the residence of his father 
on the banks of the Mohawk, In that manor house he resided for several years, 
surrounded by cGmforts and luxuries far in excess of what might be expected in a 
comparatively new country, and was very free and affable in his deportment, and was 
noted for his kind ann hospitable treatmen t to all who sought his acquain tance. 
The "dinner bell " that hung in the belfry of his coach house, and which was 
used ot summon the family ar..d guests to the spacious dining room, he presented to 
the Rev. Archd. Henderson, who placed it on his church, where it was used to sum- 
mon his congregation to worship, but after a few years was taken down and placed in 
the care of the late Guy Richards. 
As he had decided to leave St. Andrews, he appointed an agent to look after 
the business of the Seigniory, and went to Montreal, where he resided until his death. 
Tassé, in his life of Philtmon \Vright, mentions these facts: "In 1774, Sir John 
" Johnson was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs, a position which his late 
"father, Sir \Vm. Johnson, had also held. He had won the entire confidence of the 
" Indian tribes, dnd was highly esteemed among them, a3 was witnessed at the time 
" of his death in January, 1830, when a great number of Indians went to Montreal to 
"take part in the funer
l services which were held in the Anglican Church. An 
" Iroquois Indian chief even made an oration in his mother tongue on the virtues 
., of the deceased. At St. Regis, the Indians, when informed of his death, went 
"around the village, uttering cries and lamentations, and the whole population 
" followed them in a crowd, giving signs of the greatest sorrow." 
His eldest son, Gordon Johnson, never assumed or inherited the title, as he had, 
years previously, incurred the displeasure of the family, by his marriage with a 
French Canadian woman. After the death of Sir J olm, the Seigniory came into pos- 
session of his son, Co!. Charles Christopher Johnson, who held it for many years, 
and was succeeded by Capt. Johnson, the present proprietor. 

St, Andrews 


St, Andrews was erected into a Parish in 1822, and at that time it embraced the 
entire Seigniory of Argenteuil. In IR52, the parish of St. Jerusalem d' Argenteuil 
was formed, which-much to the dissatisfaction of many of the inhabitants of St. 
Andrews-inciuded consÍderable more than half the original seigniory, leaving the 
northern boundary oí St. Andrews about five miles from the Ottawa instead of 
twelve-the distance from this river of its original northern boundary. 
At some time, about or during the fifth decade of the present century, another 
small tract of territory-a mile in width from the Ottawa, and two miles in length 
from the east line of the Seigniory-was taken from St. Andrews, and annexed 
to the parish of St. Placide. 
The surface of this parish is somewhat uneven though its diversities are not 
abrupt, nor does it contain any land that is not adapted to cultivation, Its soil is 
good, scenery attractive, and its different sectio!ìs-especially the River Rouge, 
Beech Ridge, and the Lachute Road-present many fine, well tilled farms. 
It was here that the first settlers of this County pitched their tents; indeed, St. 
Andrews, more especialJy the River Rouge settlement, seems to have been a sort of 
preparatory place for settlers before going elsewhere, the number of those born 
there, or whose ancestors were born there, and who are now settled throughout the 
Dominion being legion. 
It is said, that so little did the first settlers on th e Rouge know of the topo- 
graphy of the country, or understand the way of economizing space, that 111 reaching 
the St. Andrew's Mill, for' a long time they conveyed their grain to the Ottawa, 
thence by boat to the North River, and up that to the mill. Major Murray, the 
Seignior, happening at this time to visit the settlement, and learning this custom, 
pointed out to them the amount of toil they were needles'Sly expending; and then, 
showing a map of the Seigniory, convinced them that, in a direct course, they were 
about as near the Mill as they were when they-had reached the mouth of the North 
River, After this, they opened a road through the woods to the mill. 


Few, if any, country villages or parishes in the Province are more widely or 
favorably known than St, Andrews, 
Settled at a comparatively early period, and possessing among its inhabitants 
many of intelligence and refinement, it naturally soon enjoyed a distinction seldom 
attained in the early llistory of country localities, Many of its business men, also, 
were those who had gained experience and formed an extensive acquaintance in 
other places, and their journeying to and fro na turally helped to extend the fame of 

.c. < 


, :- -", '- .' 

þ .. " 







-of - 
........ . It\. " ., 









f1 .- 
'{ -- 
. f ..i '" fi" 

.-J .r. 
.. :s 
iÞ- Z 



. ,.. '\ 
.',. ... 
.. f :f.
.. .. 


7 1 

their thriving village, But not least among the things which contributed to make it 
widely known was its location. Situated near the Ottawa on the Korth Ri'"er, which 
is navigable a portion of the season as far as this village for most of the craft which 
ply the larger stream, it is visited by many who, either in the course of business or 
pleasure, sail up and down the Ottawa. \Vhen the water in the North River is too 
low to admit the passage of steamers, they stop on the Ottawa at the nearest avail- 
able point to St. Andrews. The sail up the North River is extremely pleasant, and 
the passenger who has never before made th!s journey wonders, when the steamer 
turns flOm the broad Ottawa towards a forest of willows and alders, whether she is 
about to make a trip overland; but as she soon glides into the smaller stream, he 
finds sufficien t interest in observing the various farms that lie along the shore with 
their flocks, herds and diversified crops. Just before reaching the imposing iron 
bridge which spans the stream and connects the east and west sections of the village, 
the steamer glides to her wharf. A half-dozen or more skiffs, drawn up on the stony 
beach on the one hand, and a garden descending to the water's edge on the other, 
contribute, with surrounding objects, to form an attractive picture. 
Back a little on shore, are a fancy dog cart, a newly painted buggy, and a more 
pretentious two-horse carriage, all in readiness with their drivers to receive the two 
demoiselles, petite madame with her two children, and the portly, elderly m1n, his wife 
and daughter, all of whom are just returning to their homes after a visit to the city. 
Nearer and closer to the edge of the wharf are several habzta/lts, some of whom 
are waiting to convey freight to the freight house, while others have come to carry the 
valises and parcels of lady passengers who reside in the village, while two or three 
are present to drive home the cows and young stock which the portly old gentleman 
has purchased for his country domain. 
Though the quantity of freight landed here by the boat is not quite so extensive 
as the cargo brought by an ocean steamer to one of our city wharves, yet that the 
quantity delivered at St, Andrews is not insignificant is proved by the length of time 
that it takes several active hands to discharge it. But the last article-a coop con- 
taining a dozen brown Leghorns-has been transferred to the wharf, and the gang 
plank is about to be drawn in, when a loud .c HaIIoo II stays proceedings for a little time 
and attracts aU eyes shoreward. An express, containing two moderate-sized boxes, 
drives hurriedly to the wharf, a gentleman, evidently a merchant, alights, throws the 
boxes out with no little excitement, and then t urns to inform the purser that those 
stupid employees of Smith & Jones have sent him the wrong goods. Scarcely has 
this message been delivered, when another middle-aged merchant, in a smart 
suit, arrives, and desires to know if the hardware he ordered last week from Messrs. 
Dobbs & Ferguson has arrived, On being assured that it has not, he sends a mes- 
sage, which is calculated to sharpen the wits of Dobbs & Ferguson, then hurries 
a way, 
The steamer is soon at right angles with the cllrrent, and just as the passenger 
imagines that she is about to butt head foremost into the opposite bank of the river, 
she gracefully swings into mid-channel, and, anon, is once more on the Ottawa. 

7 2 


Such is a scene that may often be witnessed on the arrival of the steamer at St. 
Andrews,-an even t which is always regarded with pleasure, relieving, as it does, the 
monotony of village life, and affording to the inhabitants for a time a much desired 
That the channel of the North River will some time be deepened, so that it will 
be navigable for steamers the whole season, there is little doubt. But until the pro- 
per interests are awakened and the proper capital invested, this work of public 
utility will be unaccomplished, 
It seems strange to us, who know so well the various stages through which a new 
settlement passes before it engages in important manufacturing enterprises, that St. 
Andrews, in the very outset of her history. should ha ve had a paper mill; yet that such 
is a fact is shown by ,e Bouchette's Topography of Canada," as well as the testimony 
of many still living, who saw the mill in operation. The following account of this 
manufactory is given by Colin Dewar :- 
" The paper mill was started by a company of Americans, who obtained a 30 
years lease from tht 3eignior for the necessary water power; but as James Brown 
was the owner of the lanà where they intended to build the milJ, it is quite probable 
he was a partner from the start, as it was always spoken of as 'Brown's Paper Mil1.' 
The canal was dug to provide water llower, and a dam built across the river from 
the shore on the east side to a point near the foot of the little island, and as a large 
quantity of timber and lumber would be required in the erection of the paper mill, 
they first of all built a saw mill at the head of the canal and extending along the river 
bank, thus giving plenty of room for the piling of the lumber and storing saw logs; 
and as business increased, the space between the canal and the main road, now occu- 
pied by the railway depot, was utilized. The paper mill was built on the site whtre 
...\lex. Dewar's store now stands, and had sufficient water power to drive the machin- 
ery required for doing a large business, and employment was given to many girls and 
boys, as well as men. One of the foremen for some time was Mr. G. A. Hooker (father 
of the late Mr. G. A. Hooker), and who was ably assisted by the late "'i11iam Zearns. 
"These industries continued for several years, and were of great benefit to the 
village, in giving employment to many hands,-besides, there was no other saw mill 
nearer than Lachute; and it was regarded as a public loss, when the business of both 
mills came suddenly to a stop in the spring of 1834, by the darn giving way, owing 
to the high water and ice, During the summer, preparations were made to rebuild it ; 
but as the Seignior protested against it, and threatened all sorts of litigation if per- 
sisted in, it was deemed advisable to suspend operations. After two or three years' 
cross-firing between them, the trouble ended by the Seignior's making an offer to :\Ir. 
Brown for the purchase of all his property (which was accepted) ; extending from Lot 
29 to Lachute Road, and from the Beech Ridge lots to Davis' line, and including 
both mills and dwellings. Some of the machinery was afterwards used, when the 
River Rouge saw mill was erected." 



Among the very first of the pioneers who settled at St. Andrews wcre a number of 
Americans. 'Vhether one of them came first and induced the others to follow, or 
whether they carne together, it is now impossible to say, but it is quite certain that 
there was very little if any difference in the time of their advent. 
They were Peter Benedict, who arrived in 1799. Benjamin 'Vales, John Harring- 
ton and Elon Lee, who was always known as Captain Lee. All that is known of 
his military career, however, is that he had been a Drum Major in the American 
army during the recent struggle for independence. Two at least of the other 
Americans mentioned above had served in the same army j and it strikes us, as an 
incident somewhat peculiar, that these men had no sooner seen the object accom- 
plished for which they were fighting, than they again sought a home beneath the 
British flag. 
CAP1. LEE bought the lot, and built a hotel on ground now occupied by the 
Congregational Church, He purchased all the land between the village and the 
present Roman Catholic Church, lying between the road to Carillon and the Ottawa. 
His house was quite a rendez-volJs for Americans who desired to escape military 
service during the war of 1812, and it is said that" jolly times " often occurred here 
while they remained, 
CalJtain Lee had the reputation of being a Christian man, and of keeping a good 
Public House. In the absence of any church building, it was sometimes found con- 
venient to hold religious meetings at his house. when he generously opened his rooms 
for the occasion, and otherwise did what he could for the encouragement of 
religion. But, financially, he was not successful-his debts having accumulated, after 
a number of years, to an extent that rendered the surrender of his estate into the hands 
of his crcditors necessary, and he soon afterwards left the country. 
BEN]Al\IIN \V ALES, who marricd Susan, a daughter of Peter Benedict, had also 
been a musician in the Americ.:111 Army, He '''as extremely fond of music, and sought 
to encourage its study among the young people of St. Andrews, a number of whom 
he taught vocal music. He was a paper maker by trade, and for a number of years 
was foreman in the paper mill in this village. He was retiring in habit, and has left 
to us the reputation of being an earnest, consistent Christian; he died in 1836. By 
his marriage with Susan Benedict he had five children-Henry, Lemira, Charles, 
Elizabeth and Mary D. In [839, 28th August, Charles 'Vales was married to Lætitia 
Platt, daughter of Nathaniel Hazard Treadwell, Esq., of whom a sketch will be 
found in the history of L'Orignal. Mr. 'Vales, like his father, W.lS a Christian man. 
and his influence was always on the side of morality. He Oi)ened a store, where 
his son Charles now trades, and nearly his whole life was given to the mercantile 
pursuit, He was a Justice of the Peace, Commissioner for the trial of small causes, 
.1l1d for forty years a Major of Militia. Owing to his position as magistrate, his good 
judgment and pacific disposition, he was often consulted by those in troubl(;, and his 
advice oft
n resulted in the amicable settlement of disputed accounts and contro- 
versies, which otherwise would have ended in serious trouble and litigation, 



In the Rebellion of 18 37-3 8 , when there was a great scarcity of money in the 
community, he and A. E. Momnarquette, of Carillon, issued private notes,-or " shin 
plasters," as they were called-payable at their respective stores, which, being freely 
circulated in the community, proved at once a great convenience and a blessing. 
1\1r, Wales died 3 0th May, 1877, and it was said of him :-"The fngrance of 
his memory can never die, and many a man and woman will cherish it, as that of a 
sympathizing friend and an honest man." Mrs, Wales, who survives him, inheriting 
the characteristics of her ancestors, is in every way a worthy partner of such a man, 
and is still active in temperance and all other Christian work. I hey h d six child- 
ren who grew up,-two sons, Charles Treadwell and Benjamin Nathaniel, and four 
daughters, Margaret Susan, Anna Lætitia, Mary Maltbie and Grace Platt, Charles 
follows the mercantile business in the store occupied so long by his father, whose 
reputation he well sustains. He was married 21St July, 1875, to Martha \V. Stowe, 
of Sheffield, Conn., who has been an important acqUlsition to the temperance and 
Christian workers of St. Andrews, 
Benjamin, the second son of Charles \Vales, sen" studied medicine, taking his 
degree at McGill University in 1874. A few years later, he took up his residence 
in Robinson, Que., where he still remains in the enjoyment of an extensive practice, 
He was married 19 th Novembu, 1878, to Emma T. Osgood, at Sawyerville, Que, 
i\largaret S, is married to Thomas Lamb, merchant of St. Andrews. Mary M. 
married \Vm, Drysdale, publisher of Montreal, 1st January, 1880. She died in 18 9 1 , 
lamented by a large circle of friends, her amiability and deeds of kindness and bene- 
volence being widely known. 
Anna Lætitia, married to Rev. D. 'V. Morrison, 15th September, 1881, resides at 
Ormstown, P .Q. 
Grace Platt was married 6th February, 1895, to Mr. Kilgour, furniture dealer, of 
Beauharnois, Q. . 
The descendants of few men have reflected more credit on their fathers than 
have those of Chas. \Vales, sen., of St, Andrews. 
The following sketches of two more of the American pioneers named above 
have been contributed by Colin Dewar. 

OTTAWA, 7th February, 18 94. 

'Vhen the American Revolution broke out, Mr. Peter Benedict left his studies 
in Yale College, and entered the Army as oråerly sergeant, and went with Gen. 
Montgomery to Canada, to the reduction of St. Johns. Returning to his native 
place, he was promoted to the rank of 1st Lieutenant in the 3 rd New York Conti- 
nental Regiment, and remained some years in the service, but declined further pro- 
motion. The pension laws of the United States were not as strict then as now ill 
regard to the place of abode, as Lieut, Benedict Ii \"ed in Canada and drew a pension 


for his services from the U.S. Government up to the time of his death in 1830, and 
afterward his wife drew the pension allowed to officers' widows up to the time of 
her death in 1846. 
He was originany from North Salem, N.Y., where all his family were born, but 
carne from Burlington, Vt., in the spring uf [800, with his wife and family, consisting 
of three sons and two daughters, and settled on a farm, where he resided till his 
death, 20th May, 1830. He was a man of superior abilities, of a strong, cultivated 
and reflective mind, wen qualified to fill any position; and it was only a short time 
before he was appointed a Justice of the Peace, which office he held for nearly twenty 
ars. Of his family, one daughter married Dr: Beach, and the other married Benj. 
Wales; his two eldest sons died shortly after his arrival. His youngest son, Charles, 
born 22nd October, 1785, lived with him and carried on the work of the fa.rm for 
many years. Having formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, Mr. 'Vales, as 
builders and contr actors, they continued for several years to carryon the farm and 
their other \vork to their mutual advantage. 
Mr. Benedict, on the lIth May, 1812, was married to Damaris Capron, daughter 
of Nathan Capron, of Keene, N.H., and after t}:e birth of their eldest son, George, 
removed to the Bay, on what was known as the last farm in the Seigniory. After 
several years' residence there, he removed to St. Andrews, to a property purchased 
from Mr. Nolan, where he resided until his death. He always took an active part 
in all public matters, having held the office of Justice of the Peace for many years, 
and was a Commissioner for the trial of small caust:s, and for apprehending fraudu- 
lent debtors, as well as for administering the oath of allegiance. He was appointed 
arbitrator on a streams case in the Parish of Cote St. Pierre, which proved to be both 
difficult and complicated, but was finally surveyed and adjusted to the satisfaction 
of all concerned, He also took an active part in church matters, and was for many 
years one of the Elders of the Presbyterian Church, He resided in the County for 
72 years, and died on the 31st May, and his wife on the 1st June, 1872, having lived 
together for the Ion g space of over 60 years; and in death they were not divided, 
His family consisted of four S011S and three daughters, that lived to grow up. 
His eldest son, George, born 4th July, 18I4, was the only one who settled in his 
native place; he married, 14th February, 1844, Eliza Beattie, daughter of Mr. 
DLl.vid Beattie of St, Andrews, by whom he had a family of five S011S and five 
daughters. He removed from St. Andrews in 1869 to Ogdensburg, N,Y., where he 
died 2nd December, 1892. His three other sons left home, when quite young, and 
settled in the United States, where Peter died in October, 1892. Chas. and IIenry 
are still living in New York, His eldest daughter, Susanna, married George G. 
Sharpe in J842, and died 16th January, 1858, in the 42nd year of her age, leaving a 
family of three sons and two daughters. The eldest and only surviving son, George, 
lives in the State of Nebraska. The eldest daughter married \he Rev. Dr. Paterson 
of St. Andrews, and the youngest married 11 r. Robert Stewart of Ottawa. 
The following is an extract from a diary kept by NIr. Charles Benedict, of what 



7 6 


was long remembered as the" cold summer": "Sunday, 12th May, 1816, heavy rain 
began to fall, and contir.ued without cessation all night, turning cold, but still raining 
all day Monday. On Tuesday, very cold, with snow squalls, ground almost covered with 
snow. 'Yednesday, so cold, obliged to wear mitts and great coat ploughing; heavy 
frost at night. Thursday, rather fine sowed wheat and began planting potatoes; kept 
cold with hard frost at night up to the 28th. when another cold rain set in, 29 th , 
ground frozen two or three inches deep; 30th, 3 [st, finished planting corn and pota- 
toes; June 6th, cold with snow; 7th and 8th, cold not abated, ground covered with 
snow, dressed the same as in winter; cold all through the month; woods and fields 
turned a pale green; July 1st, frost killed cucumbers, etc., then cold rain set in; the 
6th, 7 th and 8th, very cold, had to put on mitts and overcoat, hoeing potatoes; loth, 
lIth, hard frost; and so on through the greater part of the month." 
It must have been very discouraging for them to go on ploughing and sowing in 
such very unseasonable weather, but they relied upon God's promise" that seed time 
and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night should not cease" 
-and the promise was fulfilled by the ingathering of a good average crop. 
There is no record of any such cold s
ason, as above recorded, known in the 
history of Canada since that time. 
JOHN HARRINGTON, sen., was an American by birth, and carne to Canada early in 
the first dècade of this century, when quite a young man. He married a daughter of 
1\1r, Peter McArthur of Carillon Hill, and had a family offour sons and five daughters. 
He was a first class millwright and an excellent mechanic, and superintended the 
erection of mills in various parts of the country, and especially those mills erected by 
his son-in-law, D. McLaughlin, at By town and Arnprior. He settled on the farm 
known by his name, and built that large, substantial, brick residence that has stood for 
so many years, and is, to all appearances, as sound as ever. He died about the year 
184 6 , and his wife aLout twenty years after. Of his sons, John, the eldest, carried on 
the farm for many years before and after his father's death, and was a pattem of 
neatness and thrift to all the farmers in the vicinity, and it was a pleasure to walk 
around his large farm, and see the convenient farm buildings, all in good order and 
condition, clean, neat and in good taste. He held many important county and muni- 
cipal offices, which he was well qualified to fill. 
'Yilliam, the next son, left home when quite a young man, went to :\lontreal, and 
entered a hardware establishment, where, in a short time, he became a partner, and 
married Miss Laura Seymour, and had a family of one son and four daughters, 
After a time, he left Montreal and took up his abode in St. Andrews, where he 
received the appointment from Capt. Johnson as acting agent for the Seigniory, which 
position he filled up to the time of his death a few years ago; his estimable wife died 
a few years previously. 
The other sons, Eric and Armand, also left home early, and began business in 
Arnprior, where they have remained to the present. 
His eldest daughter, Sarah, never married, but kept house for her brother John, 



at the old homestead. She was an excellent woman, an exemplary Christian, a kind 
friend, and charitable to those in need, and her death was sincerely regretted by a 
large circle of friends. The third daughter married Dr. Van Cortlandt, one of the 
leading medical men of the days of old By town, The second daughter married 
Daniel l\IcLaughlin, one of the leading lumber manufacturers of his day, and who 
also represented the County of Renfrew, both before and after Confederation, The 
fourth daughter married Nathaniel Bnrwash, merchant of Arnprior. The youngest 
daughter died in the spring of 185..J. after a short iliness. Her death was a great 
shock to the family and to her large circle of young friends, 
Of the chilãæn of \VilIiam, his only son, Bernard, as is well known, is one of 
the Professors in McGill College; he is a young man of more than ordinary ability, 
as his position in life fully demonstrates. 
The three eldest daughters died within a few years of each other, and some time 
prior to the death of their parents. 
The youngest daughter, Laura, resides within a short distance of her old home. 

C. D. 

Of those who lived in St. Andrews in the early days of her history, probably no 
one did more for her advancement or was more noted for enterprise than JA:\IES 
BROWN. He was a Scotchman who had been engaged in the printing business in 
Montreal, where he published a weekly paper called the Callada Courallt. 1q 
1812, after coming to St. Andrews, he organized a company of militia, of which he 
became captain. Among the first, if not the first, of his acts on coming here was to 
purchase the paper mill. He enlarged it, as he did, also, the canal on which it was 
located, built a new saw mill and a new darn across the river, below the old one, just 
at the lower end of the island. Owing to his enterprise, a good many found employ- 
ment not only at his mills but in other branches of his business, He purchased five 
lots of land along the North River running northward from the River Rouge, some 
distance along the Lachute road. He also purchased several village lots on the 
opposite side of the river, where he had a house and store. both in one building, 
which occupied the sIte of the present brick house of 
f!rs. E. Jones. 

Ir. Brown is remembered by many 01 the oldest citizens of this section, and all 
aver that he was a clever and an upright man. He was a Justice of the Peace, and 
discharged the duties of his office in a manner which enhanced the respect which 
e commanded in hs varied intercourse with his fellow-men. On(" of his d3ughters 
was married to Royal, a son of Moses Davis; another in 1829 to C. H. Castle, 
cashier of the Bank of Montreal. The Earl of Dalhousie, who was then Go\'ernor of 
the Province, was on a tour to this section to inspect the work on the Grenville 
cdnal, then in process of construction. Being a friend of Mr. Brown, he cheerfully 
complied with his request to him to be present at the marriage of his daughter, 
which occurred in the house now owned and occupied by Alexander I>ewar. A few 

7 8 


years after this marriage Mr. Brown donated to his son-in-law, 
Ir. Castle and his 
wife, a lot of land, No.1 King's Row, which he himself had purchased in 1809, 
It is said that some regarded Mr. Brown imprudent in pecuniary matters, and 
accused him of extravagance. \Vhether there was valid ground for this accusation 
or not, it is certain that in his later years he was in much poorer circumstances than 
he was in earlier life. One work, especially, which he performed, was referred to by 
some as proof of his extravagance: this was the building of an expensive stone wall 
around the Island above the grist mill, and anotlJer along the Lachute Road on his 
farm. It was his design to make a park of the Island, and with this design, he paid 
out no little money, But from the removal of the trees near the margin, so that the 
wall might be constructed, their roots soon decayed, the water undermined the wall, 
and the whole work was soon destroyed. Mr, Brown left St. Andrews after the 
Rebellion of 1837. 
MOSES DAVIS, from Chesterfield, N.H., was one of the very early settlers here, 
his advent being in 180 I. Soon after his arrival, he opened a store, where the shop 
of Daniel Sutherland now stands. Though it would doubtless bear little comparison 
to similar establishments of the present day, yet it l.:ontained what the community in 
those days demapded, and, like many another, possibly laid the foundation for a 
broader and more lucrative business. 
That Mr, Davis was a man of enterprise, and one who was ready to see and 
take advantage of an opportunity, is obvious from the way in which he started, and 
engaged in manufactures of which the new settlemen t stood in need. There being 
no tannery in the place, he opened one, soon after beginning his mercantile venture, 
on a site near the present house of Thomas Fournier, and this he kept in operation 
till 1847, 
Harness making and shoemaking were other industries in which he engaged and 
continued for many years. In 1806, he purchased a lot of ninety acres of land, and 
subsequently added one hundred and fifty more, \VhiIe these different branches of 
business no doubt repaid him for the trouble, expense, and attention they required, 
they must have been a blessing to many others, especially to those laborers to whom 
they gave employment. 
In 1832, he built the stone house in which his son Theodore now resides. It 
will be recollected that this was the year in which the cholera made sllch ravages in 
the Province. A man named Pitt, who was employed in the construction of this 
house, in going to his dinner, while crossing the bridge in the village, was. seized with 
pain which portended the dread visitor, and at three o'clock the same day he was a 
corpse. During the troubles of 1837-38, this house, on account of its size, was se. 
lected by the military authorities for a barracks, in which the soldiers were quartered. 
The family of Mr. Davis patriotically granted it for the purpose, and found a tern. 
porary domicile in a smaller house in the village. 
Mr. Davis was for many years a Justice cf the Peace, and a Commissioner for 
the trial of small causes, He was married in April, 1806, to Lurena MacArthur, 


daughter of another pioneer. He died at St, Andrews, 12th Dec., 1851, but Mrs. 
Davis Eurvived him nearly thirty years, having lived till 13th June, 1881. They had 
a large family of children, two of whom died in childhood; six sons and two 
daughters grew up. Three of the former left this section long ago, two at a more 
recent date, while Theodore, th
 fifth son, remained on the homestead. Nelson, the 
eldest son, served as cornet in the Volunteer Cavalry Company of Capt. McLean, 
during the Rebellion of 1837-38, and, like his comrades, cheerfully performed the 
duties demanded of him during that stormy time. In 1841, he removed to :Montreal, 
where for some time he was employed as customs and shipping agent. Crosby, the 
youngest of the family, was for many years engaged in mercantile business in St. 
Andrews. In 18S7 he removed to Ottawa, where he still resides, filling a responsi- 
ble position in one of the largest establishments in the city. He married Margery, 
daughter of\Villiam McEwen, Esq., of River Rouge, 5t, Andrews. Their only son is 
residing in Chicago, where he is established as a dentist, and is doing an extensive 
and lucrative business. Their second daughter married Mr, Paton, well and favor- 
ably known in Montreal in connection with the y, M. C. A. work, and who is now 
filling the same position in the city of \Vinnipeg, Two of the daugh ters reside with 
their parents, and one is at present in Chicago, 
Lurena, the eldest daughter of Moses Davis, married Robert Simpson, of whom 
a sketch is given on a succeeding page. Eliza, her sister, married Joseph Kellogg, 
for a number of years a merchant in l'Orignal. In 1843, they came to St. Andrews, 
where they lived on a farm till 1857, when they removed to Illinois, where Mr. 
Kellogg died. His widow subsequently moved to Iowa, in which State she still 
Theodore, as stated above, has always remained on the homestead, his unim- 
paired physical and mental powers after threescore and ten years of service testify- 
ing not only to the healthfulness of the climate in this section, but to the fact that 
temperance, morality and industrious habits are infallible aids to longevity. In the 
late Rebellion, like his elder brother, he also enlisted in the Volunteer Company 
of Cavalry commanded by Capt, McLean. After acting as School Commissioner for 
many years, he accepted the position of secretary-treasurer of the School Board. In 
1845 he married Helen, daughter of Duncan McMartin, a pioneer on the River Rouge, 
They have had eight children, Moses their eldest son is in Montreal, having suc- 
ceeded to the busi-nessJollowed by his uncle, Nelson, that of customs and shipping 
agent, His youngest wn is in business in Tacoma, \Vashington. 
THEODORE DAVIS, a brother of Moses Davis, who came to St. Andrews in 1801, 
must been here pI evious to that date, judging from the fact that records refer to 
a sun'ey and prods-verbal of S1. Andrews, which he made in 1799. But whether or 
not he was a citizen of the place at that date, it is certain that he was at a short 
period subseque11lly. Being for some years the only surveyor in this section, his 
services were often called in requisition, and possessing an enterprising spirit, he soon 
became an important addition to the business men of the place. 



When steamboats began running to Carillon, they found great difficulty in get- 
ting up the rapids at St. Ann's, and to overcome this difficulty, Mr. Davis constructed 
locks at VaudreUlI, which were in use for several years, after which the route was 
changed to the north side of the river, and locks at St. Ann's were built, thus making 
the route mOle direct. The remains of these old locks at Vaudreuil are stilI visible. 
Another work of public utility he performed was removing boulders from the Ottawa 
abovc Carillon, so as to facilitate navigation. He marricd a daughter of Colonel 
Daniel Robertson, who was the widow of - De Hertel, and the mother of Colonel 
De Hertel of 
t. Andrews. l\Ir. Davis purchased a lot of land on the west 
side of the North River, and on it erected a two-story hOLIse on the site of the present 
residence of Mr. De la Ronde, advocate. He sold this property, not many years 
later, to Guy Richards, and removed to Point Fortune, where, in company with a 
man named Tait, he opened a store. They traded there for a few years, when Mr. 
Davis, having purchased the farm of J\IcRobb in Carillon, now owned by Mr. John 
Kelly, removed thither, and lived here till his death, which occurred in Hull, 16th 
March, 184[, at the age of 63 years. 
The following sketch of other members of the Davis family has been sent to us 
by Colin Dewar:- 
" SU1EON DAVIS, with his wife and family of four sons, Roswell, Asher, Lyman 
and Asahel, together with his two brothers, Theodore and Moses, came from Mas- 
sachusetts, and settled at St. Andrews in 1801, where he remained ft)r several years. 
" Roswell, the eldest son, married Miss Annie, daughter of N"athan Capron of 
Keene, N.H" by whom he had a family of six sons, viz., Edward, Alfred, \Vhitcomb, 
Simeon, Roswell and Nathan. About the year [840, he removed from St. Andrews 
with his family to the Township of Osgoode, which at that time was opened up for 
settlers. He purchased a farm on which he and his wife resided until their death in 
a good old age, about the year 1866, 
" His son Edward, who is now in the 84th year of his age, and in possession of 
an his faculties, can recount many stirring incidents of the early days, and remembers 
quite distinctly when the first steamboat made its appearance at Carillon, and as a 
stage driver on the route between 
1 ontreal and GrenvilIe (mf'ntioned in another 
part of this work) has had a varied experience in both summer and winter travel. He 
relates with pride and satisfaction, that he never met with an accident in crossing tht' 
rivers on bad ice, and although he had to drive thrûugh bad roads on dark nights, 
not one of his passengers ever received an injury. In relating this part of his experienc
which is not given in a spirit of boasting but in that of gratitude to the Father úf 
mercies for His watchful care over him, he attributes his part of the success to his 
habits of sobriety, which could not be said of some of his c;ollfrères. 
., After his father left St. Andrews, 
Ir. Davis went up the Ottawa river, and 
engaged in the lumber business for some years, and being of an active, pushing spint, 
was engaged in several important public works, such as opening up new roads, build- 
ing bridges, etc., besides having considerable experi
nce in mining and boating. 



" He married comparatively early in life, and had a family of four sons and one 
daughter, all of whom are married and have families of their own. He has resided for 
the last thirty years at Quio, Province of Quebec, where th
 greater part of his 
family also reside. 
.. About four years ago, a sad misfortune overtook him, in the destruction of his 
house by fire, together with the greater part of his household goods, which was a great 
loss; but, sad to relate, his wife, who had returned to her room to get, as was sup- 
posed, some valuable papers, was prevented by the rapidity of the fire from returning, 
and was not missed, until it was too late to render any assistance. 
"Roswell's third son, \Vhitcomb, took an active part in suppressing the Rebellion 
of 1837, being a Yolunteer in the Lachute Road Company, under Captain John 
Dennison, He marched to Grand Brulé with the other Volunteers and Regulars 
under the command of Captain Mayne, of the 24th Regiment, to meet those coming 
from Montreal on the 14th December, 1837, He served in that Company until it was 
dishanded in 1840, when he joined the rest of the family, and settled on a farm near 
his father, where he and his wife brought up a large family of sons and d
and where he died in July, 1894, aged 77 years. 
" Roswell's other sons are still living in the immediate neigh Lorhood of the old 
" Asher, the second son of Simeon, was brought up to the blacksmithing business, 
which he rarried on for several years, at Carillon, where he resided until the death of 
his wife in 1872, when he removed to Trenton, where he died in the year 1880. His 
wife was a Mrs. Cameron, a daughter of \Vm. Atkinson, who resided for nuny years 
at Carillon; they had no family." 
The following obituary is copied from the Belle7Ú/lc bl/tlligmar, of :\[a rch, 
188 4:- 

"LY11 1 an Davis died at the residence of his son in Trenton, on the 24th :\hrch, 
1884, at the advanced age of 90 years, 2 months and 6 day
,. Thè subject of this notice was born in Massachusetts, U.S. .\., on tne 19th 
January, 179.J. He came with his parents to Lower Canada in [80[, and located at 
St. Andrews in the C.ounty of Argenteuil. At the breaking out of the war in 1812-15, 
he was drafted, a.nd served three years. At the expiration of the war, he was dis- 
charged with the other :\lilttia. About 1825, he again removed with his parents to the 
village of Hop
, where he worked with his t:lther at the blacksmithing trade for three 
years, and at the expiration of that period he removed to that part of the Township 
of Hope no\\' called POIt Britton, where he still worked at his trade till 1830, when 
he gave lip hIs business, removed to the Township of Clark, and commenced farming. 
And two years later (in 1832) he married Catherine Babcock, a dJ.ughter of \Vm. 
Bahcock of Ameliasburg. In 1840, he removed his Llmily to Ameliasburg, 
and continued farming till T 848, whe.1 he removed to Trenton, five years before the 




dllage was incorporated, where he continued to reside till his death. 1\1r. Davis had 
many warm friends, was very unassuming, and never took an active interest in 
public affairs. 
" He leaves a widow 72 rears old, two sons and three daughters to mourn his 
loss, all of whom are comfortably situated. 
" Mr, Davis was a pensioner, and has regularly drawn his pension since the grant 
was made. Thus, one by one, our old veterans pass away." 
In r804, two brothers named Peter and Duncan Dewar from Glasgow, Scotland, 
made St. Andrews their horne, and many of their numerous descendants are still in 
the County of Argenteuil. 
Duncan Dewar, the younger of the two brothers, pnrchased a hundred acres of 
laud which is known at the present time as the Harrington Estate, but believing he 
could add to his income by a modest venture in the mercantile line, he built a store 
on the site of the present store of Mr. La Fond. Not finding this suited to 
his taste
, however, he sold his stock, and, during the remainder of his lite, confined 
his attention to farming. He was a man much respected, very quiet, and so domes- 
tic in his tastes, that he kept aloof from politics and everything calculated to attract 
him away from home or the care of his domestic concerns. He died in 1869, leaving 
six sons, Peter, John, Duncan, Donald, Hugh and Alexander, and two daughters. 
Three of the sons, John, Duncan and Hugh, the only ones who had children, settled 
in 51. Andrews. The latter, after living on the homestead till 1856, sold it, and two 
or three years later went to Ottawa, where he still resides. His eldest son, William, 
is manager of the large mercantile establishment of John McDonald & Co. in 
Toronto. John, another son, is book-keeper for an extensive lumber company in the 
same city. 
Mary, one of th
 daughters of 1\1r. Dewar, married JOHN LA:\IE, foreman in a 
manufactory of Judge Hamilton of Hawkesbury. Possessing considerable ingenuity in 
the way of invention, Mr. Lamb devoted much of his time to this work, and invented 
a water-wheel, which is now in use in various p
lTts of Canada. Afterwards, he became 
the originator of several other machines, which are in popular use. Soon after his 
marriage he removed to Ottawa, where he died in [894 ; 
. Lamb died in [887, 
They had six children-three sons and three daughter.:;. The sons, James E., 
\Villiam and John H. Lamb, engaged in the occupation followed by their father, and 
seem to have inherited much of his skill at invention. 
Janil) a daughter of Duncan Dewar, sen., married \Villiam Kneeshaw, and settled 
on Beech Ridge; both are deceased, They had one s')n, Robert, and one daughter, 
Sarh, who now reside in Illinois. 
Alexander, the youngest son of Duncan Dewar, sen., met his death by a sad acci- 
dent in the spring of 1837. He and a young man named Abner Rice, who was 
studying for the notarial profession, when together one day, were asked by a citizen 
to aid him in getting a heavy canoe over the mill dam. The water was high, and the 
work was one invol..-ing no little risk. They brought the bO:1.t down, however, but 



in the act it upset, and Dewar swam to the shore. Rice clung to the boat and 
endeavoured to Tight it, but seeing he could not, Dewar jumped in and swam to his 
assistance. It was no easy matter, however, to handle the boat in that boiling caul- 
dron, and with the view, no doubt, of getting it into more quiet water, they both 
clung to the bow. As it glided along with the swift current, it had acquired no little 
momentum by the time it reached the bridge, and the young men being forced against 
the middle pier were both killed. 
John, the eldest son, purchased land in Buckingham, and in company with his 
brothe r Donald, was preparing for himself a home, when circumstances occurred 
which led him to make his home in St. Andrews, In January, 1836, he was married 
to Elizabeth \Yales, and her father dying some months later, her mother prevailed 
on the newly married couple to make their home with her, and take charge of the 
farm. The fol1owing obituary published at the time of Mr. Dewal's death, 23rd ^ pril, 
1875, expresses the popular sentiment in the vicinity of St, Andrews, and shows that 
the lives of this couple were not spent in vain :- 
" Died at St. Andrews, on the 23rd inst., after a few days' il1ness, Mr. John 
Dewar, aged 69 years, the eldest brother of Duncan Dewar, Esq., J.P., of that vil1age, 
leaving a family and a large circle of friends to wrestle with a sorrow, which wuuld 
be infinite if they sorrowed as those who have no hope. 
" .Mr, Dewar was converted when a young man, and soon after, while living in 
Buckingham, embraced Baptist views, and was immersed by the Rev. John Edwards, 
sen., the pioneer Baptist of the Ottawa Valley. He married Elizabeth \Vales of St, 
Andrews, a lady of great amiability, whose soul was in lively sympathy with his own 
in respect to every good work. About a year after his marriage he removed to 5t, 
Andrews, where he united with several kindred spirits in forming a Baptist church, 
He was chosen one of the Deacons, and continued faithfully to discharge the duties 
of his office till caned by the Captain of his sa.lvation from the field of labour to the 
rest that remaineth for the people of God. 
c. Brother Dewar was a man of large heart and warm sympathies, and while he 
loved God supremely, he loved men universally. Abhorring every evil way, he pitied 
evil doers and laboured for their recovery from ..ill. He was a man of peace, much 
more willing to endure wrong than to do wrong. From the commencement of the 
temperance enterprise, he was a consistent and warm advocate of the cause. He 
has left an afflicted widow, three sons and three daughters, with a large circle of 
friends to mourn his absence, but to rejoice in the helief that he has gone to serve 
God day and night in his temple,-\V. K. A." 
Mrs. Dewar died in 188r, Their children were Duncan \Vale
1 Henry, Charles 
Alexander, John Edward, Mary Lemira, Esther Jane, Elizabeth, and Susannah, 
Two of the sons, John and Henry, lived on the homestead tilt 1889, when they sold 
it to J. A. N. l\lackay, Esq. Those of the children now alive widely scattered; 
the only ones living in this County are two daughters, 
[ary and Jane, whose good 
works are a reproduction of those of t'leir patents. The former is the wife of Mr. A, 
L. Sharman, a most estimable citizen of Carillon. 



Duncan 'Vales, the eldest son of Mr. Dewar, died in 1873, two years before the 
demise of his father. He left a widow and two sons, Ethelbert and Ford, who are 
honourably employed in Duluth, Minn, 
Dm,cAN, the third son of Duncan Dewar, sen., was born May, 1807, and, as he 
has been a prominent figure in his native village through nearly all of his active and 
useful life, he is entitled to more than a passing notice in these pages, It is but fair, 
also, to acknowledge that, but for his great age and retentive memory, many of the 
incidents herein recorded would have been lost to the future. His birthday was 
rendered memorable by the eJection of the first bridge that was ever built across the 
1\orth River at St. AndrEws. Until the age of fourteen, he regularly attended the 
village school, which was a building occupying the site of the present town hall, his 
first teacher being il young man by the name of Joseph 'Vhitcomb, son of a mason, 
who had been brought to the village by Thomas Mears. At the age mentioned 
above, the subject of this sketch was seized with an ambition to take care of himself: 
A man nam
d Timothy Bristol had a wheelwright and blacksmith shop, in a 
long building which stood on ground now occupied in part by the post-office, \Vith 
this man young Duncan had become we]] acquainted, and as he was frequently in his 
shop, he soon formed the opinion that the lot of a mechanic was more pleasant and 
pJOfitable than that of a farmer, hence he besought hi.. father to peJmil him to learn 
the trade of blacksmith, a trade for which his sma11 stature and delicate constitution 
seemed scarcely- fitted. After due consideration, his father consented to his ploposal, 
and apprt'nticed him to Bristol for the term of three years. 
ome of the neighbours 
pronounced the arrangement foolish, declaring that he would get tjisgusted with the 
work, and \\ ish to return home within two weèks, but Mr. Dewar, knowing his boy's 
qualities better 1han they, said he knew that if he began the work he would stick to 
it--the correctness of which statement was proved by the sequel. 
In those days muscular strength and ability to defend one's self by physical force 
were in high esteem, while those who lacked these qualities, the young especiaHy, 
could not forbear feeling that they were destitute of some of the essential elements 
of manhood. ::\ow, though young Dewar had no reason to repine at his want of 
strength, he fdt that public opinion, on account of his slight form, would naturally 
n him to the weak class, and he retained this :mpressian, till one day, being 
assaulted in the shop uy a burly habital/t, he soundly thrashed him. DoulJtless he 
was indebted for this victory to strength acquired at the anvil; hut be this as it may, 
from 11lat time onward he seemed to hold a higher place in the esteem of his com- 
panions. But before he had completed his apprenticeship, another incident occurred, 
which was fraught with much rnore important interests to him, and which to the 
present has had much influence on the actions of hi.. life. 
-\. few prominent m
n of St. Andrews
 having heard the noted Evange1i;t, Rev. 
Mr. Christma
, preach in Montreal, invited him to hold a series of meetings in St. 
Andrews-which invitation he accepted, It is said that, as a result of these meetings, 
twenty-eight individuals, a few of whom were of profligate character, were reclaimed 



from the error of their ways. Mr. Dewar was one of the converts, and henceforth 
his feelings and aspirations were far different from what they had been. It is usual 
for the new-born Christian to cherish respect and love for the clergyman under whose 
preaching he has been converted. This feeling, in part, induced .Mr. Dewar to seek 
employment in Montreal, where he might enjoy the acquaintance and preaching of 
the Rev. 1\[r. Christmas. He soon found work in an iron manufactory, where he 
remained several months, during which time he was a regular attendant at the church 
of Mr. Christmas, and he induced a cousin of his to go with him, who, in the end, was 
also converted. A chance to obtain better wages next led him to Grand Isle, Ver- 
mont, and after working there nearly a year he came home to attend school. He had 
always been anxious to obtain an education, and he determined to devote what 
money he had earned to this end. After this supply had been exhausted, he went 
to Ottawa, and procured work in a government shop at $1. 2 5 per day, making irons 
which were used in the construction of canal locks. In the society into which he 
was there thrown, hi3 temperance principles were pretty strongly tested. In the 
afternoon of his first day in the shop, he sa\v one of his fellow-workmen collecting 
money from the others, and presently he carne to him. Asking the purpose of the 
collection, he was told that it was to purchase liquor. He replied, " I do not drink, 
and it is against my principles to encourage it." "\Vell," was the answer, " no man 
can stay here unless he joins us." Mr. Dewar then gave them money to a%ure 
them that he was not actuated oy parsimony, out expressed his determination not 
to taste any spirituous liquors. They never asked him for money again, nor did they 
invite him to drink, although they all continued to use liquor themselve
, and often 
to excess. One thing, however, they would not permit, but doubtless they were 
prompted more by a spirit of fun than of ill-wilL A milkman came around daily, 
and raising a window of the shop, passed a pint of milk through it to 1\[r. Dew.u, but 
soon, before he could get it, a sly tap would send the contents on the floor, and after 
this had occurred several times, the attempt to obtain milk was abandoned. \Vhen 
he haJ earned $100, he once more returned to St, Andrews, and attended school, 
and in this manner secured a degree of scholarship rather above what was accorded 
at that time to the young men of his age. 
Auout 1828 he entered the store of 
1r. Guy Richards as clerk, and remained 
with him six years, and he attributes much of the knowledge of business and moral 
bencfit he received to the wise instructions and good example of 
Ir. R iclnrds. In 
18 34, he and John Richard Hopkins, nephew of Mr. Richards, bought Richards' stock 
of merchandise, and 1\1r. Dewar for many years followed the mercantile business, 
though, as his means increased, he added other branches of business, yet without 
much ready profit. About 1850, he built a tannery, and then a oark mill. The 
following year he received a diplonn from the Provincial Industrial Exhibition in 
Montreal, for the best specimen of harness leather manufactureJ in Canad::t. In 18 5 6 
his tannery was burnt, and his insurance policy having lapsed, it was an entire loss, 
but he immediately rebuilt. He met with various other losses during his earlier 
c..:areer,-one of a boat for \\hich he had paid $()



In December, 1836, :\lr. Dewar was married to Margaret Treadwell, daughter of 
Xathaniel Hazard Tr
ad\Vell, Esq., 5eignior of Longueuil. \liss Treadwell and a 
sister had been for some time livin
 at L'Orignal with their brother, Charles, and 
they often came to 
t. Andrews to visit the family of Mr, Riclnrds. It was thus that 
Mr. Dewar became acquainted with his future wife. After a courtship of two years, 
they married at her father's residence in Plattsburgh, N.Y. 

lrs. Dewar possessing much of the ability of her family was a help-m1te in the 
most significant sense of that word-a woman whose counsel was wisdom, whose 
example was virtue. Her father and her distinguished sister, Mrs. Redfield, often 
visited them at their home in St. Andrews, and these w
re occasions of no little 
enjoyment, for no man could better appreciate cultured society than Mr. Dewar, 
In his youthful days, he was a schoolmate of the late Sir ], J. C. Abbott, though 
some years his senior. Though they differed widely in political principles in after 
years, a warm friendship alway
 sllbsisted between them, and letters that Mr. Dewar 
received from Mr. Abbott, which he still retains, show that the statesman esteemed 
him as an honorable and able political foe. 
Some years ago he was instrumental in obtaining a grant of L900 from Parlia- 
ment, for the purpose of improving the navigation of the North River; but owing to 
some political chicanery, this sum was diverted from its proper object, and used for 
other purposes. Though a confirm
d Liberal, he has never sought political office; 
the only public position he has held being that of magistrate, in which office he acted 
ably and conscIentiously for nearly a quarter of a century. His attention during the 
last fifteen years has been chiefly confined to his drug store, the first and only one 
ever opened in this village. 
He has three sens now living; Guy Richards, his second son, has been postal 
clerk for the last sixteen years between Montreal and Toronto; the two others, Dun- 
can Everett and Alexander, have long been engaged in mercantile business, the for- 
mer in Aylmer, Quebec, the latter at St, Andrews, where he has followed his present 
vocation many years. Retiring in habit, he has never sought public positions, and is 
respected for his moral Christian character. He has two children,-a son and daugh- 
ter ; the former, Alexander, is studying for the ministry, and for the past three years 
has e&rnestly devoted himself to Christian work, spending some months in this work 
in N ew York in the summer of J 893. He is president of both the 5t, Andrews and 
Argeuteuil C.E. Societies. 
In the beginning of the present century, JOHN McMARTIN of Genlyon, Perthshire, 
Scotland, decided to try his fortune in the New \Vorld. His wife having relatives at 
the Bay of Chaleurs, on the north of New Brunswick, thither he went, and prepared 
for himself and family a home. A year or two subsequently, learning that two of 
his brothers, farmers in Scotland, were about emigrating to Canada, he deci ded to 
seek with them, when they arrived, a more suitable place for agriculturists than could 
be found near the Bay of Chaleurs. In that locality the inhabitants subsisted almost 
wholly by fishing j but as this method of procuring a livelihood was not congenial to 



his tastes, and the land there was generally sterile, he gladly availed him'\elf of a 
chance to dispose of what he had purchased. This he exchanged with his wife's 
uncles for land which they had received for service rendered the Government, and 
which was situated in the County of Huntingdon, Quebec. On reaching Montreal, 
however, he learned that his estate in Huntingdon was in an unbroken wilderness, 
and that should he settle there, his nearest neighbour would be thirty mil;:s distant. 
At this time Major Murray was in Montreal, endeavouring to obtain Scotch set- 
tlers for his Seigniory on the Ottawa, and Mr. McMartin was induced to sell his land 
in Huntingdon, and with his brothers take up his residence in the Seigniory. Accord- 
ingly in 1801, or the year following, he came hither, and purchased two lots on the 
south side of the River Rouge which are now owned by the family of the late Geo. 
Hyde. The inevitable log house and small clearing were here on his arrival, but in 
a few years, about 1810, he built another house, which, with Some alterations and 
additions, is still standing and occupied by the family of Mr. Hyde. Mr. :McMartin 
added another lot to those which he first purchased, and with the help of his sons 
cleared up the greater part of these three lots; he died in 1847- Four of his sons, 
Finley, Duncan, Daniel and Martin, joined the Cavalry Company of Capt. McLean 
in the Rebellion of 1837-38, and all remained in it, till advancing years induced them 
to yield their places to younger men. Mr. MC.Martin had fifteen children, thirteen of 
whom arrived at maturity; eleven of them settled on the River Rouge; the youngest 
son, Martin, lived and died on the homestead. 
FINLEY McMARTIN, the sixth son, after living and working on the homestead till 
he was about thirty-four years of age, entered the store of Mr, Charles \Vales, sen., of 
St. Anshews, as clerk. 
At the expiration of a year, believing that trading on his own account would be 
more profitable than his present work, he hired the store across the street opposite 
that of :\1r. \Vales, which was occupied by Frederick McArthur, and purchased his 
stock of goods. Subsequently, he purchased the store and house, boti1 being under 
the same roof; but in about ten years from the time he began to trade, this building, 
together with his entire Hock of goods, \vas burned. He then hired another store, 
in which he traded till 1858, when he built a large brick store, which is now owned 
by \Vm. D. Larmonth, and is used as a boarding house. 
In 1868 he disposed of his store, and the next year purchased the grist mill and 
three hundred acres of land adjacent. At the expiration of fourteen years he sold 
the mill to Mr. \Valsh, its present proprietor, and since has confined his attention to 
his farm, Although an octogenarian, he is so well preserved physically and mentally 
that few would imagine him to be more than sixty. His honesty, sobriety and dili- 
gence in business have won the respect of his fellow-citizens, yet, the only secular 
office he has accepted at their hands is that of School Commissioner,-a position he 
has held for many years. He was secretary of the Baptist Church Society for a long 
time, as well as a member and generous supporter. He has been twice m uried,-the 
first time in 1847 to Christy McFarlane, who died in 1865. His second marriage 



was to Amanda 'Vales. By the first marriage he had three children,-John F., 
Elizabeth and Kate. Elizabeth married E. 1\T. Kneeshaw, and Kate, J. S. Buchan, 
a rising young lawyer of Montreal, son of 'Vm. Buchan, Esq., of Geueva. Mrs. 
Buchan died in 18 94. 
IARTIN at the age of sixteen engaged to a firm in Montreal as clerk, 
and subsequently became a commercial traveller, a position for which his rectitude, 
affability and fine address eminently fitted him. After an experience of eight years 
in this line, he entered the firm of J. 'V. 
lcKeddie & Co., on Victoria Square, as 
GUY RICHARDS was another man prominent and influential in the youthful days 
of S1. Andrews. He was Lorn ill Norwich, Conn., on 8th November, 17 8 7 ; he went 
from there to New York, and after a few years came to Montreal. His ability soon 
secured him many friends among the Americans in that city, and through them he 
became established in a thriving business as merch3nt. In the war of J 8 12, believing 
that be could make much profit by providing clothes for the Volunteers, he invested 
largely in woollen fabrics, paying a high price for them; but just after he had embarked 
in this venture, peace was declared, his scheme collapsed, and if not financially 
ruined, he was at least in embarrassing circumstances. Previous to this, he had 
formed the acquaintance of a Miss Graham from .Massachusetts, who was on a visit to 
an aunt residing in Montreal, and the acquaintance ripened into friendship, and 
finally terminated in marriage. 
\Vith the view no doubt of improving his financial condition, Mr. Richards 
removed to St. Andrews; here he also engaged in trade. He hought the property of 
Theodore Davis, the surveyor, enlarged the house, and used one part of it as <l: !"tore. 
After trading here for about thirteen years with good success, and doing considerable 
business meanwhile as a lumber merchant, he sold his real estate, and then, about 
J827, built the brick store which is now occupied by 1\1r, La Fond, He was very 
successful, financially, while he lived here, yet, owing to his benevolence and severe 
lcsses, it was found at his death that he was not worth as much as had been supposed, 
He was highly esteemed as a citizen, and his purse was always open to encourage 
evety good work. One young man was educated for the ministry through the means 
of money that he sup(JIied ; he died 21st September, 18 39. 
Cynthia Graham, a. sister of Mrs. Richards, born in Conway, .Mass., 17 th I>ecem- 
bel, 1800, carne to St. Andrews to live with her sister in I8H). \Vhile living here, 
she became acquainted wid1 HENRY BENEDICT 'VALES, and in 1829 they were mar- 
rieù. Soon afterward they moved to Pt, Fortune, and purchased the farm about a 
mile beloú' the village, now owned by Mr. 'Vi11iamson. A quarter of a century later, 

Ir. 'Vales sold the farm, and built a steamer, known as the "Buckingham," which 
for seven years did duty on the Ottawa under his own management. 
He then sold it to his brother, and purchased a farm in Alfred, Ontario, which 
he also sold in a few years, and returned to St. Andrews, where he died in 188 9. 
One of the daught
rs of 1\[r. 'Vales married the Rev. John Dempsey, a Baptist min- 



ister, who labored many years in Sf. Andrews, and another was married to Finlay 
1 artin, with whom her mother, :Mrs. \Vales, who has just celebrated her ninety- 
third birthday, now lives. 
It is impossible to speak of this iady, who still retains her mental faculties to a 
remarkable degree, without pondering for a moment the mighty changes that have 
taken place in the world's history within her recollection. She was seven years old 
when Robert FlIJton made a voyage from Albany to New York in the first steam- 
boat the worlJ had ever seen. She had attained an age when the events of the war 
of J81 2, the battle of Lundy's Lane, Queenstown Heights and Platts burgh must have 
aroused her imagination and stamped themselves upon her memory. She was bud- 
ding into womanhood when the ba ttle of 'Vaterloo was fough t, an event which oc- 
curred nearly two decaùes before the birth of those who are now threescore years of 
age. Statesmen and warriors whose achievements have startled the world have 
begun and finished their parts in the drama of life since the days of her childhood. 
She was nearly thirty years old when the first railway in America was con- 
structed, and forty before the invention of the electric telegraph, and, yet, she has 
lived to see the social and commercial world revolutionized through the mighty agen- 
cies of steam and electricity. * 
IPSON, from 
rascouche on the S1. Lawrence, was another man who 
may be classed with the pioneers of this section, as he was here and keeping store as 
_early as 180 7, in a large WOJd house, occupying the site of the present dwelling of 
1\1r, Howard, notary, His career, however. was soon terminated by death. 
Trustees of his estate apprenticed his son Robert, eleven years of age, to James 
Brown, who had a printing house in Montreal, to learn the trade of printer, After 
finishing his term of apprenticeship-seven years-youn
 Simpson engaged to work 
for Mr. Brown another year, at the expiration of which time he returned to St. 
Andrews, and purchased a farm on the River Rouge, now known as the Blanchard 
About this time, Mr. Moses Davis being occupied with his plan of erecting a 
tannery, accepted 1\Ir. Simpson as partner in the work, and, henceforth, the 
latter was one of the enterprising spirits of St. Andrews. In] 82 4, he formed a closer 
alliance with Mr. Davis, having entered into a contract of marriage with his eldest 
daughter. .\ few years afterwards, deciding to fngage in the business of tanning on 
his own account, he erected a building for the purpose, on the site of the present 
tannery which is in disuse. Some years later, this having fallen a prey to fire, his 
sons built the one mentioned above, which is now standing. Mr. :Simpson, like his 
father-in-law, in addition to his business of farming and tanning, added that of harness- 
making and shoemaking. He seems to have been a man of much influence in the 
place, one of those whose advice is sought by neighbors in the troubles and disputes 
into which they sometimes fall, and one who by force of character is able to sway 

*.l\Irs. 'Vales died a few months after the above was written. 

9 0 


He was a Tustice of Peace, Commissioner for the tri.ll of small causes, and for 
some time Mayor of the Parish. 
At one period, during the construction of the Grenville Canal, he had a con- 
tract for supplying the Royal Staff Corps at Grenville with beef-a contract which, 
on account of the distance and state of the loaùs, involved, in summer Especially, 
no little hardship. The beef must be in Grenv]le before 9 0' clock a.m. daily, 
thus necessitating constant worry and watchfulness on the part of 
lr. Simpson, lest 
the man he employed to carry it should oversleep, and trouble arise in consequence. 
A few years later, during the Rebellion, be took another contract to supply the 
soldiers stationed at Carillon with bread. The carrying out of this contract, though 
not without its vexations, was less irksome, on account of the shorter distance to be 
travelled, During this exci\ing period, l\lr. Simpson's services were called in 
requisition in many ways and on various occasions, He was especially serviceable 
in obtaining the restitution of such property as the belligerent parties took from each 
other at the time of the greatest excitement. 
Being well acquainted in the neighborhood of St. fustache and St. Benoit, and 
having friends there among the Radicals, he was often visited by scme of the latter, 
and solicited to use his influence in securing the restoration of articles which, in those 
days of rLcklessness with regard to the laws of meum and tuum, had suddenly changed 
hands. More than once, also, he was solicited to visit the above localities to secure 
the return of property which had mysteriously slipped from the possession of some 
of his loyal neighbors. On one occasion, however, his mission was a higher one, 
His old employer, James Brown, who now Eved in St. Andrews, and Montmarquette, 
a merchant from Carillon, while returning from Montreal, were taken prisoners by the 
imurgents, and held at St. Benoit. 1\1r. Simpson's object was to obtain their release; 
and having been successful in his purpose, he returned in company with them t'J Sf, 
Andrews, where they received quite an ov.üion. It has been stated that the dweH;r,g 
of 1\1r. Davis was used as a barracks for soldiers who were qu::trtered in the vilbge. 
Another large building used for the same purpose was the house already mentioned, 
which was formerly the house of Mr. Simpson, and which stood where Mr. Howard's 
brick hOllse now stands. 
Several prisoners had been taken at St. Eustache and in that vicinity, and they 
were tried for treason by court martial, the sessions of which were held in this house, 
K othing very criminal being proved again st them, they were relea
ed; but such 
was their fear of being ill-treated by the crowd gathered there to listen to the pro- 
ceedings, that they earnestly entreated l\Ir. Simpson to escort them some distance 
beyond the village-a favor he cheerfully granted. 
Mr, Simpson died 24th May, 1870, but his widow sur\Tived till I9
h September, 
18 95. She was a woman of much intelligence and activity, and though she attained 
the age of eighty-eight, her mental and physical faculties were well preserved. 
They had eight children, of whom cne died in infancy. Robert, the eldest son, 
spent some years in New Zealand, engaged in mining. He returned, married, and 


9 1 

died in St. Andrews, where his widow still resides. Moses Davis is one of the enter- 
prising farmers of the parish. He has been twice married: first, to a daughter of the 
late James Barclay, the second time to Lucinda, a daughter of Martin l\fcMartin. 
Emer}., the fifth son, married Rebecca Kempley, and after many years spent in 
farming has retired. 
Lester F., the youngest son, is a prosperous farmer near Ottawa j he has been 
twice married; first to Miss Aylmer of Montreal, and next to Lizzie Ewen, daughter 
of Dr. Ewen of Hawkesbury. Of the two daughters of the late Robert Simpson, 
Phæbe married Edward Jones, and Mary Ann, now deceased, nurried David Suther- 
land, both gentlemen of St. Andrews. 
GEORGE SIMPSON, the eldest son, always took an active interest in pab
ic afftir=" 
and besides being Mayor of the Parish Council, Was for some years superintendent of 
the Carillon and GrenviJIe Canals-a position which ill-health induced him to resign. 
In 18 77, he was nominated as candidate for the office of Represen tative of Argenteuil 
in the Dominion Parliament; but the follo\ViI
g letter shows that he declined the 

ST. ANDREWS, 23rd l\Iarch, 18 77. 
To iIII'. IV. J. SimþsoJl, S:creiary Lib
ral-CoJlservativt! AssociatioJz, L:Zt:hltte. 
After mature consideration, which, unfortunately, I did not give the subject before 
allowing myself to be nominated for a candidate, I have come to the decision that 
It would be ruinous foJr me in my business position to go ill for Parliamentary 
honours at present. I exceedingly regret that such is my position, but I can assure 
the Conservative party of my hearty Support for the candidate who mar be 

Yours truly, 

impson was married 5th September, 186r, to Eliza, daughter of Thomas 
Higginson, Esq., of Vankleek Hill. She died 6th January, 1881, leaving eight 
George Herbert, the eldest son, a gentlem:m of much energy and geniality, was 
employed nine years as commercial traveller, and was one of the first of that frater- 
nity who visited British Columbia and the North West. He was appointed to the 
Ílion which his father resigned-Superintendent of Canals, November 1st, 18 93, a 
postion he still holds. 
Robert S. is a dental surgeon in Montreal. 
Thomas Crawford, the third son, received his degree as Veterinary Surgeon 
from McGill, in 18 9 2 ; he Won the Gold l\Iedal, and graduated with high honors. He 
has quite an extensive stock farm in St. Andrews, known as ., Craigwood Farm " 
\Vm. H, and Bernard, two more SOl1s of the family, are employed in l\Iontreal- 
the former as commercial traveller for D. l\Iorrice & Co., the latter in the wholes.tle 

9 2 


hOllse of J as. McDougall & Co. The youngest of these brothers, George F., is still 
at school, and of t he daughters, Agnes L. and Jane Klyne, the former was married 
16th March, 1895, to D. A. McIntyre, of Calumet, and the latter resides with her 
brother at The 'Villows, their home in S1. Andrews. 
MARTIN JONES was one of the very early settlers at Carillon Bay, and tis advent 
must have been about the beginning of the pre!:ent century; he settled on land now 
owned by - Raymond. I t is related that one winter, while he resided here, he 
found it necessary to go to Lachine for prcwisions, and so destitute was the country 
at that time of means of travelling, that he was obliged to go on foot. Taking a 
neighbor, a habitant, with him, and a hand sled to convey his supplies, he performed 
the journey by way of the Ottawa on the ice. 
The cold was excessive, and they suffered severely, the potatoes being frozen 
before they had accomplished.half the distance; but their return was hailed. with far 
more delight by their families than is the one who now returns in a palace car, with 
numerous boxes of presents and delicacies for the Christmas cheer, In 1803, Mr, 
Jones purchased lot 1\0.3 on the east side of the North River, where A. C. 
Robillard now lives, which had been granted by the Seignior, 17th May, 1793, to 
Ignace Samson, He lived here till his death in 1838, leaving one son and three 
daughtt:rs, The eldest of the latter wa
 married to \Vm. Le Roy; the second, in 
1820, to Thomas \Vanless; but the third never married, The son, Edward Jones; 
spent many years of his life in keeping a public house-the building used for the 
purpose being one opposite the store of Me. 'Vales, In 1843 he purchased 
Carillon Island, in the Ottawa, comprising about J 000 acres, since which it has 
generally been known as ., Jones' Island." He never lived on it himself, but his son 
d resided there for many years, and then leaving it in possession of his own 
son, Robert, he came to St. Andrews and Jived in the house still owned by his 
widow, till his death, 17th June, 1890. He was quite successful in financial 
ers, and was a man of respectability and influence. He was Justice of the Peace 
for several years al
d a member of the Local Council. 
THOMAS 'V AN LESS mentioned above came from Yetholm, Roxburyshire, Scotland, 
and settled in S1. Andrews about 1812, and did business here as an artisan many years. 
He had twelve children) but only one son now remains in this section. One of 
his sons was living in Denver, Colorado, and while on a visit to him, Mr. 'Vanless 
died in February, 1873. 
The son, :\fARTIN \V ANLESS, now living here, has been one of the aClive citizens of 
the place, and prominent in both civil and military afflirs. He was a member of the 
village Council eight years, and one term its Mayor, and has officiated as Secretary 
Treasurer fourteen years. After acting nine years as chairman of the School Board, 
he was chosen as its Secretary-Treasurer, and has held the position seven years. 
In 1849, he joined the St. Andrews Troop, and in 1867 became its Lieutenant, 
In 1880, he received his commission as Captain, and in 1890 was promoted to the 
rank of Major. 



Early in the present century a young man whose home wa!õ: in Bath, England, 
decided to visit Canada with the view of settling h
re, eventually, should the 
country please him. A confectioner by trade, it is quite probable t1lat he designed 
establishing his business in the new colony, provided conditione;; were fa\'orable. 
Howe\'er this may be, influences more potent than pecuniary interests induced him 
to remain. He formed the acquaintance of a young German lady in l\Iollh'eal, who, 
like himself, had recently left her native lal
d, so John Teasdale and Mary Dock- 
stadter became one. He engaged in his former business of confectioner, and pros- 
pered; then he bought a fin
 house with a large garden attached, and this was "u,d
to contribute in no small degree to his income, He planted a nursery, sold stock, 
cultivated choice flowers, imported rare plants, and thus gradually swelled his coffás, 
till he was reputed well off in this world's goods. But if his business expanded, SO 
likewise did his family, and in time he became, in the language of Grecian mytho- 
logy, the father of a beautiful offspring. In consequence of too fully realizing this 
fact, however, and thus becoming an over-indulgent parent, he was destined to ex- 
perience much sorrow. His eldest son, 'Vil
iam, and another one, John, were young 
men of romantic nature, with a strong predilection for fashionable and gay society; 
they had received good advantages, and were passionately fond of music, as the 
number of musical instruments provided for them through paternal kindness abund- 
antly attested. But notwithstanding all this indulgence, parental wisdom was not 
entirely inert, and it was decided that the sons must have something to do,-some 
useful occupation to employ their minds and provide means fur future requirements. 
A little more parental discretion and authority at this juncture of affairs might have 
prevented misfortune, but, unfortunately, the choice of vocation was left to the 
younger minds, and for them nothing short of mercantile life would suffice. St. 
Andrews was the location selected for this mercantile venture, and, forthwith, a build- 
ing was erected for this purpose. This stood on ground now occupied, in part, by 
the cottage of Mrs. l\Ieikle; it was a long structur
, design
d not only for a stOle, but 
for one or more tenements. 
In this, then, the young men were soon established as merchants; Lut whatever 
their success and habits at first, it was soon evident that the store was of secondary 
importance and that their minds were "on pleasure bent." The country at th:1t 
period being new, and the forest abounding in game of various kind'.), presented great 
attractions to one inclined to sporting, The pleasure thus afforded to the two 
younger brothers was one they were not likely to i
nore. But in order to pursue 
it in becoming style, they mu<;t have horses and dogs, and thes
 were soon provided. 
While they were employed with the delight of the chase, business did not thrive ; the 
interests of those left in charge of the store were not identical with those of the pro- 
prietors, and t,he losses thus sustained, added to expenses incurred in the rounds of 
pleasure, presented in the end a discouraging spectacle in the account of profit and 
4\S may be supposed, and as the citizens of St. Andrews had prophesied, the new 



mercantile firm soon failed ;- but parental pride and affection willing to give another 
trial, their debts were paid, the store restocked, wholesome reprehension and advice 
were given, and the sons started anew. But they had not had that experience 
necessary to success. It is an admitted fact that very few men are quaiified to 
handle money unless they have earned it, The second trial was begun, no doubt, 
with good resolutions, which for a time were carried into effect, but the final result 
was failure more disastrous than the first. 
The elder Teasdale, collecting together what remained oC his property, moved to 
St. Andrews, deciding that he could support his family at II.uch less expense here 
than m the city: while the SOlIS now adopted a course which developed their latent 
energies and ability, and properly fitted t
1em for the battle of ]ife. 
\YILLLU[, the elder son, studied with Col. Fortune, a provincial land surveyor 
and civil engineer, who at that time was also agent for the Seigniory of Argenteuil, 
ard lived at the Manor House at the Bay. His pupil being an apt scholar, thoroughly 
masteled his profession, and for years was employed in surveying lands in this section 
of the Province, He surveyed much in Argenteuil, and it is said that he named 

Gme oCher beautiful lakes. But he finally suffered from an affection of the eyes, and 
eventually became blind j he died at Rigaud about 1862. JOHN, his brother, studied 
mldicine with the late Dr. ,V olfred Nelson, and subsequently settled in Rigaud. In 
the commel
CEment of his last illness, he visited Montreal for treatment, and died 
tl:ere in 18jo. H is obituary says: "Dr. Teasdale has been living and practising 
in Rigaud for the last forty years, where he was mllch esteemed by a large circle of 
fl iends, 110t only as a physician, but as a true friend, His los
 will be deplored, not 
0I11y by the people of his own parish, but by all the surrounding district, and the 
name of Dr. Teasdale win be remembered for generations to come." 
The father for a time traded in the store which his sons occupied in St. Andrews, 
and died there in 1830. Mrs. Teasdale survived till 1870, Julia, their sixth child, 
mE, a notary, 8th February, 1829. 
de la Ronde, who was born in St. Anne, descended from a lineage that might satisfy 
tf1e most ambitious, ancestry on the maternal side running back through illus- 
trious families to the King of Portugal, and on the other, through hOllses equally 
famous; the last of his distinguished paternal ancestors being General de la Ronde, 
who, connected with the army of Burgoyne, fell at the battle of Ticonderoga in 
Gaspard de la Ronde stuùied for the notarial proîession in 
Iontreal, and 
immediately after passing his examination came to St. Andrews and practised. He 
had an extensive business for many years, and besides attending to the dllties of his 
profession, often acted as counsel for litigants, pleading their cases in the lower 
courts. He died 8th June, 1882, at the age of 78, His widow is still at St. Andrews, 
and, though fourscore years of age, her mental faculties are intact. They had ten 
children-1Îve sons and five daughters, who lived till past the age of twenty, though 
but few of them are now alive. 



J. T. de La Ronde, the eldest son now living, after spending some years in the 
States, employed in com mercial business and as proof-reader ir.. a newspaper office 
in Plattsburg, 
.Y., returned to Canada, and now resides at St. Andrews. 
R. P. DE LA RONDE, his brother, in his youth learned telegraphy; he then studied 
law in the office of Ch1pleau, Ouimet & Mathieu, and was admitted to the Bar in 
186 7, and the following year Wa'ì married to 
[artha McMartin, daughter of Duncan 
,rartin, J.P. He lives at St. Andrews, where he has built up an extensive prac- 
tice as an able and honorable barri.;ter. 
Stewart E., another son of the late Gaspard de la Rúnde, has been engaged f')r 
ast nineteen years in the commission business in Ottawa. :Margaret, a sister of 
the above, I1nrried J. H. P. BROWN, son of Dr. E. B. Brown of St, Anne. 
Brown has for several years been a mail clerk, and is now employed as sucn on the 
Canada Atlantic between 
Iontrêal and Ottawa. 
Hn-my ALBRIGHT, a Gernun, was one of the U. E. Loyalists who sought an asy- 
lum in Canada at the beginning of the :\.merican Revolution, In :\Iontreal he engaged 
to Dr. :i\Ieyers to take charge of a farm, which he owned on the opposite side of the 
St. Lawrence. But he soon experienced much trouble with Indians, whose thievish 
propensities seemed likely to leave him but little personal property, and after he had 
one day driven away several of them, a friendly chief advised him to leave the place, 
Believing this to be judicious counsel, he fonowed it, and engaged the friendly chief 
to convey his family across the river in a canoe, His young boy, Martin, on the 
voyage across, fell out, and was saved on Iy by the activity of the chief, who caught 
him by the hair as he rose to the surface. 
:\Ir. Albright came to the Bay, and settled on land until recently occupied 
by .l\Iatthew Burwash. Not long afterwards, he purchased the Jots on the North 
River no\v owned by Alphonse Dorion and Charles Hunter, where he lived until 
he died in 1820; he left two sons and tour daught
rs : Valentine, one of the former, 
lived and died on the homestead, Martin, another son, who owned a farm adjacent 
to his brother's, sold it, and moved to the farm now 0wned by his own son Nelson 
He spent the greater part of his life here, and dild in 1872. He married Jane Hyde, 
and their ten children have helped to swell Canadian population, and extend the fame 
for thrift and industry of Canadian citizens. Nelson Albright, mentioned above, is 
one of the leading men of the parish j he takes a lively interest in the Agricultur
Society,. and his fine farm, on which he has recently becn awarded a silver medal, 
always di...plays, among other things, a choice stock of cattle. 
ANGUS MCPHIE came with his family from Fort William, Invernessshire, Scotland 
in 1802; two brothers, Ewen and Ronald, also nuking the journey with him. He 
first went to Pte. Claire near Montreal, and lived there a few years, learning to speak 
French fluently, and then settled in Chatham, on land now owned by the Fitzgeralds, 
While living there, he was, in company with Noyes and Schagel, carrying freight from 
Carillon to Grenville. He had three sons and three daughters: John, the second 
son, bought a farm on Beech Ridge, and lived there till his death. He was married in 

9 6 


182 7 to 
Iary Cameron, sister of the Cameron who first settled at Pt. au Chene, 
and had five sons and five daughters i-three of the former and four of the latter grew 
up, Besides his military and other offices, Mr. 
lcPhie was president of the AgricuL 
tural Society several years, He was an extremely enterprising man, taking a deep 
interest in farming, and improved his own land to such an extent, that he was awarded 
three medals by the Agricultural Society, besides gaining several prizes; he died in 
18 74. 
JOHN MCPHIE, jun., the fourth son, in his younger days spent three years m 
California, then travelled a few years in the commercial line. In 1872, he bought 
the farm of 27 0 acres where he now lives, and was married the same year to a 
daughter of Charles Albright. Mr. McPhie has been School Commissioner several 
years, and is one of the influential and respected citizens of St, Andrews, 
The following leller may properly be in
erted here, as it treats of the early 
history of St, Andrews: 

OTTAWA, 18th Januarr, 1894. 

::\Ir. C, THOMAS, 
DEAR SIR,-In writing a sketch of St. Andrews, as well as of the inhabitants before 
my time, it may as well be said here, that the information given is partly from tradi, 
lioll and partly from personal observation, and is written entirely from memory. 
Before the advent of steamboats on the Ottawa river, between Caril10n and 
Lachine, 1t was no easy matter to travel between these poin ts, and paddle your O'WII 
calloe. A decided improvement was made, when a line of covered stages (each drawn 
by four horses) was started to run from Montreal via St. Eustache and St. Andrews 
to Grenville, The trip was intended to be made in three days-or two trips per week 
each way. They also carried the mail, and the stage driver's capacious hat contained 
what letters and newspapers were to be delivered between the differen t offices, and 
which were usually thrown out in passing. The stage house in St. Andrews (where 
they changed horses) was kept by a Mr. John Russell, and was a large, two-story 
wooden building next to Mr. Guy Richards' store, and about where Janvier Soulier's 
house now stánds. After a time, he removed across the river to premises situated 
between Rout. Slmpson's garden and Edward Jones' house, where he died, His widow 
kept the house for a time, when she l11aITied a Mr. Bowman, and removed to Buck- 
ingham. The arrival of the stage in the village was always heralded by the dri\'er's 
horn, and was as great an event to the gossips and idlers then, as the arrival of a fast 
train in these days at a rural station. After the steamboats were fairly established, 
the trade was diverted from the land route, and the st
ges were taken off the through 
line, and placed between Carillon and Grenville, and between Point Fortune and 
L'Orignal. There ".as also, for many years, a winter line of stages on the same route 
from Montreal to St. Andrews, and at certain seasons of the year the trip was not 
accomplished without great difficulty and frequent loss, as many fine horses were 
drowned crossing on the treacherous ice at St. Eustache. 
The industries of St. Andrews consisted of two general stores, an ashery, a 




tannery, with 
addlers' and shoe-makers' shops, a paper mi1J, saw mill and grist 
with the usual village blacksmiths, The taverns were also there, but they could not 
be properly classed among the industries. 
One of the stores was kept by Mr. Guy Ricbards in a large, two-story frame build- 
ing, next to John Russell's stage hotel (which was afterwards occupied as a residence 
and registry office by Col. D
After the main street, as it now stands, was opened up, past where the Baptist 
and Episcopal churches are situated, down to where the bridge span;) the river, Mr, 
Richards removed his store, up to a large, two-story stone building (which is stIll 
standing), where he did a large and prosperous business for many years, retiring 
from active life a short time before his death in September, 1839' 
The other store was kept by 
Ir, ,V. G. Blanchard, who also conducted the 
ashery, where the ÏIJhabitants could send their ashes and get a fair price for them, 
And as the country was new, each farmer would have a good many bushels of ashes 
saved up after burning his log heaps. Many a poor family enjoyed little luxuries, 
such as tea and sugar, and other articles: from the sale of their ashes, that they 
otherwise would have had to do without, Mr. Blanchard was a kind-hearted, easy- 
going man, who put too much dependence on some of hi s unscrupulous lJeighbors, as 
it was currently reported that he paid more than once for the same ashes. 
1\1r, Davis' tannery was a long, lûw building nearly opposite where D. Sutherland 
has his tailor's shop; the saddlers and shoemakers were on the other side of the 
street, and a brisk business was carried on in aU of them. 
The Seigneur had at one time a saw mill situated on the west side of the island, 
but it was either burnt or otherwise destroyed several years previous. The grist 
mill was a short distance above the present one, and was one and one-half 
tories high, 
built of cedar logs and dapboarded; the water wheel and (,ther machinelY were of a 
somewhat primitive construction, perhaps as good as it was possible to get in those 
days, but they could not compare with the" Lamb" or Leiffel of these days. 
The corn was ground, but not bolted or sifted ;-that had to be done at he me 
with a sieve, made from a partially tanned sheepskin, stretched over a hoop, and r er - 
forated. The miller who presided over that institution for many years was cert.1Înly 
not in advance of his surroundings. He was a Highlander from Argyleshire (not far 
from that celebrated spot where the horrible "Glencoe II massacre was perpetrated), 
by the name of MacCallum, but who rejoiced in the not very euphonious sobriquet 
of" Goch-cum-ga'W." 
The blacksmiths, in the earlier days, were not noted for fine work, and the hoes, 
axes and forks made by them, and which have come down through several decades, 
to say the least, had no scarcity of material in them, But later on, there was a great 
improvement in aU farming tools, and a large business was done in making axes, 
which were then in great demand, one firm having a U grindstone" run by \\ater 
power to grind, polish and fir:ish them up ready for use, 
The members of the medical profession, as they styled themselves, had nothing 


9 3 


to Qoast of in regard to ability or skill, and it would be difficult to tell what college 
they graduated from. All diseases were, for the most part, treated with liberal doses 
of calomel and jalap, together with the free use of the lancet, and, in cases of sur- 
gery, heaven help the poor wretch who required their services! After a few years, 
a better educated c1aS5 5ettled in the country, viz., Drs. Beach, Ellis, and Rice; 
the last named also carried on 3. farm, which is now owned by 
Ir. T. Davis, and 
he lived where George Simpson's hom;e now stands. 
\bout the 
ame time Dr, Rae 
came to the village; he was a young Edinburgh graduate of high standing and pol- 
ished manners, and in a very short time was a general favorite and a successful practi- 
tioner, being consulted in all serious cases, and sent for from Lachute, Chatham and 
In those dJY', wheel carriages were not in use, the only means of travelling was on 
horseback, consequently, a country doctor had a hard life, and required a good strong 
constitution to stand the wear and tear and exposure to all weathers, so that in a 
short time Dr. Rae's health began to give way, and at his death he was much 
He resided for many years in the house which is now occupied by Dr. Mayrand, 
and, after h
 death, his wife and family went to Montreal. Shortly bt::fore this, another 
young Scotchman by the name of McCallum, a graduate from the same college, 
opened an office and began the practice of medicine, and very soon had the reput:).- 
tion of being very skilJful and energetic. He enjoyed a large and growing practice, 
and when the cholera broke out in 1832, he did good service among the poor, and 
was very successful in his treatment of all those infected with that terrible disease, 
His career of usefulness W,lS brought to a sudden termination by an accident which 
in a short time carried him off. During his residence in the county he made many 
warm friends; and as he was a single man, and had no relatives in the country, he 
was well and tenderly cared for in his last illness, and his untimely death was much 
There W1.S not a single representative of the legal prof:
ssion in the county in 
early times, not but what there was plenty of law going on, but it was all carried on 
through the 
Iagistrates' Court, which had plenty to do with some of the residents Of 
Chatham, who spent a good part of. the proceeds of their potash in law. 
There were several notaries in the county before !\ir, Nolan came; he practised 
for many yeals, and was regarded as a careful, reliable man in his profession. He 
owned and resided on the property;which he afterwards sold to Charles Benedict, 
About the time Mr. Nolan left St. Andrews, two other young notaries-Larue and 
Goudie-opened aT: office on the corner" where Mrs. Caution's house now stands. 
Yours truly, 

In order to show the difference between the prices of articles eighty years ago 
and the present. the following al e copied fron a well preserved Day Book that was 

used in St. Andrews in 1814. The items are drawn from several different accounts, 
as there is not a single account in the book in which four.fifths of the items charged 
are not for liquors of various kinds, by the glass, gill, half-pint, pint, quart, etc. 
This is not surprising, when:we reflect that traèers all sold spirituous liquors, and 
their patrons al1 used it, 
The charges were all made, of course, in pounds, shiHings and pence, but 
have been changed into dollars and cents. The merchant seems to have sold every- 
thing from a jews harp to a Jog cabin :- 
I8q.Feb. 6 To BmhelCorn ...,................. at $200 
.. Pro Soc1.s.. . ,.. .,.. ...... ....., .. " 
Pr. Scissors.., . " . ... ,..... ...,.. " 
 Lbs. Loaf Sugar...... ..,... ...... " 
Bush 6 Sa It. . .. ...... . . .. . . ... 6 . . . . " 
I -:\1 ug Cider...... ...,.. .."., . . ,. . 
J2 Lh. Chocolate.. .. .... ... . . . .. ..... .. 
2 Bushels Rye..., ".. ..., .". ,.,.., ,. 
1 Pint of Rum. . . . . , . , . , " ,...., . , ., " 
I Lb. Tobacco. . .. . , . . . , ., ,.. , ,." ., 
I "Raisins.. .. "....,.,. . , . . '.. " 
I l. Tea............... ..... ...... I, 
I " Po\v<ler..... ...... . . .. .. . . . . .. ... " 
I "Shot. . . . .. .. ............ .... . " 
1 Pint Gin...". ....,. . . . . . . .. "....... 
6}4 Yds. Cambric, at 74c........ .... ...... 
I Lodgingand}
heetPaper...,.. ...... 
J 2 lint Rum, I supper. . . , . . .. ..,. , , . . . . . . 
" I Alman3c. .. ...... ....... 
 . .. .. .. .. ..... .... ..... 
29" So BoardN'ails,."".. ..,....,.,........ 
" 2 500 
hingle N 
 ils. . . , , . ,_ . , " . . . . . . .. ..,.. 
3000 large Nails.."...,.", ...". ..,. , , . . . 
5 Vd!'. Linmg, at Soc.... ....,. ...... ..... 
3 "S heet ing . .. ...,............,.... 
100 Board Nails _.............,........... 
5 Yd!'. Blue Colton.... .... , _. ... .. .. . _.. 
1 Gill Peppermint. . . . . . . . . . . .. ..."..,., 
1 Set Cups and Saucers..,.., . . . . .. ...... 4 
I "rum bIer blokt-n.,..., . . " .". . . , , . . ,. . 
2 Cand les , . .. , , ., . . . . " . . ., ..,,'. .,.", 
f Lb. Putty.,., ,,'... .',. .... ". .. 
1 J; Bush. Ùats. . . . " .........,.,........ 
I Quart Brandy. . ". . ,. "........""., 
2 Slings. . . . .. "..,..,...........,.,.. 
I S1.ein 
il1....... ..., .,....,.. .,.",.. 
6 Vds.Co.ton...... ...... ......at5octs. 
Glass Bilters. . . , ,. .....,.,...,.,..,.. 
1 2 Pint Pepp,:,rmint . , . , .. ....,.".,., ... 
Bush. Barley.... . . . . " ."", ."..... 
Hair COD.b..., .,.. .... .... .,.. ."",. 
Spelling Book. . .. .... . , .. . , , . .. . . . . .. 
Lb. Rice (by \\ ire).... ... . .. .... ...... 
D07. Plates and 2 Tumblers.... " . .,. '" 
2 Bowls and I Pepper Box.... . . . , . ., . . .. 

 Lb. Pepper.,......,. . . , .. ... ... . . .. .. 
I " S pi Ce . . . . .. ..... ......._ 
Yard Ginghan1.... .. ., .... .. .... .... . . 
(2 t . Beer.,...,.".,......,..... 
J'lnt fort \\'ine.... ........ .......... 

I 8 I 5 lkt. 

I!; q .\f'ril 5 




. , 



, . 








Jur.e 21 




. . 


" " 













" " 


-:\Iay 4 

. . 



I 40 
2 40 
5 00 
4 0 
I So 
4 0 
3 0 
5 00 
I 50 
9 00 
2 50 
I 50 
4 0 
3 00 
1 00 

3 00 
2 GO 
3 0 
3 0 
4 0 

181 4 June 7 To 10 
" " " I 
" " " 2 
<. I 
" 9 J/z 
" 17 J/z 
" IS " I 
, I 'I I 
.. I 
,t " 2
" " ,I I 
Xov. 9 By 6 
" .. 16 9 
" " 600 


Yd!'. Ca1ico...." ... .... ,.,..,.. 
Paper Pins. . . . . . ., ... ......., ,.,..,.. 
Ozs. Cinnan1on. . .. . , ., , . .. .. . . .. .,..... 
Dinner(St.John'sDay).. ".. .......,. 
Lb. CoppeJas (by Betsy).......... .... ... 
" .. (hyJack).................. 
Pair Overalls.", . . . . .. ., . . .. ....,. .... 
Stick 'rwi!it.. .. ."". .,.." ". . .. . . .. .. 
Scythe.. . . .. ,..... . . , ... . .,...". . .. 
Y d!'. Cotton. , . , . . . . . . ...., . , ., .. . . . . . 
Lb. Dried Apples... . , , . " .",.,..... . . .., 

$5 20 
3 0 
I 00 
3 7 0 
1 50 

Bushels Onions, at $ 1.50. . . . .. . . . . .. . . ,. 9 00 
Lbs. Beef, at jc.......... ...". .. . .. I I 83 
" Pork, at I8c.... .,.. ",... .. .,.... 10

The earliest physicÏans of this place have already been mentioned in the letter of 
Mr. Dewar, 
Among the other prominent men belonging to the medical profession who have 
lived in the parish was DR. THOMAS J AMES HOWARD. 
He was born at Exeter, Devon County, England, in February, 1796, and in his early 
life entered the Royal Navy as midshipman on His 
lajesty's frigate" Canopus." 
He was in active service three years in the Mediterranean, during the wars with 
France, Turkey and other powers, but was obliged to retire from the 
avy on 
account of ill health, Subsequently, he held the commission of Lieutenant under 
Colonel Rolle in the South Devon Militia, and afterwards practised as physician and 
surgeon in Devonshire. In 1844, with his wife and twelve children and maid servant, 
he sailed for Canada, a part of the vessel being fitted up for their special use and 
accommodation. After a voyage of seven weeks, during the months of April and 
:\lay, this sailing vessel rarrived in Quebec. The following summer DI, Howard 
spent in l\Iontreal and in travelling through Ontario, seeking a desirable place for 
location; but he finaJly settled in St. Andrews, and began the practice of medicine, 
His COllfrères were Dr. Pyke, Dr. Lawrence-succeeded by Dr. \\Y m . Robertson, Dr. 
Fenwick and Dr. Mayrand, Having purchased a farm on the River Rouge, he 
retired to it after a practice of three or four years, and thence removed to Lachute, 
where he died in 187 I. 
HENRY HOWARD, his second son, born in 1828, was fifteen years of age 
when he crossed the Atlantic with his father's family; he remained two years in St. 
Andrews, and then went to study French and the Notarial profession in tile office of 
::\lr, T. J. Girouard at St, Benoit. Mr. Girouard had been one of the active promo- 
ters of the Rebellion of 1837-38, and the village of St. Benoit, which had been burned 
by Sir John Colborne, had then just been rebuilt. Travelling vehicles were of a 
primitive and rustic style j a buggy being a thing unknown, while homespun tuques 
and beef-skin moccasins were articles deemed indispensable in the attire of the habi- 
tant, Very few understood a word of English-an advantage, no doubt, to the young 
student, in view of the object at which he aimed. 



On receiving his commission as notary public for the Province of Quebec, in N ov- 
ember, 185 It he settled in St. Andrews, with which place his history since has been closely 
identified. He has filled many responsible offices, some of which have been either 
removed or abolished. Active in the formation of the County Agricultural Society t 
he was appointed Secretary-Treasurer, and held the position for twenty-three rears, 
when the office was removed to Lachute. He has at different times been Deputy 
Clerk of the Circuit Court, has been Deputy Coroner, Official Assignee of the Coun- 
ties of Argenteuil and Ottawa, and Secretary-Treasurer of the Local Council; in all 
of which he has sustained a reputation for efficiency in business, while commanding 
respect as an intellig-ent, public-spirited citizen. 
1\1r. Howard was married in 1853 to l\Iarie Aurélie Clouthier, of St. Ellstache; 
they have three sons and one daughter. William Henry, the eldest son, a graduate 
of McGill, is now superintendent of the Pueblò Smelting and Refining Company, 
Colorado; Ernest, the second son, is a member of the Montreal Stock Exchange; 
Herbert, the youngest, is a bank clerk, and the daughter, unmarried, remains with 
her parents. 

DR, ROBERTSON is a name that has been familiar to the inhabitants of the Ottawa 
Valley for two generations; Dr, Patrick Robertson, who has won honorable distinc- 
tion during his life-long residence in this county, being the son of a doctor who was 
in successful practice here for more than a third of a century, 
The latter, Dr. \Villiam Robertson, a graduate of King's College, Aberdeen, 
Scotland, and of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, London, came from 
Perth, Scotland! to this country about 1834. He first practised a year in 'Villiams- 
burg, Dundas Co., Ontario, and then, for the purpose of looking after the business of 
his half brother, Colin Robertson, who represented the people of thi
 County in Parlia- 
ment, he removcd to Lachute. Soon after this, he opened an office on Little St. 
James street, Montreal, and practised there a year. About 1842. he was married to 
Miss Tiernay, daughter of a gentleman connected with the Customs Department, 
and in Ü
47, he rem oved to St. Andrews, where he spent his remaining days, dying 
6th March, 1871; 
lrs. Robertson died 6th February, 1890. They had two sons 
and four daughters. DR. PATRICK ROBERTSON studied medicine, and graduated at 

lcGill in 1868. He then settled in St. Andrews, where, with the exception of one 
or two yeals spent in England, he has since resided, and built up an extensive and 
successful practice; he has recently removed to 
Of the remaining children of the late Dr. Robertson, William, the second son, 
became general manager of the London Life Assurance Company, and died in 188 9' 
One daughter was married to Co!. MacDonald, Indian agent of the North 'Vest 
Territories; another married Bruce Harman of Toronto; a third wedded Chas. Handy- 
side, of the firm of H. & A. Allan, Steamship Co. of Montreal; and one died when 
but ten years of age. 



DR, GEORGE FLANIG<\N SHAW, a rising young pmctitioner, associated with Dr. 
Rovertson, is from a family in the Dominion Capital whose members are represen- 
tatives of the most honorable occupations and professions. 
He was born in Ottawa in 1862, and is a son of Charles Shaw, one of the oldest 
officers of the Post Office Department. Henry S. Shaw, one of the brothers, is also 
an official of the same department; and of his three remaini 19 brothers, the eldest, C. 
S. Shaw, is one of the prominent business men of Ottawa. Dr. \V. F. Shaw is G. T. R, 
physician, located in Gravenhurst, Ont. j and Rev. J. Arthur Shaw, M.A., of 
Bishop's College, Lennoxville, is Rector of Cobden in the Diocese of Ontario. 
The subject of our sketch was educated in Ottawa, and at Bishop's College, 
Lennoxville, and graduated with honors at 
1:cGill University, :\Iontreal, taking his 
degree of M.D., c.
f., and while there, was for a year editor of the iI/cGil! Fort- 
He has travelled extensively in Europe, visiting hospitals both in England and 
on the Continent, and thus keeping pace with the rapid advancement in knowledge, 
which of late years has signalized the march of medical and surgical science, He is 
a member of the Montreal Medical S:>ciety and of the Coll.;ge of Physicians and Sur- 
geons úf Quebec 3.nd Ontario. 
Since the writing of the above, Dr. Shaw has dls
olved partnership with Dr. 
Robertson, on account of the latter's departure for Montreal, and is now established 
in St. Andrews upon his own re
ponsibility ; he has recently been appointed Health 
Officer of the parish, and church warden, to fill place
red vacant by the depart- 
ure of Dr, Robertson. 
\VILLIAM H. l\IAYRAND, M.D., is another of the physicians who have earned 
a livelihood and reputation in St. Andrews ar,d vi2inity, and he is one of the few 
remaining who were prominent in the generation past. He was born at Louiseville, 
Rivière du Loup, and is a son of the Hon. Eti
nne .Mayrand, who for several years 
was an M,P.P. After spending two years at St. Hyacinthe College, he went to 
Nicolet College, and remained five years. On leaving that Imtitution, he studied 
medicine a year with Dr. Morin of Qu
c, and then entered the Medical Depart- 
ment of McGill University, and graduated there in :May, 1847, in the sam
 class with 
Dr, Christie of L3.chute. He imm
diately settled in 5t, Andrews, and in April, 1848, 
was married to Catherine Sophia Pecco, a daughter of the late Commissary General 
Pecco, of Corfu, Ionian Islands, and a niece of Commissary G
neral Forbes of Carillon, 
The social qualities of the doctor, united with his skill as a physican, soon pro- 
cured a good practice, and for nearly half a century he h
s been a familiar' figure in 
this section. Though preferring to give over his practice to younóer m'::l1, he is still 
the dependence for medical treatment of ma'1Y households. 
Mrs. Mayrand died August 8, 1888, leaving two sons. Henry Wellington, one of 
these, is employed in the .Merchants BJ.nk at Halifax; Geo, C. is in business in 
Nelson, B.C, 
A recent addition to the medical men of St. Andrews is Dr. \VALTER'V. A YLEN, 


10 3 

who \\-as born in 1865 at Aylmer, Que. He received his early education in Aylmer, 
Ottawa and Galt. In 1885, he entered the Medical Faculty of McGill College, and 
received his degree of M.D., C.M., there in 1889. In 1890, he went to Sheldon, N. 
Dakota, and dunnci his stay there enjoyed an extensive practice. In 1391 he was 
married to Eva, daughter of Finley McMartin, of St. Andrews. In 1895, desiling to 
come East, he sold his practice in Sheldon, and bought that of Dr. Robel bon of this 
place. Dr, Aylen is a worthy son of a clever family, the Aylens of Aylm
r having given 
the medical and legal professions some of their most gifted members. 
, who has also but lately visited St. Andrews pn{ession- 
ally, was born in Montreal, his parents coming from Nottingh..uD, Eng" where his 
mother, Jane Stanley, belonged to on
 of the leading families. He was left an 
orphan at the age of four years, and while still very young, began life as junior clerk 
for the Canada P.lper Co., 
[ontreal. A year later, he became private secretary to 
John Macfarlane, Esq., president of the Company, in which position he remained two 
years, and afterward acted as:private secretary to Jas. Bfyce, Esq., superintendent of 
the Canadian Express Co. He was indentured to Dr. J. B. \
osburgh, Montreal,a.n d 
began the stud} of dt:ntistry in the fall of 1891, and also took a partial medical course 
in the Univefsity of Bishop's College, ).Iontrlal; he received the degree of L.D.S. in 
October, 1895. 
Dr. Allen is a young m.m of much geniality as wdl a<; enterprise, and a., his pre- 
sence in St. Andrews fills a long felt want, it is to ue hoped that he may meet with 
descrved success. 
Dr, Legault is another physician who has been here for the bst six or eight 
years, and ha
 practised very successfully during the time. 


Though considerable pains were taken to obtain a more complete history of the 
.\nglican Church here, they were fruitless. For the sketches of the remaining 
churches, we are chiefly indebted to the courtesy of others; the biographical sketches 
of thcir pac,tors ueing, of course, from our own pen. 
Itinerant ministers visited St. Andrews, and preached in the early years of her 
history; but the first church fvrmed was the Church of England, by the Rev. Richard 
Bradford, as earl y as 18 r l. 
The first resident clergyman was the Rev. Joseph Abbott, who was b.Jrn in the 
north of England, and who graduated at a Scotch University. He arrived in St, 
Andrews in 1818, and the services, until 1821, were held in a school-house. The Rev. 
Mr. Henàerson, a Presbyterian clergyman, who came about the same time that l\fr, 
Abbott did, also held services in the same school-house j but as Mr. Aubott had littie 
regard for dissenters of any creed, it is not surprising that these different services 
did not continue in the same building in the strictest harmony. Serious diff..:rences, 
however,. were avoided by the withdrawal of the Presbyterians to a private dwelling, 
and both clergymen were provided with church e,jifices the same year, 1821. 

1 0 4 


After remaining here a few years, the Rev. Mr. Abbott removed to a field in the 
Eastern Townships, which, from his own name, is now known as Abl>ottsford, and left 
the church at St. Andrews in charge of his brother, the Rev. William Abbott. The 
latter remained here till his death, which occurred in 18 59. 
Not long after corning to Canada, the Rev. Joseph Abbott was married to 
Harriet Bradford, a daughter of the Rev. Mr. Bradford of Chatham, and their descen- 
dants are among the most influential citizens of the Province, The late Sir J. J. C. 
Abbott, their eldest son, was born here 12th March, 182 J, The Rev. Mr, Abbott 
exchanged his property in Abbottsford with his nephew for that in Chatham, lately 
owned by his father. the Rev. Mr. Bradford, and returned to this section, settling in 
Grenville, accepting the pastorate of the Anglican church there, till he went to Mon- 
treal. He was appointed Bursar of the McGill University in that city, in 18 43. 
The Rev. Richald Lonsdell, M.A., accepted the charge in St, Andrews after Mr, 
Al>bott's death, and held it for many years; he won the esteem of his parishioners, 
and the number of communicants increased during his ministrations. He removed 
in pctober, 188 5, and was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. O'Sullivan, but an affection of 
the throat caused the latter's resignation in a few months. 
The Rev. F. N. Bourne was the next clergyman in the field, who, after supplying 
it till thp. fall Of1893, relinquished it forthe rectorship of Dunham, Que.; he has also 
since accepted the princip..llship of Dunham Ladies' College, 
In January, 1894, the Rev. J. \Y. Dennis became incumbent, and his ability, geni. 
alit}' and courtesy have secured for him much popularity, 



The finit recorded move ment towatds the establishment of the Presbyterian 
Church in Argenteuil is embodied in the foIlowing document, which is without date, 
but evidently a copy made at the time, and btlonging to the year 18i6:- 
"\Ye, the subscril>ers, inhahitants of the Seigniory of Argenteuil, deeply impressed 
with a sense of our destitute condition with respect to the regular ordinances of divine 
worship, and sensible of the important benefits which we and our families would derive 
from the labors of a faithful mini:iter of the Gospel, have agreed to use our endea- 
vors in order to attain this desirable object, tru5ting to the Great King and Head 
of the Church for crowning our endeavors with success. 
" As we are under the paternal care of the British Government, and are therefore 
strictly connected with Great Britain in politics, commerce, and similarity of 
manners, so it is natural for us to look to that quarter for a pastor who may take 
the oversight of our spiritual concerns, 
" \Ve appoint the following gentlemen to be a corresponding committee, with 
such friends and promoters of Christianity in Britain as may be deemed by them the 
most active and influential in promoting a design of this nature, to wit, Rev. 


10 5 

Robert Easton, John and Phineas Hutchins, Benjamin \Vales, and \Vm. G. Blan- 
And they promise, the document further says, to pay to the clergyman who 
should come the 
ums opposite their names, yearly; and at the end it is stated that 
the number of subsctIbers was sixty-four, and the H sum total subscribed, L;.IOI ;" 
but unfortunately the names are not given. 
The Rev. R. Easton was minister of the Presbyterian Church in St. Peter street, 

Iontreal, then in connection with the Associate (or Burgher) Synod, of Scotland; 
lessrs, Hutchins belonged to Lachute, and Messrs. \Vales and Blanchard to St, 
':\[r. Easton, to whom doubtless the original document was sent, wrote to Dr. 
James Hall, of Edinburgh, a leJ.ding minister of the Associate Synod, who brought the 
matter before his Presbytery. At the same time, a similar application was sent by the 
Presbyterians of Rideau in Upper Canada; and the Preshytery, in compliance with 
these requests, appointed the Rev, Wm. Taylor of Falkirk to Argenteuil, and Mr. 
Wm. Bell, a probationer, to Rideau. A pplication was m:lde to the British Government 
for assistance, and as that government was desirous of encouraging a good class of 
emigrants to settle in Canada, a salary of ;[100 stg. a year was promised to each 
of those ministers, "in addition to such provision as might be made for them by the 
settlers," * 
In due course, Mr. Bell was settled at Perth in the Rideau district; but l\fr, 
Taylor, instead of coming to Argenteuil, went to Osnabruck on the St. Lawrence, and 
pitched his tent there. On learning of this, Dr, Hall corresponded with the Rev, 
Archibald Henderson, 1\1. A., of Carlisle in England, wh0, after due consideration, 
accepted the appointment thus vacated (the same provision being made for him by 
the Government, as had been for Mr. Taylor), and came to St. Andrews in the 
summer of 1818. 
:\Ir. Henderson was born at Daune near Stirling, Scotland, on the 27th September, 
17 8 3. He attended the Grammar School of Stirling under the famous Dr. Doig, from 
whom he imbibed that love of learning and that accurate scholarship by which he was 
distinguished. At the age of 16, he entered the University of St. Andrews, the most 
ancicnt of the existing seats oflearning in Scotland. Pl'here he studied under another 
enthusiastic scholar, Dr. John Hunter, whose editions of Virgil and Horace and other 
classics used to be so familiar in the Scottish grammar schools. Mr. Henderson was 
an able mathematician, as well as scholar, and was advised by the Professor of that 
branch of science: to devote himself to it. He had, however, higher views, and went to 
Selkirk to attend the Divinity Hall of the Associate Synod, which was presided over 
by the well-known Dr, Lawson. That great man was Principal and Professor of all the 

* As stated in a despatch to Dr. Hall from Earl Bathurst, Secretary of State for War, the adminis- 
tration of Colonial affairs being at th:lt time in the hands of the \Var Department. The salary was 
paid out of the Military Chest at Quebec, afterwardi at Halifax, when the British Garrison had been 
removed from Quebec. 




departments of Theology, in his single person, and trained an able and well-furnished 
race of ministers. 1\1 r. Henderson had thus the advantage of sitting at the feet of 
three teachers of the very first eminence in the country, and he showed himself a pupil 
worthy of them. Dr, Hall, in a lener to Mr. Easton, in September, 1817, says of 
rson : " If he will come, I could not point out one in all the Synod better quali- 
fied. He is pious, mode!Et, active, and persevering. He composes elegantly, pro- 
nounces the English language unexceptionally (a rare thing, I suppose, for a Scotch- 
man in those days), delivers himself with a manly fluency and grace, and, lastly, is an 
admirable classical scholar, and completely fitted to superintend an academy. I can 
stake our credit on him." 
He had been settled in 1810 over a church in the City of Carlisle, and from thence 
he came to this country, at the call of the inhabitants of Argenteuil, to take the 
oversight of their souls and preach to them the Gospel of the Grace of God. 
He sailed from Greenock at the end of 
Iay, 1818: and arrived in Canada in 
July. He brought with him a letter from Earl Bathurst to the Governor General, 
Sir John C. Sherbrooke, by whom he was kindly received. Lea ving his wife and 
three small children in Montreal, he came to St. Andrews, and preached to the 
people, who were much pleased with him, even beyond their expectations. He was 
speedily recalled 10 :Montreal by the sickness and death of of his children. "îth a 
sorrowing heart he returned with his family to the \'illage which was to be the scene 
of his labors and his home for nearly fifty-nine years, St. Andrews, beautifully 
situated at the foot of a rapid, on both sides of the North River, was a smail place, 
and, to the new comers from the crowded Old Country, scarcely visible. Mrs, Hen- 
derson used to tell how she asked on arriving and looking round: "\\There is the 
village? " and received the reply: "It is on the other side of the river," "Then on 
that side, she still asked: "But where is the village?" Again the answer came: 
"On the other side of the river." 
The district was in much need of Gospel ordinances, no minister having ever 
been settled in it. Mr. Easton of Montreal occasional1y came to attend to the Pres- 
byterians. An Episcopal minister preached once a fortnight to the people of that 
body, while a good man, Hugh Cameron, of Cote du Midi, was wont to exhort the 
people, and even, it is said, sometime to baptize children. He was usually spoken of 
as " Hughy the :\linister," and his descendants are still distinguished by the cognomen 
of " the minister." 
There was now, however, an abundance of clerical provision, for on the same 
day with Mr. Henderson, and in the 
ame buildin& the Rev. Joseph Abbott of the 
Church of England began his labors. For a time, the two congregations held service 
at different hours on the Lord's Day in the village schoolhouse, the Presbyterians 
meeting in the forenoon and the Episcopalians in the afternoon, 
The people who formed l\Ir, Henderson's congregation weIe cliiefly of two 
, both of vigorous and reliable character. The greater part were Scotch settler


10 7 

mostly Highlanders; the other families were chiefly of United Empire Loyalist stock. 
or who had mOle recently cr03sed the lines from t!1e nei 6 hb 8ring Republic in the 
same spirit, 

On the 26th January, 1819, a meeting of :\Ir. Henderson's congregation was held 
in the schoolhou!'e, to consider" the necessity of building a place of public worship." 
Capt, Elon Lee was appointed i\[oderatnr, and Guy Richards, Secretary, It was 
motioned, seconded and unanimously \"oted, that a church ought to be built, and 
:l committee was appointed to determine whether it should be built of wood or stone, 
and to t'xamine various proposed sites for the cJ- urch. The committee consisted of 
:\Iessrs. John Brush, James Bro\\ n, Charles Story, Duncan Dewar of Chatham, \\'m. 
Blanchard, Judah Center, John McMartin, Hugh McLachlin, John !\IcLean, 
Davis, Charles Benedict, Phineas Hutchins,1'h05. Barron, G. A. Hooker and Peter 
Dewar. They wisely decided on stone, and ill the fall of that year, the people were 
busy quarrying near the Red House, and in drawing the stone and other materials.* 
In 1820-21 the chUlch was built, on a site given by the Seigneur, Sir John John- 
son, Bart" on the west side of the North River. It was a plain but solid structure, 
which still stands as strong as ever, but enlarged and greatly improved in appearance, 
The builders appear to have been A. Graham for the stone work, and Archibald and 

Ialcohn McCallum for the wood-work, and they built faithfully and well. Friends in 
Montreal gave generous assistance, a subscription list being headed by the Seigneur 
with Æ.25 in money and material, and \V. l\IcGillivray with Æ.IO, and amounting in all 
to ..t 148 I 2S 6d, It is interesting to see on the list the IJame
 of families still flourish- 
ing m 
Iontreal, prosperous and liberal, such as Torrance, Frothingham, Ogilvie,. 
Johnstone, Gibb, and that of George Pyke, afterwards one of the judges of the King's. 

One of Mr. Hendenwn's first acts on settling in the country was to get an oflicial 
register for the due recording of "Acts of Civil Stat
s," according to the law3 of 
Lower Canada. It \Vas authen ticated on the first page in the following form :- 
" This boo].., con taining eighty-eight folios or double pages, was this day presented 
by the Reverend Archibald Henderson, minister of the Presbyterian Parish Church, 
St. Andrews, A rgenteuil, to serve as a register of the Acts of Baptism, 
Iarriage and 
Burial, to be by him performed, and the same was this day paraphed by me, the H on. 
James Reid, one of the Judges of l-!is Majesty's Court of King's Bench for the Dis- 
trict of Montreal, pursuant to the Act in such case made and provided. 
"MONTREAL, 12th day of August, 1818, 

h J. S. REID, J.K.B." 
*The ., Red House" was fln old post of the Hudson's Bay Co., and stood in a conspicuous posi. 
tion on the shore of the Ottawa River, some di!>tance higher up than the Manor House. .Both these 
houses have disappeared. 



Marriage of 

Five days later the first entry was made: it was of a marriage, in these terms :- 
Daniel de Hertel of St. Andrews, Argenteuil, Esquire, 
and Lydia Brown, minor daughter of James Brown of the city 
of l\Iontreal, Stationer, were married by License on the seven- 
teenth day of August, in the year of Our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and eighteen, in the presence of the undersigned 
witnesses, by me. 

T. DAns, 


The next entry is of the baptism of a child a month old, as follows :- 

Baptism of 


A son of Zechariah Whistle and his wife Eve, born on 
the twenty-third day of July, in the year of Our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and eighteen, was baptized on the 
twenty-third d3Y of August following, by the name of Samuel, 
in the presence of the undersigntd witnesses, by me. 



J he next en try is of the baptism of George, son of George Robertson of St. 
Andrews, papermaker, and his wife l\Iargaret. It is not till a year after, that the 
maiden surname of the mother is given, as well as her Christian name. Nor are the 
names of the parents of the parties recorded in the entries of marriages, as has to be 
done now, and the want of which has caused disputes in matters of property. The 
first burial en tered is not till a year has passed, when on the 13 th August, 1819, occurs 
the burial of a child who had died the day before, viz., James, the sixteen month old 
" son of the late Amos Blanchard of Montreal, cabinet-maker, and his wife Susan,:' 
'Vhile deaths were so few, Mr. Henderson in the first year baptized fifty children 
and married twenty couplts, people coming to him for those services from consider- 
able distances all round, from Lachute, Chatham, Rigaud, River du Chêne, and even 
from Mon treal in several instances. Lachute is called "the Chute," or " the Chute 
settlement," and our familiar River Rouge is translated into" the Red River." 
These fifty marriages were all "by banns " or "after proclamations of banns," 
except two, which were" by license," The number of marriages by license gradually 
increased, engaged couples apparently growing in shyness or pride, as the country 
grew in wealth and society developed itself. At length, about 1846, banns and 
licenses balance each other, and a dozen years later, marriage by license had become 
general, and for more than thirty years banns are almost unknown to the record, very 
few being willing to have their matrimonial intentions publicly announced in church, 


10 9 

Not one has been so announced sin12e the law was authoritatively declared to mean 
that where banns are published they must be published on three successive Sundays 
and not, as had been the ususal practice, three times in one day. 
The Register is very carefully kept aM through in regard to marriages; but it is 
less so for a few years after .824, in regard to baptisn:s and burials. At that time 
there were some who questioned the legal right of the clergy of the E:hurch of 
Scotland to keep registers or to officiate at marriages, and in a particular case the 
Court of Appeals decided against them. .\Ir. Henderson took an active part in 
vindicating the rights 
of himself and hIs brethren. A Bill was brought before the 
Legislature of the Province, "for the Relief of Ministers connected with the 
Associate Synod," and when the Legislative Council desired infornlation in regard 
to that body, he drew up a Memorial setting forth the history and principles of 
the Church of which he was a minister, and its high stall ding in Scotland. The Act 
was passed, and the disabilities which it had been attempted to impose on him and 
others were ca<;t aside, and their claim to " Equal Rights" publicly recognized. 

A Presbyterian Church is not completely organiæd without Ruling Elders. 
Accordingly at an early period three were chosen and ordained to that office, to wit, 
Messrs, \Vm. G, Blanchard, Benjamin \Vales, and - Cummins. Other Elders 
appointed in after years were in August, 1832: \Vm. .\IcEwen, John McConnell. \Vm. 
Cook and Guy Richards; in May, 1836, Charles Benedict and Peter 
lc:\Iartin; in 
1\1arch, 1863, John McGregor and Alex. 
IcLachlan ; in March, 1877, James :\[iddle- 
ton (formerly an Elder in Stanley St. Church, Montreal), Charles \Vales (son of 
Benjamin \Vales above named), and James 
IcOuat; in February, 1881. John 
Rouertson (formerly an Elder in the Free Church of Scotland, and subsequently, 
after completing his theological studie') at Queen's College, Kingston, ordained Dec., 
188 4, as :\Iinister of 
[ill Haven and Ernestown in the Presbytery of K.ingston) ; 
in 1887, Charles T. \Vales* (son of Charles Wales above named), David Rodger* and 
John F. K.. McM
Lrtin. * Thus in the \Vales family there ha\'e been three generations 
of Elders in succession, a circumstance not unprecedented, but yet not common, 
although it ought to be of frequent occurrence, the sons walking in the footsteps of 
their Godly fathers. 

Mr. Henderson labored, as Presbyterian 
\Iinister of the Seigniory of Argen- 
teuil, with much activity. Uesides his work at St. Andrews, he preached regularly 
at Lachute, where he established a Temperance Society; at Chath.1m also, tra\.elling 

'*' Those whose names are marked with all asterisk (-) fUIm the pre
ent session along with the 
Rev. Dr. Paterson, the Moderator. 
Tr. :\liddlcton, a man much beloved, died at the age of 86, while 
this book was passing through the pless, all the rest hating gone before c:!I.cept 
Ir. Roùeltson. \\ho 
lives in Kova 



the seven or eight miles to those places by road5 which were mere bridle paths through 
the forest, beset somdimes with wolve') and bears. He had service also in the dis- 
tricts round the \.illage on the S lbbath afternoons, as there was only one diet üf 
worship in the church on that day. Through his pastoral care and fidelity the 
Presuyteri 1l1S of his wide field were nourished and strengthened till, in 183 2 , a separa"e 
congregaliùn was formed at Lachu'
. One of the few minutes of Session ex!ant 
of the early period relates to this matter. It is dated St. Andrews, I nh July, 18 3 2 , 
and bears that: "A petition WJS presented from the following church members re- 
t Lachute and the l;eighuorhood, v
z.: [tLe names are not givenl, pray- 
ing the Session to disjoin them from this Church, that they may be formed into a 
distinct church of the same de 10mination under the pastoral care of the Rev, \Vm. 
Brunton, who now ministers amung them. The Session agreed that the prayer of 
this Petition I;e granted, and the petitioners are hereby disjoined." 
.\fter some years, the congregation (Æ Lachute divided into two, one of them 
becoming connected with the Free Church. .-\ third was formeu at Chatham, in 
connection with the Church of Scotland, and at a bt
r period, a church was built at 
Pt. Fortune also, for the accommodation of the memuers of the Chatham congrega- 
tion res;ding there. Thus the St. Andrew's Church grew after the manner of the 
banyan tree, the b:-anches of which stretch out on aU sides. and by and by rea.h 
to the ground, where they take root and grow u!) into so many distinct trees, at a 
distance from the parent stem, yet vitally connected with it and with each other, and 
spreading one wide uml.>r;lgeous !.helter. Although of three different sections of the 
Presbyterian Chll1"ch, yet al1 these congregations were alike in doctrine, government, 
and worship, and they were all united again; three of them at the union of th
Church and the United Presbyterian Church in 186 [. and the others at the memorable 
and happy union of the J 5th J line, 1875. when all the Presbyterian b )dies in the 
Dominion, with the exception of a few congregations here and there, were formed 
into one, under the name of " the I'reshyterian Church in Canada:' 

In the meantime, although 
lr. He1lderson and his congregation were Presby- 
terians, they were for many years without the oversight (,f any Pre
uyter)'. He, how- 
ever, had heen in thehabit of meeting with his mini...teri:ll brdhrèn for mutual fdlow
and counsel. In 18
3, the "
lissionary Presbytery of Eastern Canada" was formed 
by authority of the United Secession Synol of Scotland. It con:;isted of, the Rev. 
Andrew K.ennedy of L1.chute and the Re\'. Alex. Lowden of New Glasgow,_ with 
their respective Elders, :\Iessrs. John i\IcOuat and John :\lurray, h was strengthened 
in 1845 by the accession of the Rev. Dr, Wm. Taylor, of Montreal, and his con- 
gregation in Lagauchetière street, which lnd been organized in 1833, but had hitherto 
been in Presbyterial connection with Upper Canada. 
en this Presuytery was form
d, Mr. Hendèr
on ùe5ired to become a member 
of it, .1.nd sent a memorial to the SyrìOd in Scotland, stating his position, and request- 



ing to be admitted, with the condition that he should be allowed to retain his annual 
grant from the government, But the Voluntary Controversy had been agitating the 
Churches of that country for a number of years, the ministers and people of the 
Secession generalIy taking strong ground against the establishment and endowment 
of the Church by the State, They were, therefore, unwilling to admit him unless he 
gave up the government salary, but offered to guarantee him an equal amount. He, 
ho\vever, did not wish to be a burden on their 
Iission funds, and declined the pro- 
posal, c.:>ntinuing in his former isolated condition till the }'ear 186

In that year, failing sight and strength compelIed him, now in his 77th year, to 
seek assistance in his work, and he made application for a preacher to the United 
Presbyterian (formerly the United Secession) Presbytery of Montreal. They were 
not able at the time to send one, and he applied to the Montreal Presbytery of the 
Presbyterian Church of Canada, which was in connection with the Free Church of 
Scotland. In due course, he and his congregation were received into that body, and 
a preacher was obtained from them, who gave satisfaction to the congregation and 
was duly called; but his settlement did not take place. In the same week in which 
he was expected to be ordained, the present pastor arrived ilJ Montreal from Scot- 
land. He was at once sent up to St, Andrews to supply the vacancy, and preached 
on the next two Sabbaths, 29th July and sth August, 1860. Having received an 
appointment to preach in another place, he left for five weeks, and returned to begin 
his regular work on the 16th Sept., and has continued ever since, through the help of 
God, to go in and out among the people till this day. He belonged to the United 
Presbyterian Church, but the two bodies were to be united shortly, a basis of u;lion 
having been mutually agreed upon, and he had no conscientious difficulty in antici- 
pating the Union by a few m,)nths. He therefore put himself under the care of the 
Free Church Presbytery, and on the 24th October he was ordair;.ed, "by the laying 
on of the hands of the Presbytery," to be 
\ssistant and Successor to the venerable 
servant of God, who had been himself ordained, just fifty years before, at Carlisle, and 
had borne the burden of pastoral duty at 
t. Andrews for two and forty years un- 
aided, save by the grace that is promised 
o every true worker, and by the sympathy 
and help of the able and fJ.ithful Elders and other members of his church, who had 
m05tly grown up under his ministry. 



[r. Henderson now practically ætired, the work b
ing le[[ entirely to the young 
minister; but he retained the status of Senior Minister and his po-;ition as a member 
of the Presbytery. Only three weeks after this happy settlement, as it was to him, a 
great sorrow came upon him in the brief sickness and death of his wife, She was the 
daughter of the Rev. Mr. Morton, the Relief Minister of Leslie in Fife, and a "oman 



of piety and shrewdness and kind-heartedness, with a touch of racy humor, in which 
her husband also abounded, and a spirit of hopefulness which was a strong support 
to him in tr.e despondency to which he was somewhat prone, She died on the 16th 
November, being witI-in a month of eighty-one years of age. 
Two years later he lost the only remaining member of his family, his son Peter, 
who was a physician in Ottawa, and died unmarried, 26th November, 1862, at 
Burritt's Rapids, where he l'ad some property, and to which he had gone for his health, 
He was 44 years old, 

lr. Henderson preached occasionally in the absence of the pastor, usually tak- 
ing part also in the quarterly communion services and in the prayer meetings. His 
91st birthday happening on a Sabbath, he preached an earnest and affectionate dis- 
course to the young, addressing them as from the borders of the eternal world, and 
testifying that it was only the fear of God and the faith of Christ that could make 
their lives truly useful and their end happy. Towards the end of 1876 his health 
rapidly declined, and on the r9th January, 1877, he suddenly passed away, having 
lived ninety-three years and nearly four months, He died in the house of his col- 
league, where he spent the last eight years of his life. He had been very reticent, 
like most of his countrymen, as to his inward thoughts and feelings, but a day or 
two before the end he began to open his mind a little, saying in reference to his hopes 
for eternity: "I cast myself, as a sinner ready to perish, on the mercy of Him who is 
mighty to save." He did not remember when or where he had "cast his first an- 
chor," to use an expression of John Knox's, hut he had cast it long ago on safe 
ground, and his hope was sure and steadfast and entering into that which is within 
the veil. 


The history of the Congregation had been one of harmony, except at one period, 
in the 30's, when misunderstandings arose between the minister and some of the peo- 
ple, resulting in a number of them leaving the Church; but, in course of time, most 
of these returned to their former fold. With that exception, the Church had a 
peaceful and prosperous existence, their accomplished pastor feeding them with 
knowledge and und
rstanding from the stores of his biblical and theological learning, 
and his deep, though unobtrusive, spiritual life. Liberal himself and large.minded, 
he taught them to take an interest in Bible Society and missionary work, having a 
weekly prayer meeting, alld, once a month, a "monthly concert" or missionary 
meeting, which has been kept up to this day. The money raised was sent for many 
years to the American Board of 
ommissioners for Foreign Missions i but when the 
Canada Presbyterian Church established foreign missions of its own in Formosa, 
China, India, the New Hebrides, and other parts of the world, the members thought 
it their duty to give their contributions to the support of their own Church missioll
The Congregation still has over sixty families connected with it, although its field 



has been contracted by the establishment of other four or five Presbyterian congre- 
gations within its original bounds, besides a number belonging to other d
tions ; and, although there has also been a constant drain of the young men to the 
ever inviting and largely promising 'Vest, besides the frequent removal of families to 
other localities, lessening the Protestant }Jopulation in its different branches. 
The membership has increased to above one hundred and forty, through the 
occasional incoming of new families and the steady growing up of n1.lny of the young 
(why should it not be so written of all?) into a solid Christi3.n life. On several occa- 
sions, through means of special service3, larg
 additi )ns were made to the number of 
The Congregation has grown in the grace of liberality in giving to the calIse of 
God, Before 1860, they gave little for the support of the Church, the salary which their 
minister received from the military chest seeming to them to relieve them from almost 
all responsibility on this behalf, By their enjoym,=nt of G.)spel ordinances with so 
little charge to themselves, they lost the privilege of exerting themselves for th
port of Christ's cause and the blessing which is promised to those who are faithful in 
this duty; and when, all at once, the whole burden of supporting their mini3ter was 
laid upon them, som
, faint-hearted, were ready to shrink from it. T,le greater part, 
however, stood manfully forward, 3.nd by bearing became stronger to bear. "For to 
him that hath shall be given." TI-:.ey found a new pieasure in new duties and 
new relations, and were ready to acknowledge that Christ's way was the best, viz., 
that they who preach the Gospel should live of the Gospel. They undertook to give 
their new minister $600 a year, and in 1861 their contributions to all church purposes 
were $728, a large sum for a people that ha -j probably not gi 'len more than $150 in 
anyone year before. 
Since that time the stipe:1d has been i:1creased twice, while the contributions to 
the schemes of the Church have also increased. In 18yo they raised $[,233, includ- 
ing subscriptions for some special objects, and for the last four years the congregation 
has contributed, for all purposes, from $[,100 to nearly $[,300 each year, being an 
average of $20.00 per family. This may seem large to some, but it is less than the 
average over the whole Presbyterian Church in Canada, which was in thè bte')t report 
$22.82. But what is that to what i') still due to God? If all the tithes that are 
unpaid were brought into His storehouse in the spirit of consecration, the world 
would soon be changed. The truth is that the Church of Christ has only be;ull to 

In r877 th
 church building wa') greatly improved from its form
r unadorned, 
barn-like appearance, by having a new and handsome front erected, with corner 
tower, and much work done inside, costing in all $2,500. Four years later, in 1881, 
the manse al!'o underwent a much needed renovation, at a cost of nearly $600. In 
both cases the Ladies' Association contributed a large proportion of ti\e expenses. 
The manse, with garden and small meadow attached, is the house which 
[r. Hen- 



on huilt for himself shortly after his arrival here, and which he made over before 
his death to the Congrrgation, as their property for the use of the minister. 
The Congregation has, doubtless, much to lamen t over in its history and experi- 
ence, whi:e there is much for which to give God. thanks. Many men and women 
who Iuvè been brought up in it, now scattered over the Dominion and the United 
States, are in their spheres, some of them prominent, supporting the cause of truth 
and righteousness; and thus its influence is wide5pread. It has helpe:1 to keep the 
Gospel light shining here for seventy -seven years, and borne its part with other 
churches in testifying for Christ and in training the people for His K.ingdom." 
The REV. DANIEL PATERS1N, D.D., was born in Greenock, Scotland, and studied 
at the Grammar School ofthat place, under the tuition of James Lockart Brown. LL.D., 
an excellent teacher and scholar. He next went to the University of Glasgow, where 
one of his professors was the great scientist, "Tm. Thumson, now Lord Kelvin, and 
there recei ved the degree of A. 
L He studied theology in the U ni ted Pres by terian 
Divinity Hall, Edinburgh, and came to Canada in the summer of 1860, and was 
ordained at S1. Andrews, October 24th of that year. He has been connected with the 
Presbyterian College of 
ince its commencement, as a trustee and member 
of the Board cf Management, as one of the examiners for eight years, and as a member 
of the College Senate for thirteen He received the degn:e of D.D. from the 
College in 18 9 2 . He was appointed one of the representatives of the 
I()ntreal Pres- 
bytery in the Campbell heresy case, to defend the action of the Presbytery before the 
Synod of Montre3.1 and Ottawa, and did so with the other representatives, who were 
Ic 'Ticar, Scrimger. and Robert Campbell. 
Dr. Paterson is one of those quiet, unostentatious men, whose godly life is a more 
powerful sermon to the unconverted than usually falls flOm the pUlplC. Though schol- 
arl) and thoroughly well-informed respecting current events, his sermons are anything 
but pedantic; he preaches only Christ, and Him crucified, in a simple, convincing man- 
ner. He is, in short, a minister whom the unregenerate man would prefer at his bed- 
side, when he feels that he is drifting out upon the great unknown. 
It is but just to add that, in his many years of faithful labor at St. Andrews, 
Dr. Pdterson has been ably assisted by Mrs. Paterson, who is devoted to temper- 
ance, benevolence, and every Christian work, 


"About midway between the villages of St. Andrews and Carillon, at an angle 
formed by the king's highway, and a few rods from the noble Ottawa River, rises a 
modest stone church. The solitude of its position seems to invite to meditation and 
prayer. The young but sturdy greenwood about it is a proof of the rt'spect with 
which it is regarded; it is the Catholic Church of St. Andrews parish, where meet in 



prayer the Catholic populatio'1 of St. Andrews, Carillon and Point Fortune; the date 
of it:; con<;truction is 1835. Prior to that period, the Catholics of the locality were 
ministered to by the parish priest of Rigaud. Their 1111mber having sufficiently in- 
creased to claim a resident curé, in 1830, they applied to 1Igr, Jean Jacques Lartigue 
to obtain permission to erect a church. The pro::eedings were not a little protracted, 
however; but in 1835 work was fuHy under way, and 'Iessrs. Owen, Quin, Gaspard 
de la Ronde, \Villiam Byrnes, A. E: Montmarquet, O. de Hertel and Edouard Dorion 
Igr, Lartigue to send a delegate to bless the corner-stone and the cross 
of the new church. 
The church tl-.en built wa') sixty feet in length and forty-one in breadt.h. It \Vas 
blessed on the 17th of March, 1836, by the Rev, 
I. Archambault, arch-priest, curé 
of Vaudreuil. The text of the Act is as followf. : 
. On the 17th day of March, onc thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, in the 
, forenonn, we, arch-priest and curé of St. :\lichel de Vaudreuil, have solemnly 
, blessed a church dedicated to St, Andrew the Apostle, built in the Seigniory of 
, Argentellil, and for the use of the inhabitants of the said Seigniory ; in the presence 
, of )Iessrs. Pierre Jacques de Lamothe, parish priest of St. Anne du Bout de l'Ile 
, de \(ontréll; of Nicolas Dufresne, priest of St, Sulpice, missionary at the Lake of 
. Two :\(ountains j of Jacques Janvier Vinet, parish priest of Ste. l\Jagdeleine de 
, Rigaud; al1d of Edouard Montmarquet, E<;q'Jire, m
rchant of the said Seigniory of 
, Argenteuil, who have signed with liS. the day and the year as above.' 
It is this sam
 church that still exists, with, however, an extension of thirty feet, 
and a sacristy added to it. 
The registry of the parish begins in 1833. The first act mentioned therein is that of 
the lllan iage of Eustache Perrault and Sophie Mahtu. According to these acts, we 
find eighteen priestc; who hC'.\"e discharged the functions of parish priest up to the 
present time. There are actuaIly 260 Catholic families, wit h a population of 14 00 
souls. Seven Catholic schools are in steady, active work, The best attended are: 
1st, th
 St. Andrews village school,-120 children are inscribed on the roll-call; 2nd, 
the Carillon school, whose roll-call numbers 85; 3rd, the convtt1t, with 40 boarding 
pupils. These three institutions are undn the direction of the Sisters of rro\'idence, 
Behind the church, and to\Valds the Ottawa RivEr, rises another substantia 
building in stone, three stories high, wi th mansa I'd roof; it i, Fa:her Ronill's College 
If the Province of Quebec be visited, and the question asked: WilO were the founders 
of all the educational establishments noticed in so many pari
h('s? the answer would 
almost il1\"ariably ue : it is the work of our par i
h priests. 
By economical living, Father Ronin had been able to Jay :lsid
 some savings; 
and, like so many of hi..; brother priests, his desire was to advance the cause of the 
education of youth. Therefore on t!1e 9th of August, 18...S, the Rev. F.tther 
Bonin, an ex-Sulpician, the parish priest uf St. Scholastique, proposed to the members 
of the Fabrique of Saint 1\ ndrews, that they grant him land whereon to build: and 
he promis,:d to erect, at his own expense, a college for the instruction of }outh. His 



wish was to procure for the children of the place the advantages of education with- 
out obliging them to leave their homes and their parents. There was not, at that 
date, any establishment of the kind in the neighborhood, This proposal of Father 
Bonin was accepted on th
 13th of August, 1848. The ground W,lS given to him 
on which he built the house. occupied by the Sisters of Providence. 
At its inception, this Institution was confided to the Clercs of St. Viateur. It 
was very prosperous for some seven or eight years, cuunting, in fact, as many as 150 
to 200 pupils, who ft'ceived a superior education, and even a classical course was 
int roduced. A college had been built at Riga-ud one year after the opening of the 
Bonin Academy; these two houses were in too great proximity to both flourish. The 
number of pupils decreased rapidly in the Ronin Academy. Classes were continued, 
however, up to the month of ,\ pril, 1878; then, there were not more than 20 young 
boys in attendance. 
The Reverend Father L. Z. Champoux, at that time parish priest at St. Andrews, 
saw that Father Bonin's generolls gift to the parish would benefit a larger number, 
and that the bequeather's intentions would be more truly carried out, if the college 
were transfurmed into a convent. He therefore called the 
isters of Providence to 
the place, with the permission and authorization of the Bishop of Montreal. The 
Reverend Sisters tc ok possession on the 14th of September, 18 7 8 . 
Father Champoux had wisely consulted the best interests of St. Andrews: to- 
day, the Sisters have 25 0 pupils in their classes, and it may be said without exaggera- 
tion, that they perform admirable work in the varish, both by education and by the 
relief of the siÜ:. 
The priest's residtnce was successively the sacristy of the church, Father BOI
house, and, since 1889, the actual handsome presbytery, 
.\ fal:t worthy of note, and which proves the good will of the Catholics of St. 
Andrews, is, that all that has been done by them was by voluntary contribution; 
 has never been had to the legal means provided uy the statutes." 
Rev. F. .\. Dugas was born at St. Jacques de l' Achigan, Co. of 1Iuntcalm. He 
took a classical four years' course at the College of l'Assomption, and afterwards, 
till July, 1878, was professor of Belles Lettres in the same institution. He was ordained 
priest, 7th February, 18 7 8 , and was vicar of St. Roch de l'Achigan from July to 
October of the same year; and of Chambly from the latter date till 
Iay, 1884' 
During t8S4 and 1885, he was for a year Director of the Classical College of St. 
Boniface, )lan., and tht:11 curé of the Cathedral till July, 1889. After this, he was 
employed as lecturer in behalf of colonization till February, 1890, since which he has 
been curé of Sr, Andrews. 
The Rev. Mr. i5 a courteous and affable: gentleman, and is respected by 
all. He is devoted t) his work, and is a stlOng advocate of temperance among his 




(Copied chirfly þ'011l the Church t'ccords.) 
"The Baptist Church at St. _\ndrews, Lower Canada, commenced in the follow. 
ing manner: 
" In the year 1835-36, Mr, Gilmour, having resigned his charge at Montreal, 
spent some time with the people at St. Andrews, and preached the Gospel much to 
their satisfaction, and, it is hoped, not without some success, either as to the awaken- 
ing of the careless or the comfort and edification of believers. 
,( But in June, 1836, Mr. Gjlmour left on a mission to Boston, to procure assist- 
ance to the newly formed Instituti
l at Montreal for tIle education of young men 
for the ministry, and for the more general diffusion of religious instruction through 
the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. 
(' In the month of July, the same year, the Rev. :\lr. Tapscott, who had just 
arrived from England, was directed by the providence of God to visit this place. 
The meetings held here, and in surrounding neighborhoods, were well attended, and 
some good seemed to be effected. 
" There were several persons, members of the Churc'l of Chatham, who were 
regular worshippers with liS; some others had been baptised by Mr. Gilmour-three 
on the loth, and two on the 15th August, in the North River, 
"August 15th. A discourse was del:vered relative to the nature ofa Christian 
church, after which those present, who had been baptized on a profession of their 
faith, gave to each other the right hand of fellowship, in token of their union with 
each other as the Church of Christ. 
"The church being formed on the principles of frèe communion, two persons 
were received, the same evening, without being baptized. The church, at present, 
consists of sixteen members, May we walk together in the fear of the Lord and the 
comfort of the Holy Ghost, and be multiplied. 
Iarch 12th, 1837. .1\[r, Tapscott having received an invitation to spend some 
time in Toronto as an evangelist, and conceiving it his duty to comply with it, 
signified his intention of leaving us as soon as the term of hi:; engagement expires. 
" March 26th. A letter to the Ottawa Association was read, asking to be received 
into the Association. 
Iarch 29th, 30th. The Ottawa Baptist Association held its second annual 
meeting with us at St. Andrews, and we were received into the Association according 
to our request. 
" The meetings were well attended and were interesting. The letters contained 
little information of an animating nature; in some of the churches unhappy differ- 
ences exist; in others, great apathy. !\luch important business was transacted, and 
great harmony prevailed. 
" April 2nd. At a church meeting it was resolved: that an invitation be sent 
to Rev, John Edwards, jr" requesting him to spend one half his time as a minister 
of the Gospel among the people of St. Andrews. 



" The records show that Mr. Edwards accepted the call, and began hi:; regular 
labors on the 7 th day of May, 1837, and continued till October, 1843. After his 
resignation, the Baptists attended the Congrt'gational Church, of which building they 
werf' joint owners with the Congregationalists; but in 1849, the Baptists became 
sole proprietors of the church, and the Congregationalists prepared
to build a new one. 
" In J line, ] 8.4 8 , in compliance with an invitation from the Baptist Church, the 
Rev. John Dempsey arrive<.l, and on the fourth day of that month began his regular 
I" A difficulty of rather 6rave import stood in the way cf Mr. Dempsey's becom- 
ing their pastor. The ChurLh was open communion in practice, and 
he majority of 
its members in principle. He, on the other hand, was a c!ose Communionist, and 
could consent to be nothing else. 
" .\ meeting was called on Friday evening, 1st September, 1848, to consult on 
what plincip!e the Church could proceed in future with respect to the subject of 
communion, In this nleeting, not on1y the members of the Church, but all the 
baptized who attended, took a part. The question was then put whether the Church 
should proceed in future on the open or close communion principle, and a vote being 
taken, it was carried In favor of close by a majority of one. 
" After the departure of 
f r. Dempsey, the Baptist Church seemeJ never to reach 
the degree of spiritual healih and firmness t]13.t she h3::1 before possessed. A decline 
began, numbers decreased, and after a few spasmodic efforts to rekindle the early 
zeal and establish vigor, the church as an org.mizatlon ceased to exi:a. 
.. Early in the year 1865, the Rev, J. 'V. :Manning was eng
ged as pastor, and his 
pastorate continued to 1869, when another minister officiated ti:118 72. The Church 
was supplied the next six years by students, when the Rev. 
Ir. Moyle accepted a 
call. His pastoral services terminated in about a year, however, and with them ended 
all regular services in the Baptist Church of St. Andrews." 
The following sketch of Rev. Mr, Dempsey is an extract copied from the 
Canadian Baptist of May 18th, 18 93 :- 
lr. Dempsey was born near a small hamlet, called Resharkin, in the county 
Antrim, Ireland, December 28th, 1822. 'Vith his parents he came to Canada, and 
settled in the township of Oxford, county of Grenviile. From his earliest years, his 
religious training was of the stern, unlovely kind, which was, unhappily, not uncom- 
mon in Scotch Presbyterian famihes of an earlier day. Though trained in a rigid 
morality, diligent in the study of the Bible, and strictly attentive to all the .externa's 
of religion, God was to him a God of terror rather than a God of love. At seven 
teen years of age, his eyes were opened to the necessity of the spiritual change by 
which alone he could become a child of God, After weeks of intense mental strug. 
gle and anguish, I the graciolls Father sent him the light, and joy came to him,' so 
real and gladsome, and peace so full and sweet! 
" Being fully persuaded of the necessity for thorough preparation for the great 



work before him, he entered Mon
real Baptist College, took the full four years course, 
and graduated June 1st, I g48, having made a record for earnest, patient and sucCt'ss- 
ful work. His tìrst field of labor after graduation was St. Andrews. Entering upon 
the work under great difficulties, caused by divisions and bitter contentions which 
had been going on in the church for years, he finally got together a little band of 
sixteen, over which he was ordained pastor on September 18th, 1848. For si
years he continued in St, Andrews, being in
tan t in season a
d out of season, preach- 
ing the word of life. He baptized there over 400 people. During all these years 
he did the work of an evangelist throughout the neighboring country, He left St. 
Andrews in 1864. having received a call from the church in Port Hope. 
" A sketch of Mr. Dempsey's life would be incomplete without some allusion to 
the evangdistic work he accomplished: apart from his regular p3.s
oral duties, While 
pastor at St. Andrews, he travelled on foot or on horseback, alone, or in company 
with brethren King, Edwards, McPhail or Anderson, throughout the entire region of 
the old Ottawa Association, Breadalbane, Notfield, Osnabruck, South Gower, Aug- 
mentation, Riceville, Lanark, Kemptville, O;;;g'Jode, Kenmore, Ormond, Clarence, 
Thurso, Papineallville, and many other places from Quebec to Kingston, have listened 
to his earnest preaching of Christ. These preaching tours involved much hard work 
and hardship, yet it was g!adly engaged in, and God abundantly honored it. 
" !\1 r. Dempsey, besides being pastor and evangelist, was intensely interested in 
all denominational matters. Dr. Fyfe found him a steady friend to the work in 
\Y oodstock. He was secretary of the Ottawa Association; secretary of the East- 
ern Convention from 1858 to ]864; secretary of the Superannuated Society from the 
beginning. He has been officially connected with our missionary organizations irom 
their inception; and perha ps to no man among us has been given a larger share of 
responsibility and work, in connection with the planning anl advocacy of the united 
work of the churches." 


By REV. J. McADlE. 
" The Congregational Church in St. Andrews, which is the only represen tati \ e of 
this denomination of Christians in the county of Argenteuil, was organi.æd in 1838. 
In its early history the Church was beset with many difficultiec;, and its subsequent 
career has been a chequered one j yet, here have been nurtured m
n and women who, 
for steadfastness of purpose, )oyalty to principle and to conscience, intelligent in. 
terest in the welfare of the community, and activity in the service of Chri::;t for the 
propagation of His kingdom, will not be easily surpassed. 
The Rev. 'Vm. McKillican of Indian Lands, one of the pioneer Congregational 
ministers of Canada, and a devoted servant of Christ, had for many years paid an 
annual or Li-annual visit to St, Andrews, preaching. not the special beliefs of his own 
denomination, but the sim pIe Gospel of a full and free salvation; and, at length, he 
had the joy of forming, in what was then one of the OlOSt thrivin
 villages in the 
western part of Lower Canada, a Church of his own faith and order. 



In a house, that has since disappo..ued, on the east side of the North River, 
occupied by Mr. Blanchet, the Church was formed; the only cler
yman present being 
the Rev. Mr, McKillican. The little Church shewed signs of vigorous life, and was 
soon engaged in building a house for the worship of God. But scarcely had their 
meeting house been completed, when trouble arose, owing to some arrangements for 
a joint occupancy and ownership with the Baptist denomination, and it was not 
until a separation had been effected, that harmony was restored. This took place in 
1848, the Baptists retaining the building. 
On October 25th, 1845, the Church, on the outlook for an under shepherd, called 
the Rev. Charles McKay, who had just graduatoo fron1 the Congregational Theolo- 
gical Institute in Montreal,-as the Congrcgatignal College was then called. That 
most interesting and solemn occasion, when the minister is set apalt for his work, 
which is losing much of its meaning amid the innumerab!e pastoral changes, now so 
common, i.; one never to be forgotten uy the young p1eacher. It forms a cli
and a turning point in his life. It is for this he has struggled and hoped a:1d prayed. 
Amid the discouragements of later years, he often looks back for inspiration to that 
h3pPY occasion. There wae prc.;ent, bcsides the Church and Congregation, the Rev. 
Thomas Bayne, some day to become successor of Mr. McKay; the Rev. Mr, Mc- 
Killican, that aged so]dier of the Cross, and sainted father of the Church; the Rev. 1. 
J. Carruthers of Gosford street church, !\Iontreal, so sympathetic and eloquent. They, 
with due solemnity, set the young man apart with the laying on of hands to the 
ministry of the word, and the Church rejoiced in the newly formed relation. 1\1r. 
McKay endeared himself to all hy his straightforw.ucl and manly conduct, his inde- 
pendent bearing and his faithful preaching of the Gospel, and his name is still held 
in loving remembrance by some of those who heard the Gospel from his lips. Never 
robust in body, it soon became evident that he could not long sustain the strain of 
the severe climate of this new country. He was advised to try the sea coast, and 
left St. Andrews at thc close of 1848 for St. John, New Brunswick, and was pastor 
of the Congregational Church there for a number of years. 
The Church was three years without a pastor, when the Rev. Thomas Bayne, 
who had been in charge of the churches of Hawkesbury and Vankleek Hill for several 
years, was called to fill the vacant office. He did so in the beginning of 1849, and 
remained until 18 5 2 ; but did not lay hold of the affections of his people, as did his 
or. During this period th(:; Church was engaged in choosing the site for 
their new meeting house and in its erection, which was not done without some in- 
ternal disturbance. A beautiful site was chosen on the west bank ofthe North River, 
and the church, a beautiful brick edifice, was, for the time, one of the best appointed 
village churches in the Ottawa Valley, Its erection was not completed until 1851. 
For a year after Mr. Bayne left, the Church was supplied by the Rev. Mr, Chase, 
Rev. John McKillican and the late Mr. Hibbard, until in 1854. when the Rev. Alex. 
Sim, M.A., was called to the pastorate. Few records remain of the spiritual con- 
dition ofthe Church during this period, but the membership is said to have been 3 2 ; 



some of these res'ding in Point Fortune, Lachute Road, Beech Ridge, River Rouge, 
Cote du Midi, Cote St. Pierre, as weli as in St. Andrews, Mr. Sim, who was a gra- 
duate of the University of Aberdeen and of the Congregational Theological Academy, 
Glasgow, was ordained to the" Ministry of the \Vord," at Aberdeen, on the 12th 
day of July, in the year 1853. He came to Canada to fill a position as Professor in 
Gorham College, Nova Scotia j but that institution was reduced to ashes before he 
arrived, and has never been rebuilt, 1\1r, Sim remained for about eleven years, and 
during this period the Church exercised an extended influence throughout the cum- 
munity. In addition to his ministerial duties, he added others of a scholastic 
ter, as teacher of a private and al
o of the public school. On leaving St. Andrews, 
he went to Franklin Centre, where he stayed for a short time, and finally took up a 
section of land in Western Ontario, where his family still reside, Mr. Sim passed 
away a few years ago to his final rest. 
From 1868 to 1885 is a long period, but f
w records remain to tell its story. The 
shepherdless flock held together for a long time, though diminished in numLers. The 
Sunday School was faithfully conducted by Mr. De\var, the senior deacon of the 
church, who remained true to the cause, amid storm and sunshine, in good and evil 
report, Among the studellts who supplied the pulpit during college vacations, we 
may mention Mr, Nighswander and Mr. Cossar. 
At length, in the summer of 1885, prospects brightened, and the little company 
were encouraged by \he Rev. Thomas Hall to make another effort. The Church was 
supplied during this and the succeeding winter by students of the Congregational 

, and in the fall of 1887, the Church called a graduate of the College, who had 
spent the previous summer as student supply, to be its pastor. In the presence of 
many beloved fathers and brethren, Mr. McAdie was set apart for the ministry of the 
""ord. During this period the church was renovated and partly rebuilt, at a cost of 
over $1600, all of wh:ch, save about $100, has been paid. 1\1r. McAdie's relation 
to the Church, first as student supply, and then as pastor, continued over six and one 
half years, But other events are too recent to be discussed at the present time, and 
must be left for a future historian. One member of the Church remains who saw its 
bl'ginning, \Ve trust he may not see its close." 
MR. McADlE still lives in St. Andrews, where he has nnny warm friends. His 
time is devoted to teaching and literary work,-chiefly to writing for religious period- 
icals. Mrs. McAdie also has displayed ability in the same work, and during the 
past year or two has delivered an occasional lecture, which was both interesting and 
Since Mr. l\IcAdic retired from the pastorate, the Church has been supplied by 
students, FREDERICK LEITCH being the first. He officiated for nearly two years, with 
much ability and popularity_ He graduated from McGill in 1894; and is now pastor 
of a church in Portland, Maine. 
He was succeeded hy CHARLES ASHDOWN, a clever young man, earnest in Irs 
work, and discharging hid duties to the great satisfaction of his congregation. 



:\Iethodists, like the Baptists, were once very numerous in St. Andrews, and 
this place was the head of the circuit j but, after this honor was transferred to 
Lachute, the church at the latter place increased in numbers, while that at St. 
Andrews steadily diminished, though there are still a goodly number in the parish- 
the census of 1891 giving it as 19 8 . 
This denomination erected a church here in 1845 or 184 6 , The most active con- 
tributors to this work were Hugh Stewart, a tinsmith, of St, Andrews; John Scofield, 
merchant; Adam Burwash, -- Rarber, of the East Settlement; and Richard Knee- 
shaw, of Beech Ridge. Thele is now neither Methodist Church building nor 
:Methodist service ;n St. Andrews, aU belonging to this denomination a
services at Lachute, The church was used till about the year 1880, when it was sold, 
and afterwards transformed into a schoolhouse, and is the building still occl:pied by 
the schools of this village. 
The following is a list of the ministers and their assistants, who were appointed 
to the St. Andrews Circuit, the number of membus, and contributions to different 
funds from.the year 184 1 to 18 6 5 inclusive: 

I S,p John ArmstlOng, \\' m. Dignam...... ..... . ... ...... 
184 2 John Alm!-trong, \Ym. MOlton.....,...........".. 
1 8 43 Wm. H, Williams. John Gemley. .... ",. ...... .... 
1844 Wm. H. Williams, 1 homas Hanna...... . . .. .',. .. .. 
1845 J, Hughe
, M. 13aÀter, J. Annstrong.... . . .' . .. . , ... 
IS46 'Michael13axte r . Charles Taggalt. ...... .... ",. ,.., 
I X 47 IDavid B. Madden, David C. :McDowell. .... ........ 
48 IDavid B. Madden, Richø.rd WIlson. .". ,." .... "., 
1849 Francis Coleman, John A\ mstrong 2nd. .,. . . " ...... 
18 5 0 Francis Coleman, Erastus Hurlhurt.."..." , , " . . . . 
1 8 5 1 Francis Coleman, Richard M. Hammond".. ,... .... 
18 5 2 Ihomas W. Constable, Richard:M. Hammond........ 
18 53 I Thomas \V. Constable, Silas Huntington"".,., . . , . 
. 18 54 Thomas \Y. Constable, Wm. Scales. ...' ,... .... ,... 
18 55 James H. Bishop, Andrew ArmstlOng. , " . , ,. . ,. . , .. 
1 8 5 6 IEd\\ard H. Dewalt, Edmund E. Sweet.... .... ....., 
18 57 'IEdward H. Dewart, J.:dmund E. Sweet,... .... ...... 
 IRobert Brown, Henry F.Bland.... ...... .... ...... 
18 59 Robert Iho\\ n, Henry F. Bland. , " .", . , . . , .., . , , , 
1860 \ Alfred Andrews, \Vm. M. Coo)y.... .." .... .... "., 
1861 Alfred Andrews.... ,... ...." .,. ".. ."... ,.,.,. 
1862 Wm. n. Brown, Alex.Campl,ell,2nd...... .......... 
18 6 3 Wm. D. 13ro\\n, Richard Robinson,..,.",. ",. .... 
1864 ICornelius A. Jones..... ".". ........ ".. .,.. .". 
186 5 ,Now called Lachute Circuit...", ...... ".. ".. ,." 

· Grenville set off. 

1 '- 
o . 
Q) Q) 
ê ß 
Zí:"i I 

c I 
Q)' 1:. 
C/)"d C "d 

 .Z c:: 
'-:j c:I:j 
I c;.t.. g;.. 
o _ 
U .

- , 





.....,\ ..... . . . ,. ,. . .... .. 
3 1 5 ..,... '$7 ï O ...... $1 79 
3 6 5 \...... 9 12 .,.,.. 2 50 
377 ...... 9 20 ."... 3 7 6 
3 1 9 6 83 ",." 2 63 
27 8 I...... 7 53 ..... 'I 3 00 
264 . . . . . . S Où ..... 3 7 2 
280 I $8 56 16 00 ....,. 8 50 
26 7 \ 6 94 12 38;......! 13 3.2 
277 6 23, 12 90....... I I .48 
280 6 27 13 01'...... I II ö8 
33 0 64 6 13 27'.,.... 12 00 
353 6 50 12 37 ......I 12 co 
44 0 II 501 12 9 81 ......\ 7 00 
35 1 8 301 13 75 1 $5 001 7 37 
164 3 3 1 7 3 2 r.... - I 5 25 
175 7 45 10 12 3 50 7 3 0 
1 6 7 4 12 1 7 16\ 3 00 4 75 
2-18 4 25 7 75 3 501 8 co 
244 4 501 S 75 4 00 10 00 
266 3 58 7 24 2 45 13 26 
25 8 2 33 I 01 14 15 
260 2 97, 2 83 1 60 II 00 
21 7 3 301 5 00 2 06' 12 00 
220 3 35 5 JO 2 10 12 50 


12 3 

Besides her generous support of churches, St. Andrews has been active in the 
formation and maintenance of Christian societies. The Bible Society was formed in 
1841, and ever since has been in a fairly prosperous condition. The first officers 
chosen were as follows: 'V. G. Blanchard, president; Chules Benedict, vice- 
president; Charles 'Vales, treasurer; J, Edwards, jun., secretary. Duncan Dewar 
was appointed depositary, and has filled the office ever since, with the exception of 
a few years. 
The succeeding officers were :-The late John :\Iiddleton, president; Thomas 
Lamb, vice-president; C. T. \Vales, treasurer; and Rev. Dr. Paterson, secretary. 
The late Rev. 1\1r. Henderson was president from 1850 until his death in [877, 
and was succeeded by Mr. Finlay Mc).fartin, who was in turn followed by Mr. 
Middleton. The latter held the office until his death. 

A Christian Endeavour Society was organized here in 1887, the first in the 
County of Argenteuil, and one of the first formed in the Province. 
It was organized tluough the efforts of Miss H. Hibbard, who has ever since 
labored assiduously to promote its growth and the success of its object. Beginning 
with a membership of eight, it increased till its members numbered eighty; but, owing 
to removals from the place, it is not now so large. The meetings are held in the 
Congregational Church, though its members represent an the different Protestant 
denominations of the Parish. 
der D. Dewar, president of the County Union, is also president of the 
Local Union at St. Andrew's. 

The \V. C. T, D. organized a Local Union in St. Andrews in \[arch, 188 3; the 
first president was :Mrs. (Rev.) 
Ioyle ; she was succeeded by Mrs. Finley McMartin, 
who held the position several years. 1\lrs. Chas. T. \Vales followed, and three years 
subsequentlY-1894-she was succeeded by Miss Julia E. Davis. 
St. Andrews has also supplied three presidents for the County Union-
Angus McPhie, 
liss Julia E. Davis and Mrs. \Vm. Barclay. 

On the afternoon of \Vednesday, December 8th, 1875, a meeting of the ladies of 
St. Andrews wa') held at the Presbyterian Manse, in accordance with the notice given 
from the pulpits of the several churches in the place, for the purpose of organizing an 
Auxiliary to the :Montreal Branch of the \VomJ,n's Board of 
Iissions in Boston. 
There were present : 
Irs, Paterson, !\Irs, C. \Vales, Mrs. A, McPhie, !\Irs, C, T. 
'Vales, Miss Clare, 
Iiss Barclay, Miss H. Davis, Miss M. Sharpe, Miss A. 'Vales, 
Miss :\1. \Vales. 

12 4 


The following officers were chosen: 
President, Mrs. A. McPhie. 
V . P . d { Mrs. C. \Vales. 
Ice- rest ents, Mrs. Paterson. 
Secretary, Miss \Vales. 
Treasurer, Miss Barclay. 
In November, 1891, the Canadian \Voman's Board (of which the St. Andrews 
had been an .-\uxiliary for sixteen years) disbanded, having accomplished the object 
for which it had been organized; leaving the members free to enter more fully into 
the missionary work of the Churches with which they were connected. 
\Ve decided, however, not to disband, but continue as a Union Society, working 
together in the cause of Foreign Missions, \Ve have raised, each year, sums varying 
from $12.21 to $83,79; the average being, in the first six years
 $21.5 6 , and in the last 
six years, $73.20. Some years ago we adopted the plan of placing Mission bags, 
marked "For the Lord," in each family, asking the women to put one cent a week 
in it, which had the effect of increasing the subscriptions. In this way, we have 
been enabled to send sums, yearly, to tbe Missions of the Pre
byterian, Congrega- 
tional and Baptist Churches. Although never a large Society, it has been a means of 
ëontributing something towards the spread of the Gospel abroad, and has been 
found vety helpful to the members themselves, 

.5 ccretary. 
A Masonic Lodge was organized in St. Andrews in 18'3; the following record 
of the event is copied from the old Masonic Register :- 

March 1 st, 18 [ 3. 
MURRAY LODGE No. 17, Register of Lower Canada, 
This day being appointed for the formal installation of this Lodge, the Petitioning 
Brethren having assembled at the house of Brother Benjamin \Vales in the village of 
St. Andrews, at 1 p.m., the \Vorshipful Javez D. Dewitt, Past Master of St. Paul's 
Lodge No, 12, accompanied by the \Vorshipful J, D. Turnbull, Master of Union 
Lodge No, 8, Montreal, arrived from that city, and produced the authority of the 
Grand Lodge of Lower Canada, as below specified. 

QUEEEC, 20th February, 1813. 

You are hereby authorized and directed to ,install this \Vorshipful Master of 
Murray Lodge, No. 17, agreeably to ancient custom, and to deliver over to him the 
warrant of Constitution, etc. \Vith brotherly regard, 
I am yours in truth, 
(Signed), \VILLA!\I DowKs. 
To BRO JAB EZ DEWITT of Paul's Lodge, No, 12, Montreal. 

.J. A. 


12 5 

Lodge opened in the first Degree of :ì\Iasonry by 
\Vorshipful Jabez D. De 'Vitt, M. þro tCIIl. 
\Vorshipful J. D. Turnbull, J. W,þro tem. 
Brother S. GoodriIl, J. \V. þro tem. 


\VorshijJful B. 'Vales, 
Iaster Elect. 
Bro. Elon Lee, S. \V, Elect. 
,. Reub
n French, J. \V. Elect. 
" Ames Matthews, Treas. Elect. 

Bro. J, Masham, Sec'y, Elect. 
Arthur Jackson, S. D. Elect. 
" Gust. A. Hooker, J. D. Elect. 
" D. FJin t, Tyler,þro !elll. 

_\t a meeting held 6th Jan., 1824, "It was moved, seconded, and unanimously 
"agreed that the thanks of this Lodge be given Brother Thomas Barron for the faith- 
"ful di.5charge of the duties of his office in the Provincial Grand Lodge," 
Br,-)ther Thomas Barron was unanimously elected to be sent to the Provincial 
Grand Lodge at Montreal, to assist in framing By-Laws for the government of that 

\mong the m
mbers of this Lodge previoLB to 1826 appear the names of 

\\'m. Beaton 
J olm Harrington 
Timothy Bristol 
.\rchib:llJ Rae 
Peter F. Le Roy 
Daniel Foss 
Wm. Streeter 

\Vm. Streeter, jun. 
James Proctor 
James VoIla 
Richard Mears 
Benj. \Vales 
Andrew Simmons 
\Vm. McDole 

John :McArthur 
Elijah Kellogg 
Judah Center 
Justus Barnet 
\V m, Dixon 
P. F, Peabody 
\V, G. Blanchard. 

Later, appear the names of \Vm. Zearns, John Oswald, Hugh Dunlop, D, Beattie, 
This was called "Murray Lodge No, 5" until April, 18 z5, after which it was 
caIled "St. Andrews Lodge NO.5." 
J. A. N. MACKAY is the only representative of the legal fraternity in St, Anùr
lr, de La Ronde. He was born 1840, in St, Scholastique, and educated in 
coIleges in Montreal, Ottawa and St. Hyacinthe,-the latter being the place where 
his studie,; were completed. 
The ancestors of 1\1r, Mackay were men of military proclivities, and distinguished 
in the service in which they were engaged. Francis Mackay, who was a near relative 
of Lord Roe, had three sons-Stephen, Francis and Samuel; the two former in their 
youth served under the Prince of Orange, as lieutenants of The Guards. Samuel, 
who was then too young for military service, subsequently, distinguished himself in 
Hungary. in the service of Maria Theresa. In 1756, the three brothers all entered the 



"Royal American Regiment," which afterward became the 60th Reg. of Co!. 
Alexander l\1ackay j Stephen, the eldest, died while captain in this Regiment, before 
the Conquest of Can3.da, The two remaining brothers served during the Conquest, at 

Iontreal, where they remained. Samuel served at the blockade of St. Johns, and 
was with Burgoyne during his unfortunate expedition to the States. He was buried 
at the foot of :ð[ount Royal, Montreal, near the garden of the Seminary, where he had 
formerly commanded a picket at the taking of Montreal. 
The brothers all married French ladies belonging to the most prominent anå 
aristocratic families of Canada. Samuel 
Iackay left two sons-S,uuuel and Stephen; 
the former settled in the States; the latter, as captain and major, served in the war of 
1812. He married Miss Globensky, settled at St. Eustache, and died there in 18 59. 
He left several childïen, of whom one son was Augustus 
Iac kay, who practised the 
notarial profession for forty-seven years, and died in 1872. J. A. N. 1\fackay, one of 
his sons, and the subject of our sketch, studied law under the Hon. "ïlfrid Prevost, 
the late Hon. L. T. Drummond, and the Hon. Louis Belanger, Judge of the 
Superior Court. During the year 1862, he practised with Mr. Drummond, and the 
same year was admitted to Ü:e Bar. The prospects for business at that time being 
much better in St, Andrews than in the city, he settled here, and Ius since practised 
with much success. 
He has been employed in several murder trials, in which h is success has given 
him no little celebrity, The following are the most important of these cases with 
which he has been connected-Queen 'lJS. James and John Byrne, for the murder of 
Valiquet in 186 7 ;-this trial was conducted at St. Scholastique, before Judge 
and lasted fifteen days; Queen 'lJS. B:.Hnard Cain, for the murder of James I'\agle; 
Queen vs. Pierre Durocher and wife, for the murder of John Mullin; Queen vs. Mrs. 
Lacroix and daughter, for the murder of a child, 
In most of the above cas :s, and especially the first, Mr. Mackay was the only 
lawyer for the defence, and in every case he wa<; successfu1. [n 18 9-1-, he went to 
England, and argued before the Judicial Committee and Privy Council of Her 
Majesty an important w:uer-power case between Hamelin & Ayre and the Banner- 
mans, Sir RIchard \Y ebster, Attorney General, was l\[r. Mackay's Counse], with 
Vernon Smith, Q.C.; the former argued the case personally with \{r 
He was married in 18 6 4 to Miss Papineau of Montreal; she died in 18 7 0 , 
leaving one son Alfred, now a barrister in Montreal. In 1874 he married :\[iss 
Desjernier of St. Hennas; they have three son..: the eldest, Adolphe, is in the 
employ of Messrs. Hodgson, Sumner & Co., !\lontreal ; the other two 3re in college. 
Mr, Mackay has an attractive residence surrounded by well laid out grounds in St. 
Andrews, and a fine farm near this village, which he ha<; brought to a high state of 
COL. D'HERTEL was, for quite a number of years, Registrar of the County of 
Argenteuil, and rdinquished the office when it was removed from ;:;t. Andrews to 
Lachute. He enlisted at the age of eighteen, and was in the battles of Platts burgh 


12 7 

and Chry
ler's Farm. Deserving promotion, he W.lS eventually rewarded with the 
commission of Colonel. He came from .:\lontreal to St. Andrews, and during h:s 
residence here w!\S esteemed for his intelligence and probity. 
A t the time of the Fenian Raid in 1866, several companies of Volunteers having 
been called out, they assembled at St. Andrews, preparatory to their depalture for 
other points. Col. D'Hertel, on account of his position and military experience, 
naturally was requested to address them. He was a fine, soldierly-looking man, 
full six feet in stature, but the days of his military prowess had passed. In fu)) 
uniform, but trembling from weakness and age, he spoke a few words, and then closed 
with the remuk: "You know [ cannot always be with you, boys." He then 
returneù to his home, which was the present residence of 1\1r. De la Ronde, 0arrister, 
and had scarcely reached the thrc:.hold when he expired. 
In 18 37, l\IR. AVA1\! DRYSD-\LE and Mary Black were married in Montreal at the 
house of James Roy, merchant, and they immediately removed to St. Andrews. The 
father of Mr, Drysdale, who was a retired sea c1ptain, having for many years sailed 
between Glasgow and Montreal, came with them. While living at St. Andrews, 
Capt. Drysdale taugh t J. J. C, Abbott, afterward" Premier, the use of the compass, 
astronomy and higher ma!hematics-subjects for which young Abbott, in his thirst 
for knowledge, had a great liking. 
Adam Drysdale was a wheelwright by trade, and a good c:upenter and builder. 
He was engaged ill manufacturing plows while he lived here, and as they prüved vcry 
satisfactory, many were sold to the farmers in Argenteuil. In I R42, he returned to 

[ontreal with his family-then increased by three children, Adam, ThGmas and 
Margaret. One of hi" daughters -Grace-was married in J 879 to Joseph D. Taylor, 
of Isle aux Chats, Argenteuil County; she died a few years since, 
l DRYSDALE, another son of this family, is the well-known bookseller 
and publisher of Montreal. He married a lar]y of St. Andrews, as stated el3ewhere ; 
and it is no ùiscredit to Argenteliil that in the phala
1x of prominent and worthy men 
with whose associations she is blended may be numbered \Vi\liam Drysdale, He 
has had large experience in his presen t business, and has cver takeiJ :t lively interest 
in the development and promotion of Canadian literature. 
His establishment on St, James Street, 112 X 20 ft. in dimensions, and four 
stories high, is fitted up with an the requirt'ments of the trade, and every varidy of 
useful books may here be found. I )avid Drysdale, i is brother, who is also much 
respected in 
Iontreal, has a large hardware store on Craig street. 
\VILLLUI R, HIBBARD is another of the esteemed citiæns of St. Andrews, 
Many years of his life have ueen devoted to railroad aff,lirs, and he is now connected 
with the Canada 
\tlantic. In 18 53, he purchased a farm for his parents in St. 
Andrews, where they spent the remainder of their days. \Viliiall1 R. was married in 
18 5 2 to S:uah Cameron, of :\[ontreal; thcy have had six children, of whom one died in 
infancy; two sons and three daughters are now living. The SOilS 
re in bu



and of the daughters, the eldest, the widow of George May, sen., rejides in Los 
.\ngeles, California, and thp. two others live with their parents, 

1r. Hibbard came with his family to St. Andrews in 18 7 6 , and dllling his 
residence here he has heen an earne::t advocate of temperance, and a:;tive in 
Christian work. 
lrs. Hibbard and her daughters have also won the esteem 0f 
Christian peop1e by their acts of benevolence, and the earnestness with which they 
have encouraged and aided every mor<ll reform. 
HUGH WALSH, the present 
Iayor of St. Andrews, and proprietor of the flourish- 
ing gri
t mill, came to this village from Ormstown, Quc., in 18 8 3. 
His grandfather and two of his sons enlisted in the British Service, and lost their 
lives in the PeninsuLu \Var. His father, R, J. "Talsh, was educated in Dublin, 
entered the British Navy as midshipman, and after serving seven years, came to 
Canada, and was one of the early settlers in Chateauguay. He was in Montreal at the 
time of the Riot of 1849, and was writing in the Parliament House when it was 
mobbed and set on fire; he died at Orm<;town. He had seven sons and twO daughters 
that grew up. 
Hugh, next to the youngest son, was married 16th Febluary, 186 9, to Catherine 
M. Camí,bell of Ormstown, and was engaged in mercantile business in that place for a 
number of year
, He l'lHchased the grist mill on coming to St. Andrews, and has 
improved it and increas
d its c<lpacity for work. It ij now one of the best equipped 
manufactories in its line in this part of the province, and it docs a large business. 
Mr. \Valsh is a public-spirited, enterprising gentleman, and takes much interest in 
local affairs"; he has been mayor of the Parish, anå chailman of the 1\Iodel School 
Board several years, 
IARTIN from the County Down, Ireland, came with his f.lmily to Montreal 
in 1828, and after living there till 1830, he settled at S1. Andrews on the River Rouge. 
In the fall of 18 3 8 he removed to a small farm on the Lachute Road, hut as he was 
a carpenter by trade, his time was almost constantly devoted to this occupation. 
Iartin died with the cholera in 1832, leaving three sons-Edward, Charles and 
James, and three daughters-
lary, Martha and Jane. 
Edward died in Illinois in 18 94; Charles ij still living in l\[arquette Co., Mich.. 
and James died in I854-aged about 22. Mary married John 
lartin of the River 
Rouge; :Martha married George Powers, and died in Ottaw.,,; Jane married John 
Parker, and after living io S1. Andrews a number of years, they removed to Ottawa, 
lr. l}arker died, 
1rs. Parker now lives in St. Andrews with her sister Mary, 
the widow of John !\Ic:\lartin. 

Ir. Martin's second marriage W..1S, in 1835, to Clarissa Flint, daughter of a 
merchant of St. Andrews, whose store occupied the site of the present dwelling of Mr. 
Hibbard, They had five sons and two daughters-two of the fJrmer and one of the 
latter died in childhood; the other daughter died at the ag.: of 20. Of the remaining 
e SO:1S, TholU 1.5 B. lives in California; G:::orge H., the younge..,t, in Yandalia, 


12 9 

Ill. J uh n, the eldest of those living, remainrd on the homestead, and adùed to it till 
it éomprises about 120 acres. 
:\lr. Martin having also become joint owner with A. Le Roy of the Harrington 
estate, ccmprising 240 acres, has recently removed to the commodious brick dwelling 
on th:s estate in the village. He is one of the leading men of the parish, is a J. P., 
and ..;ecletary of the Model and Elementary School Boards. He joined 1\laj. 
Simpson's Troop when it was organized, and after serving in it eight years joined 
the S1. _-\ndrews Troop, with which he was c )nnected sixteen year:), and was at the 
front during the Fenian RaIds. 1\Ir. 
Iartin has taken a lively interest in the County 
Agricultural S )ciety, of which he wa;; vice-president four ye:us, and president five years, 
during which period the Society was in a most prosperous condition. He has been 
hrice m;Híied-fir
t, to Ann McIntyr
, 6th August, 1864; she died 19th October, 18 9 0 , 
and he was next married to Kate McIntyre-his first wife's sister-in December, 
189 [. Since the above was written, 
Ir. l\l:1rtin has sold his property and removed to 
TH(HIAS TURNER, fro:-n London, Eng., came to Montreal a short tim
 previous to 
the Rebellion of J 837, and was married there, 22nd l\Iay, 1837, to Ellen \Valker 
from Ðunbarton, Scotland. A few years later, they removed to Toronto, and after 
living there and at Stowville and Claremont about a quarter of a century, they 
removed to this section, b
ing interested in the settlement of the estate of 
lr. Walker 
-1\1 r
. Turner's father-who had lived near Belle Rivière, and had recently died. 
They settled in St. Andrews, where 1\lr. Turner died 11th February, 1875, and 
Turner 9th December, 1878. 
They left three daughters-Elizabeth, Mary and Helen. 
Iary married John 
\Vehster, and Helen was married, 25 th November, 1884, to \Vm. Somerville, a 
fal mer of S1. Andrew:); Elizabeth lives with her 
ister, :\lrs. Somerville; these sisters 
are a
nong the respected Christian ladies of this locality, 
PETER \VEnSTER from Leeds, England, settled in St. Andrews in 1839. He was 
a tailor, and after plying his trade here eighteen years, he conducted an hotel at 
Cushing for a year, in the present stone dwelling of R. Hartley. 
lIe then returned to 
t, Andrews, and about th ree ye" rs later purchased the 
lot and erected the brick house where his son J. \V. now lives. During the later 
years of his life he was much interested in religion, and was active in religious work. 
He died 21st March, 1891, at the age of 
2; 1\1rs. \Veuster died 16th June, 1877' 
aged 65. They had eight childrèn ; three sons and two daughter:; grew up. 
William, the eldest son, a steamboat engineer of long experience, died in Turonto 
in August, 1890. 
Thomas, a merchant tailor in Montreal for nBny years, died 28th June, 1890. 
John \V., who has long been a popular tailor and citiæn of this place, was 
matriel 15th May, 1873, to Mary Turner. He joined Co. No, I of the Rangers at 
its furmation, and served seven years. He then joined the St. .\ndrews Troop, and 
served in that, also, seven years. :\[r. \Veuster has a good farm of auc)lIt 200 acres in 
Bethany and another of 100 acres 011 Beech Ridge, 

13 0 


DANIEL SUTHERLAND was born in 1819, in Cromarty, Rothshire, Scotland, 
where his father, \Villiam Sutherland, was a contractor, and owner of a granite quarry, 
In his youth, the younger Sutherland had the good fortune to enj:>y the friendship of 
the celebrated geologist and author, Hugh Miller, who worked in the quarry; Mr. 
Ross, who built the St. Ann's Bridge, was 
lso his school-mate in Cromarty. 
Mr. Sutherland's brother-in-law conducted a large military tailoring establishment, 
and it was here that Daniel learned his trade. He came to Cana.da in 184 2 and 
settled in St. Andrews, opening a shop in the brick building opposite thé hotel; he 
afterwards built the house in which he has since resided. 1\1r, Sutherland was married 
April 11th, 18 5 2 ) to 
Iary Ann, daughter of the late Robert Simpson. 
lr:,. Suther- 
land died in 188 7, leaving two sons and one daughter j the youngest son, \Villian1 E. 
D., died 18 94 in Pasadena, Cal., whither he had gone hoping to benefit his health, 
leaving a widow and one child, He was interred in St. Andrews' cemetery, The 
eldest son, Robert S., is a commercial traveller in Chicago, and the daughter, 
Catherine :\Iary, is living in St. Andrews with her father. 1\1r. Sutherland is one of 
the respected citizens of St. Andrews; owing to advanced 3ge he has retired from 
business. . 
, from Perthshire, Scotland, came to Canaùa in 1843; he was 
a cabinetmaker by trade, also a carpenter, In 1851 he was married in Point 
Fortune to Agnes, daughter of the late John Pitcairn, and the s tme year he settled 
in St. Andrews, He opened a cabinet shop here, and did an extensive business as 
contractor and builder, employing many men and s
veral apprentices. He died in 
March, 189 [, aged 70 ; his widow still Ii ves here, 
They had four children-three sons and one daughter, but only one son and the 
daughter are now living. 
Alexander, the son, residing here with his mother and sister, still industriously 
 the business followed by his father. 
,V. J. MORA\\", second !>on of John Moraw, wa!> bOJ n 24 th July, 18 5 6 , in Center- 
ville. He remained on the farm until twenty-fi\Oe years of age, when he started in the 
cheese business with Thomas Ross, at Point Fortune, and remained with him a year. 
He has continued in the business ever since, and has bought one factory and built 
four in this count)'. 1\1r. Moraw has also a creamery in this village, which hao; been 
in operation four years, He was married September 7th, J 837, to Mary, daughter of 
Martin Funcheon;of Beech Ridge. They have one son and one daughter. 
JOSEPH ROBINSON, from the County of Antrim, Ireland, came to St. Andrews in 
18 45 ; he was married 23rd Ju1y, 1852, to a widow
 .\lrs. Elizabeth CoHigham. They 
have had five children-three sons and two daughters, Joseph, one of the former, 
when seven years old met a sad death by the destruction of the St. Andrews bridge, 
an account of which is given elsewhere, 
Margaret, the eldest daughter, \Vas muried [5th June, 18 8 7, to John Henderson, 
a brass finisher by trade, of Montrea1. He died May, 1891, leaving one child, a 

13 1 
boy three years old. :\Irs, Hender
on resides in a fine: commodious, brick dweHing, 
beautifully 10c.1ted on the bank of the 
orth Rivêf, where she ably entertain., summer 
 was born 9th April, 1809, in Cortachy, at the county seat of 
Lord Monboddo, Monboddo House, parish of F JrJen, Kink:udineshire, :)-.: )tland. 
After leaving school, he received tlnrough training in agriculture and arb3riculture, 
and was yet a young man when he managed these departments of an estate at Castle 
Semple. Mr. Middleton left Glasgow in March, 18,p, on the sailing ship " \[o
and with his wife and family reached l\1ontreal after seven w
eks. A short tim
his arrival, he took the position of superintendent of Judge Reid':; house, property 
and grounds, on the spot where Sohmer Park now stands, remaining here until 18 4 8 , 
He then came to St. Andrews and farmed for five years, after which he entered into 
the managemen t of the late 
lr. William Lunn's estate, taking charge of it twenty- 
three years. His reputation a5 an arboriculturist may be somewhat appuent from 
the fact that, from 1847 until he ceased active labors, he had gained (ISO priz
s. In 
grape culture, he almost invariably won first prizes, and had no superior in Canad]. 
He was one of the earliest members of the Montreal Horticultural Society, and wac; 
one of their judges for m
ny years. 1\1r. l\1iddleton possessed luuch ingenuity in 
handicraft, and some articles of furniture:: made in his spare moments-especially a 
finely carved clock and a centr
-table, which was made from 1500 different piecc:s of 
wood, and a diminutive summer house-are well worth seeing. 
He died at his home in St, Andrews, 2nd 
ovember, 1895, leaving a widow, one 
son, M... J. Middleton of Point Fortune, and a d1ughter, Mrs. Snule, of .\loatreal. 



The men who in past years were for some time connected with merc lIltile busi- 
ness in this place have already been mentioned, as well as 
lr. Dewar and \[r. \r J le
who are still trading here. 
Besides the stores of these two gentlemen, which are oflong standing, especi:tlly 
that of Mr. 'Vales, which is almost coeval \vith the village, there are the. stores of 
Thomas Lamb, J, H. LaFond, the groc
ry of Chas. Laiouceur, and th
 tin shops of 
Dorion and Ladouceur. 
THOMAS LAME is a son of the late \Vm. Lamb, noticed in the history of Point 
Fortune. He came to St. Andrews as clerk for the late Chatles \\Tales, in 1856, :lnd 
remained in tIns position five years, In 1866, he entered into partnership with .\Iex- 
ander Dewar, and in 1877 became a partner of Charles \Vales, jr., in the present store 
of Mr. 'Vales. In 1886, he commenced trade on his own account, in the store occu- 
pied for some years by the late Thomas Meikle, and where he still continues the 
business. Having the unqualified respect and confidence of the public, he a 
good share of public patronage. He is also Postmaster, having been appointed to the 
position in 1870. He joined the Rangers in 1862, at their organizJ.tion, and \\ as 

13 2 


promoted to the rank of 2nd Lieut. iu 1866: to that of Captain in 1870, and to the 
rank of 
lajor in 1880; he has been Paymaster of the Battalion since 1870. 
He was married July 15th, [869, to Margaret S., daughter of the late Chas. 
".al*:s, sr. Like her husband, Mrs. Lamb is well known for her interest and activity 
in Temperaace and Christian wurk, and esteemed for her deeds of kindness and 
benevolence. Their only son, \V, H, Lamb, is assistant in the ston hnd post office. 
lEIKLE, mentioned above, was for several years a prominent man in 
this place. On his monument in the cemetery is the following: 
., Thomas Meikle-a native of Glasgow-was for many years Postmaster and 
merch:mt at St. Andrews. He perished with his aged father by the burning of the 
steamer · 
Iontreal ' near Quebec, 26th June, 1857. He was 45 years of age." 
F. H. LAFo:\D is comparatively a newcomer, having opened his store in this 
plJ.ce in [893. He is a native ofS1. Hermas, and after spending some years as clerk 
!ontreal, he began trade in Lachute in 1887, where he remained till he came to 
St. .\ndrews. He has quite an extensive stock of merchandise, and seems to be pros- 
pering in his business, 
The sto;.e he occupies is that built and occupied so 100Jg by Mr, Guy Richards, 
Frank Farish also was a merchant in the same store for n'any years. He took quite a 
prominent part in local affairs, and was secretary of the School Board for some time, 
Some of his letters, which are 
till extant, show elegant penmanship, and are also very 
Correctly written, It was he who built the present dwelling of 1\1r. l\-IcKay, advocate. 
CHARLES LADOUCEUR who has a grocery here, has been in the grocery business 
and a successful dealer in live stock for the twenty years. 
lIE.RCULE LADOUCEUR is proprietor of a bakery, which he has stlccessflllly 
conducted for many years. His father, Joseph Ladouceur, carne to St. Andrews from 
the county of Two Mountains nearly sixty years ago, and died hcre about 1867, He 
had four sons and six daughters who grew up, 
Hercule, the third son, spent several years of his youth on the Ottawa, after 
which he.found employment for four years in the States. Returning in 1865, he took 
up the mason's trade, which he followed a number of years, erecting, besides the brick 
hotel of John Kelley in Carillon, many other good buildings in this part of the coun- 
try. .-\s 
Ir. L
douceur has always been inclined to work, whenever he had oppor- 
tunity, during the winters of the period when he followed the mason trade, he was em- 
ploycd in different ways, and sometimes as clerk in a store. 
In 1878, he opened a bakery, with which he is still engaged. He was married 
larch, 1864, to Esther Haspeck, whose grandfather, from Germany, was one of 
tLe early settlers of St. Andrews, Of thcir four children, three are married. Mr. 
ladollceur has been 
lunicipal Councillor nine years, and Churchwarden three. 
\\". A. LaFond, who came from St. Hennas in 18
4, is the only barber in the 



EDWARD DORION was one of the active business men of St. Andrews in the 
generation past. He came here a young man from St. Eustache, and married a 
Miss Ladouceur of this village. He was by trade a tinsmith, and followed this 
through life, much of the time doing quite a prosperous business. He had four sons 
and two daughters that grew up, 
Ferdinand, his third son, learned the trade of his father, and has followed it vcry 
successfully for many years. During the last decade. he has emploYéd several hands 
in the work of furnace setting, plumbing, roofing, etc. His house is one of the most 
attractive in the village, and his shop contains a good stock of tinware and a \"ariety 
of stoves and other hardware. He was for several years a member of the local 
Council, but, owing to the demand of his business, he declined further service. He 
was married 8th April, 1861, to Margaret Hanigan j they have had six sons and 
seven daughtels, but three of the former are deceased. Their eldest daughter is a 
nun of PlOvidence of the Sacred Heart at Great Falls, Montana. 
St. Andrews has not been fortunate in her efforts to obtain a railway-the first 
one which was to have passed through this parish never having approached nearer 
than Carillon, 
In 18 9 1 , the Parish Council granted a bonus to C. N. Armstrong, for the construc- 
tion of a railway from Lachute to some point on the Ottawa near St. Andrews, and a 
railway station within half a mile <.f the iron bridge. It was supposed that this would 
form part of a railway crossing the Ottawa not far from St, Andrew
, and thence 
running to some point in Ontario. The road was constructed from Lachute to St. 
.\ndrews, but the other terms of the contract were not fulfilled; and as the amount 
of travel and freight to be carried between the two places is insufficient to pay the 
expense of running a train and keeping the road in repair, especially in win ter, there 
are only a few months in the year at present when St. A
drew') has railway accommo- 
A daily stage conveying the mail runs between Carillon and Lachute via St. 
Andrews j this line hC1s been in operation for the last fifteen years under the proprie- 
torship of l\lagloire Campeau of this village, who also has a contract for carrying the 

The Town Hall, a fine, brick building, was erected in 188 I. 
:\Iembers of the Municipal Council of 18 55-the first under the present municipal 
system; the meeting was held in Jones' " white house" :- 
Robert Simpson, John Hoy, Carillon; Edw. Jones, jun" La Baie; John ßur- 
wash, River Rouge; John l\IcPhie, Fred. H, McArthur, La Baie j Thomas Jefferson, 
Lachute Road. Robert Simpson was elected Mayor, and Thomas Wanless appointed 
Among the different enterprises which have been started in St. .\ndrcws was 
that of a new
paper, Ihe Progress, which was first published in 18]3, edited by 
- Ch
mbers ; Thomas Dorion, proprietor, :\Ir. Chambers subsequently W.15 con- 




nectel1 with The Chronicle (Quebec). During the early part of its existence TIle 
PI ogress was Co
servative in politics, but afterwards it came under the editorial 
management of R. P. de La Ronde, advocate, when it became politically identified 
with the Liberal party. It appears to have been a lively, well conducted, local 
sheet; but owing to the removal of the printer, its publication ceased in J 87 6 , 





A :Mcdel School was established in St. Andrews about 18 5 0 , Adam 'Valker 
being the first teacher. For some reason this school did not prosper in after years; 
the Gavcl nment grant was withdrawn, and the school closed in 187 6 . It was 
. reopened in 18 9 1 , in a substantial, commodious brick school building, since which it 
has been in a flourishing condition; many good scholars having been fitted here for 
the higher institutions of learning, the counting-room, or other business vocations. 
The teachers who have officiated since the opening of the school in 18 9 1 are as 
follows :-John Proctor, A, E. Rivard, Thos. E. Townshend and F. ,V, Vaughan. 
FREDERICK 'V. VAUGHAN, the present Principal, was born in Coaticook, Stan- 
stead County, Que., in 18 75. He attended the village school in Ayer's Flat, to 
which place his parents moved in 1876. Until fifteen year') of age, his academical 
education was acquired at Hatley Model School and Coaticook Academy, from the 
latter of which he graduated, and matriculated at l\lcGill. He received his Academy 
diploma in 18 94, and has since been teaching in St. Andrews with a marked degree 
of success, the standard of scholarship under his tuition having materially advanced. 
:Mr. Yaughan's energy and ability give plomise that he will be an important addition 
to the educators of the Province. 
fhe village was erected into a separate school municipality in March, 18 9 1 , and 
the :\lodel and Elementary Schools are taught in the same building, 

II. Colill Dewar contributes the following history of the bridges:- 
.. The maintenance of the bridge across the N
rth River at St. Andrews has 
always been a heavy tax upon the inhabitants, especia.lIy since some of the adjoining 
parishes wel e released from their liability to contribu te to it. 
The first bridge was erected in 180]; it was a bridge of very moderate dimen- 
sions and primitive design, consisting of five spans, supported on four trestles, and 
occupying a much lower level than the present structure; as the country was not 
then cleared up and drained, the spring freshets were not so great. 
Tbis bridge, with occasional repairs and renewing of portions in whole or in 
part, supplied the wants of the inhabitants until 1833, when a new one was erected 
alongsid<: of the old one, higher up the river. 
It was on this old bridge that a sad accident occurred, by which a man lost his 
life; it was caused by two of the strÙI
ers slipping off the trestles, taking a portion of 
the covering with them, leaving a large open space, which, unfortunately, was left 
unguarded, A tanner by the name of Daggett (who was the owner of the first 
tannery that started working in St. Andrews) was coming home late on Saturday 



night, and not knowing that part of the bridge had fallen down, fell through the open 
space, striking his head on a boulder, and was killed. On Sunday morning, there 
was quite an excitement when his dead body was discovered by individuals on their 
way to church. The testimony of at least two living witnesses confirms the above 
facts, and places the date of the occurrence at about 1817. 
In 1832-33 a contract was given to a man by the name of Pierce, for the con- 
struction of a new bridge of larger dimensions and different design, consisting of four 
spans resting on three mt stolle piers and abldl/leJlts. The plan and specifications 
were drawn up by a well-known land surveyor; but they, unfortunately, exposed his 
ignorance of architecture, as the specifications were in the main points ver}' defec- 
tive, and, in consequence, the work was not well done. 
The bridge was opened for traffic in the summer of 1833, and in the spring of 
1837 a large portion of one of the piers was broken up by the action of the ice and 
high water, causing the bridge to topple down. It was temporarily repaired to allow 
traffic to be carried on, and in the month of September a heavy trestle was substi- 
tuted fur the pier, and with other necessary improvements and occasional repaiJ.; it 
stood until the 19th March, 1859, when it was swept away as before. A temporary 
foot bridge was made by stretching three strong chains across the open space, ower- 
ing them with planks, where people could cross in safety; while a ferry above the 
mill dam, and another at Mc
Iartin's, served for horses and carriages, until the bridge 
was ready for traffic on the 27th August the same year. 
It was not for any great length of time that the rate payers were exempted from 
further expense, as in the early part of March, 1863, a large portion of the bridge was 
again swept away; this time, unfortunately, attended with loss of life, two yonng 
lads who were on it at the time being drowned. A temporary structure for the con- 
venience of people on foot was placed opposite Mr. Duncan Dewar's and l\lr. 
Edward Jones', whi
e the ferry was again opened above the mill dam, and at Col. De 
Hertel's for horses and carriages. This arrangement continued until 1865, when a 
lIew bridge of a more pretentious anù diffaent style of architecture was built by 
Messls. Moody of Terrebonne. It was supported on piers of dose crib 'Work filled 
tones, and strengthened overhead with short trusses, and was opened to the 
public in September of that year, and lasted until the present beautiful light iron 
Slructure was completed in 188 5." 
The present bridge was erected at an expense of $,10,200 ; the iron part of the 
structure costing $5,950, and the abutments and approaches forming the balance ot 
the cost. 
The following, the writing of which was suggested by another letter in The Star, 
\\ as copied from that paper :- 
'. Your reminiscences, of course, deal principally with the Rebellion, as it existed 
in another part of the country from where I was living at the time: but I have a 
distinct recollection of the events (being about 14 years of age) from reading the same 
in the public journals of the day, and your account brings all these scenes very vividly 
back to my remembrance, 

13 6 


(; I see that you mention the attack and burning of the village C)f SI. Benoit. I 
may state in this connection, that seven or eight companies of Volunteers frum St. 
Andrews and vicinity were there at that time, having been ordered to meet those 
coming from Montreal, as you relate, As you may not know why there were so many 
companies of Volunteers organized in St. Andrews, a short statement may not be out 
of place. The viHage at that time was largely settled by English-speaking people, 
not many French being among them; but on two sides-the east and south-were 
the :French parishes of Cote St. Pierre and Les Eboulies, In the latter place, they 
were red hot' Patriots,' meeting, drilling and getting ready for the fray; and on a 
hill a short distance from the Ottawa River, not far from St. Placide, on Point Aux 
Anglais, they had formed a barricade or fort, with trees and brush, which would have 
been of great service had a small number of men come against them. Early in the 
month of Nov
mber, [837, a courier came gaUoping up to St. Andrews with the intel- 
ligence that the' Patriots' were preparing to make a raid on the village and 
country adjoining. 'Ve well knew they meant to plunder, burn and kill; and well do 
I n....1ember hearing him cry out, 'They are in the Bay; will be here in a short time! 
Anything you have put it out of the way!' etc. In less than an hour, aU who were 
able were marching into the village, and such a crowd! Among two or three hun- 
dred men, there were not even fifty fowling pieces. The remainder were armed 
with pitchforks, clubs, broken scythes, etc., and nothing but an overruling and kind 
Providence saved us from attack, If they had come on, as was intended, they would 
have had their own way, as there was not sufficient force with suitable arms to stop 
them. There was at that time a small detachment of the 24th Regiment stationed 
at Carillon, under the commnnd of Capt, Mayne, w
o supplieå a few old, flint-lock 
muskets; and with these, all the roads leading out of the village were guarded, night 
and day. Companies of V olunteer3 were formed as quickly as possible, SO that by 
the loth or 12th of December seven or eight companies were regularly enrolled, armed 
and drilled, and, as already stated, were marched to Grand Brulé, according to orders 
from headquarters. The expEdition was not attended by any loss oflife, the' Patriots' 
wisely keeping out of tne way, but it was attended with a great deal of hardship and 
exposure to the rigors of a Canadian winter. Owing to inadequate clothing and want 
of proper food and shelter, many of them were not the better of that trip for many a 
day. A few of the companies were disbanded and al10wed to return to their homes, to 
be ready, if wanted, at a mon:ent's notice; the rest were kept in barracks and thoroughly 
drilled, so as to be ready in case of another outbreak, which, happily, did not occur 
in our palt of the country. I think the few remaining V olllnteers of that period 
who took up arms to defend their country are entitled to some compensation for 
service which ought to have been acknowledged long ago. I have no personal 
interest in this movement. 
Iy father and two brothers who took an active part in it 
have long since passed away to the silent majority; but I have an old friend who 
was among the first to join th
 ranks, and on his account, as well as on that of others, 
I should like to see them paid a small sum in cash, to sustain their declining years. 
"Yours truly, 


Cote du Midi and the Bay. 

The above localities arc in the parish of S1. Andrews, between the River Rouge 
Settlement and the Ottawa, Cote du Midi being, as its name indicates, a hill or 
ridge of land lying north of the Bay Settlement; the latter settlement is generally 
designated as "The Bay," bordering, as it does, on a very pretty bay formed by the 
Ou a wa. 
Though the land is considerably diversified in both these localities, and the roads 
hillr, there are some fine farms which are comparatively level, and the scenery in 
certain parts is romantic. The farm of Charles Hunter, a prominent and respected 
citizen on the Bay road, with its neat buildings, is attractive, and another large one 
adjoining it, owned by A. C. Robilhrd, one of the ex-Municipal Councillors of the 
parish. "Glencoe," the estate of I\1r. John McGowan, the old homesteads of the 
Hydes, Btlrwa
hes and Albrights are all valuable farms located at the Bay. "Silver 
Heights," and the farms of J olm 1Ic:YlartÏn and Archibald Graham, are among the 
most attractive and valuable estates at Cote du Midi. 
CAPTAIN JOHN \Y AINWRIGHT of the Royal Navy, came to Canada with his 
family in J 833. He was bo:-n in \Yickharn, Hampshire, England, 3rd May, 1800, 
his father also being a captain in the Royal Navy. \Vhen he was only eight years 
of age, his father took him on his ship to India; but while there, he was ordered to 
proceed up the Persian Gulf, and thinking that the mission might be attended with 
danger, he sent his son back to England on an East Indiaman. Soon after this, he 
was sent to a Na"al School, from which h.e entered the service as midshipman, and 
passing the different grades of promotion, in time, secured a Lieutenant's commission, 
'''hile holding this rank, he sailed with Captain (subsequently Admiral) Beecher, 
who was sent, in the interests of science, on an expedition to the Pacific and Arctic 
oceans, On this voyage they came neu a small island in the Pacific, which some 
of the young devotees of science insisted on visiting. A heavy surf rendered the 
approach to it dangerous, and their boat was smashed in the effort to land, though all 
leached the shore in safety. But now a difficulty arose as to the manner ofreturning 
to the ship. One boat only remained, and this the Captain positively forbade his 
men to lower, fearing that this, too, would be ruined; but he gave orders to construct 
a raft with which to bring the men off, and when it was finished, Lieut. \Yainwright, 
with some others, went to the relief of their stranded friends. They had to remain 
for some time a little distance from. the shore before all were embarked, and mean- 
while Lieut. \Yainwright, stripped to the waist, had to Etand in the water exposed to 
a boiling surf. The exposure was more than his constitution was able to bear, and 
he was soon seized with a severe illness, from the effects of which he never entirely 
recovered. Eventually, he was awarded a medal for the part he took in this expe- 
1\ot long after his return to England, he was married to Elizabeth Powers, 
daughter of Samuel Powers, Esq., of Harley street, London, and soon afterward he 



sai'ed for the Mediterranean in His Majesty's ship "Melville." Within a year, 
however, he was again taken ill from the same cause, it was believed, that gave rise 
to his former i1lness, and invalided home. During his absence at sea, 20th December, 
182 9, his eldest son, John '\Vroughton, was born. Though he received his commis- 
sioe. as captain, l\Ir, \Vainwright, on account of the debilitated condition of his health, 
never accepted command of a vessel. In 1833, through the influence of Commissary 
C. J. FNbes, who was then in England, and of whose wife Mr. '\Vaínwright was 
cOllsin, he came with his family to Carillon. After remaining a year with !\Ir, Forbes, 
he purchased of Archie McVicar, a Nor' \Vester, for ,ÆI001, the farm of 400 acres 
known as "Silver Heights," which is now owned by his son John '\Vrought0n \Vain- 
\nigh 1. 
This spot, which he chose for his home, possessing naturally rare features of 
beauty, he adorned in many ways which characterized it as an English homestead. 
P Jssessed, as he was, of English ideas with regard to social status, and having been a 
naval officer, it is not surprising that he should have formed one of an exclusive circle, 
and been regarded 
n aristocrat. But whatever may have been his ideas of social rank, 
he performed the duties of Justice of the Peace, for many years, with strict impar- 
tiality, careful consideration, and to public approval. 
James Francis Ballard, the youngest brother of Captain \Vainwright, became 
Rear Admiral in the Royal Navy, and was in command of the "Black Prince," a 
vessel which formed the escort of the ,: Great Eastern" when she was laying the Atlantic 
caLle. In 185 1 , Captain \Vainwright visited the Great Exhibition in London, and 
later he removed with his wife and daughters to England) where he died; Mrs. 
Wainwright died in 1881. They had six children-two sons and four daughters. 
fhey were John \Vroughton, Emily, Harriet Forbes, Mary Elizabeth, Charlotte 
Catherine, and George Hadden Richmond. 
Emily, the second child, died at the age of 8; Mary Elizabeth, the third, was 
married to Lieut, Penethorne, of the Royal Artillery, but died soon afterward, 
George H., unmarried, is a broker in Montreal. 
JOHN 'V., the eldest of the children, has always remained on the homestead; 
content with the society of his family and with the enjoyment of his rural abode, he 
has had little to do with public affairs, He was married May 1 [th, 186 4, to Amelia 
Elizabeth CarolIne Carter, daughter of the late Dr. Edward Carter, of Sorel, P.Q. 
They have had seven children-three sons and four daughters, Of their sons, 
J. E. R. is employed in the Merchants' Bank at Calgary; J. G. R., who graduated 
with honors from McGill in 1892, is a civil engineer in Hamilton,Ont., and S. F. A. 
is a student in the Medical Department of McGill University, 
FINLAY MACMARTIN was born in Perthshire, Scotland, in 1812, and came to 
Canada with his father, Donald MacMartin, in 1827, and settled in Grand Fournier, 
near St. Eustache, The following interesting letter, written by his sister, was 
copied from the British Whig (Kingston), of October 28, 18 9 0 :- 



 OF 18 37-3 8 . 
" MONTREAL, October 23, -. 
"To THE Em roR,-
Iy brother, Finlay l\Iac
Iartin, served as a YolunteerUl;der 
Captain Globensky, of St. Eustache, County of Two 
Iountains. He was at the 
battle of St. Eustache, 14th December, 1837, and was one of the party finding the 
body of the rebel leader, Dr. Chenier, shot down trying to escape, his followers 
having taken refuge in the Catholic church, hoping thus to save their lives. I well 
remember my brother's tale of the exciting times they had, while wailing at the vilJage 
of St. 
lartin (nine miles from 51. Eustache): for the ice to become strong enough to 
enable soldiers to transport their cannon and ammunition across the Rivière du 
Chêne, a branch of the Uttawa. The Regulars were commandcd by Sir John Colborn<:>, 
who aftel wards became Governor-General of Canada. After impri:-oning all who 
surrendëred, the troops fired the church and village of St. Eustache, then marched 
to the, ilJage, twelve miles west, St. Benoit, another stronghold of the rebels. Here 
lived Dum!Juchdle, a noted rebel, father of the late Senator Dumouchelle, of Two 

[ountains. Although only 5ix years old at the time, I well remember passing 
through St. Benoit, when it was a heap of smouldering ruins. 
[y mother, bLing 
very nervous, left home with the younger members of 
he family, to reside with an 
uncle at St. Andrews, where the English population was more numerous j my two 
elder brothers were enlisted as Yolunteers. 
ly father, then moer sixty years of age, 
;ll1d a farmer, located in the vel y centre of a reLel comIl1unity, was placed in a trying 
position. He could hardly leave home, and by remaining would be forced to jilin 
the rebels, or be put under arrest by them. He and my only surviving brother, 
James l\Iacl\Iartin, now living on the homestead at St. Eustache, betook themse!ves 
to the woods, then pretty dense, and made dismal by the howling w()lve
, which they 
kept off by burning fires day and night. As the night advanced, they would venture 
out as near home as they deemed safe, then my sistcrs, aged respectivclyeighteen 
and twenty, who had brave:y volunteered to remain at home, would 
et out a signal, 
when it was safe for them to come to the house. 
Iy father finally got things satis- 
factorily arranged, such as putting all his threshed wheat into barrels, and concealing 
it whele the rebels never thought of looking for it. There was not much to conceal, 
as threshing was a slow precess in tho:,e dap. All had to be done with the flail. an 
implement of which the farmers of to-day know little. He placed his highly prizl d 
gun (after taking it apart) in an o:d metal pot, and buried it in the earth. No \ ile 
lebel would eyer get that into his hands. He then stalted off, accompanied by my 
brother, who was thcn a young boy, to rejoin mother and family at S1. Andrews, 
They had to keep under co\-er of the wood
, ac; they were sure to be arrested if they 
ventured on the highway. The hard
hips and sufferings they encountered were 
terrible, wending their way through snow and- half-frozen swamps, up to their knees 
in water. My brother was taken ill with inflammator
' rheumatism shortly aftl
r, and 
has been a martvr to that disease in a chronic form ever since. 
\fter wandering for 


14 1 

two days and a night, they reached L'1chute (instead of St. Andrews) in the early 
part of the second night, well nigh exhausted by fatigue, hunger and cold. They got 
a hearty welcome from the loyal-hearted Scottish f.Hmers, who attended to their wants, 
and sent them on their way rejoicing to St. Andrews. Of the sisters who remained 
at home and attended to the cattle, the youngest, 1\1rs. Alex. Patton, County Bruce, is still living; the o:her, Mrs. 
Iax\VeH, mo
her of John Maxwell, barriste; 
and Crown .\ttorney br Prescott and Rus<;elJ, also of Rohert 
lax\VelI, carriage builder, 
of Eden Grove. Eruce County, Ontario, died ten years ago. Finlay 
Iartin, whose 
service as a Y olunteer is ahove recorded, died sixteen, and his brother 
ied nine 
yea! sago. 
"Shortly before the b:tttle of St. Eustache, a party of rebels canie to o

r home, 
while my sisters were alone, and asked wh
re my father and b:others were. They 
were very civil, with the exception of one, who shoved his old rusty gun through the 
window, for which he was sharply reprimanded by his leader. They asked for fire- 
arm'), money, etc.; not getting this, they went to the stables, took the best horse, 
harness, and an old train
au,--for sleighs were not in use in those days. From the 
sheep pen, they took of the f.Htest. Return ing to the hause, they gave my sisters a , 
note to the effect that payment would be made when the 'Republic of Canada was 
declared and established.' 
,. The leader of this party, named Jerod, was recognized by my sisters on the 
morning of the b;wtle of St. Eust1che, 111 lking his escape on horseback, without 
saddle or bridle, but a halter made of his mililary sash. 
" Respectfully your

Finl.!y :\Iac
lartin came to Cote du Midi "in 18-1-8, and settled on a farm which 
he b.Jugh
 from .\rchibald :\lcCalIum, one of the first settlers here. He was married, 
April 9th, 1850, to Christida, daughter of Donald l\1cKeraclter, of D.llesville, the first 
settler of that place. They had four sons and four daughters. 
Ir. Mac:\Iartin dIed 
1 [th December, ISj 4. acie I sixty-two; :\Irs. \lac \lartin still survives him, living on the 
old homestead. Of the children, :\largery .\., the eldest, married to 'v. G. Cameron, lives 
in Unlario j Jean 0., married to:\1. L. Foley, in British Columbia; Maggie L., married 
to J. E. Playfair: in Ontario; and Eugenia, who is a teacher, is also in Ontario. 
James A. P., the second son, learned his trade as bridge builder, and was a contractor 
in that line; he was last heard from when in New 
Iexico, six years ago, Geo. D., 
after spending four years with :\Ir. Chas. \Yales of St. Andrews, in the mercantile 
business, went to 
Iontreal and spent six years-part of this time in traveBing-in 
the same line of business. In 18 9 1 , he went to Chicago, and now has charge of the 
office in that city of J. \V. GoddJ.rd & Sons, wholesale woollen merchants of New 
York. While in Montreal, he was a member of the Yictoria Rifles, and was cham- 
pion shot of Quebec for two years, Colin B., the youngest son, lives at home. 

14 2 


JOHN F. K., eldest surviving son, was born in Cote du Midi. It was his inten, 
lion to prepare for business or a profession; but the father dying when the family 
was young, it became necessary for him to take the management of the farm, in which 
he is still engaged. Being a teetotaler from infancy, he early became an active 
temperance worker, taking a prominent part in attempting to secure the passing of 
the Dunkin and Scott Acts, and also by working as a member of the Sons of Temper- 
ance, I. O. G. T., and Royal Templars of Temperance, having filled the leadin
offices of the different societ:es for various terms in succession, He was Master of 
St. Andrews L. O. A., No. 52, for a number of years, and was also an officer of the 
County L. O. A. of Lachute. He became a member of the active militia of Canada 
at an early age, and served as a private and Ilon-commissioned officer; in 1880, he 
went to a Military school, and, having obtained a certificate, was given the commission 
of Second Lieutenant in No. I Company, Eleventh Battalion, A, R., and three years 
later, the commission of First Lieutenant; he is also a commander of the Colors 
He early took an active part in religious ma
ters, hecame a member in full com- 
munion of the Presbyterian Church, and, a few years later, was elected to the Elder- 
ship, Since the introduction of the Patrons of Industry, he has been President of one 
of the Associations, and has successfully organized a number of Associations through- 
out the County and Province. 
In the summer of 1817, ALEXANDER MCGREGOR, of Breadalbane, Perthshire, 
Scotland, came to Canada, and found employment at Chute au :êlondeau, Ontario. 
On the last day of the following April, he crossed the Ottawa on the ice, and made his 
way to Cote du Midi and purchased the two lots now owned and occupied by his son 
John. He was a weaver by trade, and with that thrift characteristic of his country- 
men made a hand loom earn many a penny during the long winter evenings and days 
when he could not wage war on the forest with which much of his land was covered. 
Owing to the scarcity of cloth manufactories, his loom was an implement of great 
utility to his neighbors, for whom he wove many of the fabrics then in common use, 
In the Rebellion of J837, he and his eldest son, Alexander, promptly enlisted in the 
Company commanded by Captain Robert Simpson. 
He had eight chil,Jren, but only two of the sons, Alexander and John, respected 
citizens, live in this section. The latter, who lives on the homestead, is a prosperous 
The history of THOMAS H\ DE, whose descendants are numerous in this section, 
is replete with romantic incidents. His home was in Exeter, England, and his father 
was a captain in the Royal Navy. 
Thomas had spent some years on the ship of .\dmiral Rodney, and in company 
with a young friend named Ramsey he left the service and came to New York. Both 
had money supplied them by their parents, and they purchased a stock of goods, and 
went to the North \Vest to trade with the Indians. But they met different tJeatment 
from what they had anticipated, and learned the treachery and barbarity of the 



savages; they were robbed of their goods, and soon saw that their lives were in 
danger. H}de made good his escape, but Ramsey was captured, bound, and then, 
according to the custom of the Indians, was subj{cted to torture. \Vhile lying on his 
back, stripped, his tormentors amused themselves by pricking his body with their 
knives, and then wiping the blood from them on his lips. But his revenge was at 
hand, They had been drinking, from the effects of which they were soon in deep 
slumber, leaving him, as they supposed, securely bound, When he saw their uncon_ 
scious condition, however, by great exertion he freed himself from the thongs, seized 
a tomahawk, dispatched fourteen of his captors, and escaped. He final1y reached 
England, but not receiving the welcome from his family which he desired, and induced 
by that love of adventure which young men having once experienced, seldom abandon. 
he colored his red hair, can 1 e to America, and once more mingled with the Indian... 
H is disguise, however, was not so complete as to prevent recognition, but by some 
means, of which we are ignorant, he gained the esteem of the Indians, married a. squaw, 
and was granted by her tribe a large tract of land in the vicinity of the Great Lakes, 
Some years subsequently he corresponded with his old friend Thomas Hyde, who 
was then ë:lt St. Andrews, and made him liberal offers of land, if he would go out and 
set tie near him; but having too vivid recollections of his former experiences among the 
Indians, Hyde d{clined the tempting offer. After escaping from the Indians, Hyde 
went to Michilimackinac, and was there employed by the superintendent of Indian 
affairs, as clerk in tÍ1e Indian Store. 'Vhile there, he married Margaret Anderson, a 
young weman who had been ind
ntured, when quite small, by her mother to the 
superintendent, and whose term of indenture had now expired. Her father lived, at 
the opening of the American Revolution, on the Susquehanna River; and being 
an U. E. Loyalist, his property W_1S confiscated, and he came to Can ldJ. in com- 
pany, it is sai<.l, with two flmilies nam
d Ogilvy and Glassford-both having been 
exiled hy the same fate-and whose descendants are no ,v prominent citizens of 

[ontrea1. These loyalists were at 
Iichilimackinac, and the celebrated Indian chief, 
Brant, was al
o there at the same time. 
Brant, knowing .1\Ir. Anderson, borrowed of him a sum of money, which WJ.S 
counted and delivered in presence of a number of I ndians. Whether incited to the 
(;rime by the sight of the g.)ld, or whether they were led to it by some other motive, 
is unknown; but soon afterward, they shot \[ r. .-\.ndel son between the crevices of the 
logs in the house where he resided. Being unwell at the time, he was lying on a 
couch when the dastardly act was committed. 
Irs. Anderson being thus left a 
widow with her young children, was prevailed on to inrienture her eldest child, 
:\Iargaret, to the superintendent, and it WJ.<; to her, now arrived at worn 1I1hood, that Hyde was wedded. 
A few years after this marriage, som
faction having ari-)en between the 
superintendent an..} the Government, he left hi" position, and thou
h he offcr
 1 Hy(le 
the u
e of his house, furnished, if he would rennin at Michilimackinac, on account of 
his dislike and distrust (f the Indians, he declined the offer, and with his wife 3,11(1 



two children with the superintendèllt to 
Iontrea1. There he W.1S introduced 
hy the superintendent to Sir John Johnson, Seignior of Argenteuil, these two gentle- 
men heing cousins; and by Sir John he was ind ceù to purchase two lots of land at 
St. Andlen-s Bar, to which place he removed about I i9 2 . 
In the war of 18T 2, he became Captain of a 
Iililia Company, and his eldest son, 
who \\'.\S born at :\lichilimackinac in 1789, was S
rgeant of the sa
lle Company. In 
I8J 5, they \\'
re ordered with the Company to 
Iontreal, but before arri\Ting there 
peace WJ.S declared, and they returned home. 
:\1r. and 1\Irs. Hyde, whosè eady life had been one of so milch rom:1.nce and 
sorrow, livcd here until their death. They had twelve children; George, the eldest, 
bought a farm at the Bay about a mile from the homestead; he also had twelve 
children, who grew up; he died in 1887. Jan
, the eldest daughter, born at l\Iichili- 
mackinac, married Martin Albright; she died in 1879. Sarah, th
 second daughter, 
married Edw.\rd Jones. AJexander, anather son, bought a farm and settled 011 the 
River Rouge; he had eight children,-three sons and five d.ulghters; his own ')on 
George, who remained on the homestead, and still OWI1S it, has recently purchased the 
fine old homestead of J ohn 
lc:\lartin. Charles, another son of Thomls Hyde, pur- 
chased a on the River Rouge near his brother Alexander; but he had no children, 
Xelson, the youngest son of this old family, never married. and rem:\Ïned on the home- 
stead till 1880, when he sold it, and now lives in the villJge of St. Andrews. He is 
another of the octogenarians in this section, who are witnesse5, not only of the salu- 
brity of thè climate, but of the benefit resulting from industry and tempel ance. 
 ca'ne from Fort William, Invcrness-3hire, Scotland, and after 
living a year in Lachine, call1
 to Cote du Midi about 1802. He was a Presbyterian, 
and the first, or one of the first, who preached here,lbout; the reader will find him 
alluded to in Dr. Paterson's sketch of the Plesbyterian Church, St. .\ndrews, as one 
of the early workers for the Christian cause; his sermons were delivered in Gaelic. 
As there were so many of the same name in this section, he was distinguished by the 
name of ,. Preacher Cameroi1," and one of his sans in turn by the same cognomen. 

Ir. Cameron took up the lots of land now owned l>y his grandson John. While 
he was away six we
ks in L:lchin
, on duty as a \'olllnte
r in the war of 1812, a large 
number of his sheep died fro111 cold and starvation. 
His eldest son Hugh, vlho was in Capt. Simpson's Company in 1837-38, lived Oil 
the homestead. He had seven sons and six Jaughters; he died about 1867. 
John and Alexander are the only two living in this section; Hugh, a fann
r, lives 
in Ottawa. 
SDtEO:-J LERoy was the earliest pioneer of whom w
 have received any record; 
he located here as early as I j8S. 
At the olJening of the Amel ican R'
volution, he, with two or three brothers, 
1ived in Genesee County, X.Y.; but their loyalty to the Briti-;h G;:>vernm::nt for 
Lidding their cJ.
tit1g in their lot with those who had thrown off their allegiance, th ey 
felt that safety demand
d a remova1. Simeon first w.:nt to NOla SC0tia, a:ld afte r 



spending a fe\v y
ars ther.e, and ii1 other plac
s, he r:am
 to St. Andrews anJ settled 
on th
 River Rouge, on land now owned by John :\lcG;egor and Stephen Burwash. 
At the time the LeRoys left Genesee County, haste prevented their nuking any 
efflJrt to sell their property, hence they left all, glad to e5cape only with their lives, 
The country then b
ing new, and land worth but little, they probably did not reg,1rd 
the sacrifice they were making as a great one. Since then, however, the same land 
-owing to the rapid growth of villages and cities-!1:ls becom
 very valuable, and, 
I:l)t many years ago, an effort was made to find the heirs to the real estate vaclted 
hy the LeRoys. An agent vi'iited this section of C:lnad.l, and endeavored to induce 
descendants of the LeRoy brothers to bok up their claims to the property; but 
believiug they had no ríght to the improvements which had been mlde thereon, and 
regclrding it of little value when their ancestors abandoned it, they, conscientiou5ly. 
decided to ha';e nothing to do with the matter. 
Mr. Simeon LeRoy lived on the land where he first settled on the River Rouge 
till hi
 death; he had three sO:1s-William, Sim
on, Henry, and two d3.ughters 
-Sophia and Hannah, 
The homesteJd was divided between \Villiam and Sim
0.1 j Henry bJught the 
lot now owned by John l\1c\lartin. He sold out not m:lI1Y years subsequently, 
and moved to Ea5l Ha.wkesbury, where he spent the rem1.inder of his d.lYj. Wiliiam 
was the only one who remained in this section. He married a d.:lughter of :\lanin 
Jcnes, an early pioneer at St. Andrew's B3.Y, and spent his life on the h )m 'steJ.d. 
They had ten children-five sons and five d:lughters j six of these--thre
 mns and 
three daughters -settled in East Hawke5bury, Ont., one son and two daughters in 

Iontreal, and another 'ion, Martin, lJought a farm on the Riv.:r RouJe. He was 
married to 
[ary, daughter of :\Ialcolm :\lcCallum. a worthy pioneer of this locality. 
They had twelve children-eight sons and four daughters. 
Mr. LeRoy died 1st Januuy, 181)3; 
Irs. L
Roy, 1st November, 1889, ()fthe 
children, six settled in the State of :\lichigan; one d,1'Ighter in Manchester, N. H. ; 
::\b.lcolm, the eldest, in C:llumet Island; Archiblld C., and Muy, who married 
Martin Le Roy. in Hawkesbury, Ont. 
ALEXAt'DER is the only one who has remained in the neighborhood of hi:) birth. 
He is one of the highly respected citizens of the parish, whose counsel is sought in 
matters of moment to the IUllnicipJ.lilY ; and he hai serve.J it in the c;,t}Hcity of 
Justice of the Peace for a dec,lde, and ,15 Scho')l C0\11'uis:;io:1cr ab:mt the sal11
He married Hannah, a daughter of Henry Albright. in 187 I. They have three children 
living, and OsmcU1 Edgar, their eldest, is a graduate of 
[cGill and ha; obtained au 
A -ademy Diploma. 
I r. L
Roy h3.'i latdy purc113.-;ed the H uringt)n Estate. 
The BURWASHES, of whom there ar
 many in this section, are am )ng the sober, 
tl,riflY and industrious citizens who do credit to their coun
:r\athaniel B
lrwash WJ.S born i:1 Kent, EngL.1I1J, and his
r dyinJ \Vhi
e he 
W;lS very young, he was adoptcd by ::In u'\cle-captain of a vessel in the 
Marine_ He was employed several years on this \'e'-isel, during which time it wa'i 

14 6 


captured by the French and retaken by the English. Finally, he came to the United 
, marned, and settled in Vermont; but preferring to jive under the British flag, 
and induced by the cheapness of land, in ) 802, he came with his eldest son to Canada 
to prospect for a location. They had but one horse, and this they rode by turn
They came to Carillon, and after surveying different lots, selected three on the River 
After returning home, Mr. Burwash learned that his mother had recen tly died 
in England j and on going there, he received as legacy a sum of money, which p
him in good circumstal
ces, and enabled him to purchase lands in Canada for his 
, Soon after returning from England, he moved with his family to this section, 
and took up his residence on the River Rouge, on land now owned by his greal- 
grandsons, Martin Burwash and Martin Albright, A few years subsequently, he 
divided this farm between his two elder sons, Adam and Stephen, and purchased 
another tract which forms a part of the farm long known as " Silver Heights." Later, 
he bequeathed this to his youngest son, James, who soon sold it to Archie McVicar, 
a Nflr' Wester, and moved to Plattsburg, N.Y., where he died. 
Mr. Burwash, sen., after seeing hi3 sons well settled, made hii home with the 
eldest, Adam, and lived with him till his dca'h, 7th November, 183 J J at the age of 88. 
Adam Burwash had ten children-seven sons and three daughters, but only one 
of these, John, is now living. Four grandsons of Adam Bllrwash are clergymen, 
three of the :\Iethodist and on
 of the Baptist denomi 
Stephen Bunvash, \he second son of Nathaniel Burn-ash, had eight children 
who grew up-six sons and two daughters. Of the sons, l\Iatthew and John stillli'"e 
here,-the former in St. Andrew's vilIage, though still owning his farm; the latter, 
011 the River Rouge. Mr. R
lIwash died 18th January, 1887, aged 60. 
Matthew, the third son of Nathaniel Rurwash, whose farm given him by his 
father was located at 
t. Andrew's Bay, was drafted in the war of 1812, and though 
not a participant in that engagement, was within he:1.ring, marching towarù it, when 
the battle of Chrysler's Farm was fought. Two years previous to his death, he was 
awarded a pension by th
nt. He died 13th September, 1876, ag..?d 87 j 
MIs. Burwash, in 1890, aged 95. He was lllarried to, daughter of Ewen 
McI achbn, who came from Scotland and settled on \he River Rouge in 1802, :\lr. 
McLachlan sold his farm and purclu;;e lone in Point Fortune, on wh 1 ch his great 
grandson, Victor Angus, now resièes. One of his sone:, Ewen, built the mill at Arn- 
prior, which is now owned by his own SO:lS, Hugh F. and Claude 
The only dildren of :\[atthew Burwas'\, sen., now living are Maria in 
Andrews, and 'Villiam at Southampton, Onl. Hi.) son Mau!-.elv remained on 
the homestead, and during his lifetime was one of the influential farmers of this 
section. His widow still lives on the homestead, which is now managed by her son 
Thoma<": a Municipal Councillor, and a member of the St. Andrew's Troop. His 
brother Harry, also a memLer of the Troop, is c'erk in the store of Mr. Banfurd. 
Lachute. Thomas, the fourth son of Nathaniel Bllrwash, though very Yüung, was 
drafted during the war of J 81 2, but he soon died from the mea-ìlcs which he caught 
III camp. 

River Rouge. 

This settlement is an important and beautiful district of St. Andrews parish, 
about five miles in length, commencing about a mile east of St. Andrew's village, and 
terminating at the east line of the county. It embraces two ranges of lots - one on 
each side of the river called the Rouge, a small stream about ten miles in length, 
rising in the county of Two 1\lountains, and pursuing a devious course westerl}' 
in to the North river near St. Andrews' village. The locality is elevated, affording an 
ive view, and as an agricultural section it is rarely equalled, the farms being 
beautifully located and possessing a strong and productive soil. Among the fine 
farms here-many of which are mentioned in the following sketches-is that of R. p, 
De La Ronde, barrister .of St. Andrews, which contains over 30::> acres with good 
\VILLIAM: S, TODD, eldest son of Andrew Todd, was born in 1852, in St. 
Eustache; he was married in 1882 to Agnes, daughter of Joseph Rodgers. In 1890, 
he bought his present farm, the old Peter 1\1c:\Iartin place, on the north side of the 
River Rouge. 
lcEwEN came from Perthshire to Canada in 1818; he was a carpenter, 
and worked at his trade in Montreal for some time, then came to River Rouge, and 
bought the farm now owned by James ::\1cOuat. He was married in Montreal to 
Catherine McLean, of Rreadalbane ; they had thirteen children-eight sons and five 
daughters. Donald, the eldest son, born 1820, always remained in this locality. In 
18 3 8 , he became a member of Captain Simpson's company of Volunteer.., and \\",1." 
married the same year to Elizabeth, daughter of Peter :\Ic
[artin. They hJ.d three 
children,-one son and two daughters. Catherine, the eldest, married John 
and died in Montreal in 1877, leaving one daughter. 
Margaret, the second daughter of Donald McEwen, married to J. C. Lock, IS 
now rving in ::\[ontreal. \Villiam A., the son, remained a.t home; he was married 
June 4 th , 1884, to Catherine, dá.ughter of AlfreJ Center, of Centerville. They have 
four children,-three girls and mJe boy. 
Ir. Donald McEwen now lives on the old 
homestead, his father having retired from active work. 
JAMES, eldest son Of\VALTER MCOUAT, was born [818, in Montreal. In 1825, 
he removed, with his father, to Lachute, and ill 184-1- was married to J eannetle, 
daughter of the late John Christie, of the East Settlement; she died 25th August, 
1888. In 1845, 1\1r. 
lcOuat came to the River Rouge, and bought the farm now 
owned by Mitchel) Fournier; he afterwards sold this, and bought his present fine 
farm of Charles Albright, Mr, :\1cOuat has six children-three of each sex. Of the 
daughters, Eiizabeth, the eldest, lives at home; Jane is the wife of :\Telson Albright; 



and Jeannette, who married Gavin J. Walker (If Lachute, is deceased. Henry, the 
) oungest son, remains at home j John R. is a merchant in Lachute j and James, the 
ddest, li\'es on the south side of the River Rouge; he wa') born 8th November, 1848, 
and removed to his present 
arm, L')ts 28 and 29, in 1876. On the 21st :'\ovember, 
1 SS8, he was married to Agnes, daughter of the late James McAdam j they have two 
children-both boys. 
[cOllat has a good farm, fine brick residence, and all his 
surroundings b
token enterprise and thrift. He cirCllL1ted a petition to have a Post 
Office established here, and that object was accGmplished in July, 1894. The l)ost 
Office, bearing the name of Kilowen, is at the east end of the River Rouge setliel11ent, 
and from it the mail is distributed twice a week. 
[r. George Giroux is postmaster, 
[ARTIN, whose ances:ors were Highland Scotch, C:lme to Çanada 
from Stirling, Scotland, with his family in 1830. They were eleven weeks making 
the voyage across the Atlantic, being shipwrecked durin
 their passage. Mr, 

lc:Martin first began work in Valldreuil, remaining there two years. He then came 
to Carilion HII'. and hired the farm of Peter Mc.-\r:hur, now owned by Henry Bar- 
day, dy;ng there at the end of eleven years. He had five children, of whom two 
daughters, Cathel ine and Elizabeth, and one son, Peter E., are no .\' living. Catherine 
is the wife of Dr. ChrislÍt', 1\1. P., of Lachute, and Elizabeth is married to Donald 
McEwen. Peter \! cMartin, the sen, who was born ISH, October 6th, came with 
the family to River Rouge in 1844, and bought the farm nùw occupied by Andre,\' 
Doig. He afterwards sold ii, and bought his present farm from Thomas Fournier. 
He was married in 1849 to Susan, daughter of the late WiJIiam McEwen, and has 
se".en children four girls and three boys. Peter James, the elde:;t son, after spending 
se\eral years in New York and 1\lontreal, where he was employed three years as 
shipping clelk tOl ,rilliam Johnson & Co., retull1ed home in 1890, and is now man- 
ag:ng the farm; Alfred. the second son. is living in Iowa j and Norman, the youngest, 
is with 'Vm. Johnson &. Co. Montreal. Margaret, the eldest daughter, is in 
Montreal; Charlotte, a teacher, is at home; while Caroline and Priscilla, the 
yo:mger daughters, who are both trained nurses, are working at their profession!'7- 
the former in 1\ ew York and the latter in Massachusetts. Mr. McMartin, their 
father, and the subject of the lauel' part of Ihis sketch, has taken an active l'
rt in 
mi1itary óff.:1irs, having been Sergt.-Major of the 6th Cavalry Regiment, of which he 
was a member Ihirty years, and he was in the Eastern Townships with the Y olunteers 
during the Fenian Raid, 1870. He has Leen Municipal CouncilJor of St. Ar.drews 
Pal ish for seven years. 
G, a S
otchman, was an actor in the American Revolution, and 
r) served unåer .-\dmiral Nelson, as sailor in a British man-of-war, and was in the 
h.Htle of Trafalgar. He relired from a sea-faring life, and came from Stirling, Scot- 
laud, about 1825, first settling in Chathlm j he afterwards sold out here, and went to 
Huron County, Ontario, where both he and Mrs. Young died. They had six sons 
and two daughters,; of these, Elizabeth, married to William Fraser of Bethany, and 
Thomas, the second son, born 182 I in Stirling, Scotland, are the 0 ) ly ones in this 




couDtry. In 1849 Thomas came to River Rouge, and bought hi
 present farm: the 
same year he wa..; married to Jeannette, daughter of John :\IcOuat, of ., Burnside 
Farm," Upper Lachute; she died 26th June, 1886. They had six daughters and (.n
son, of whom all but one daughter are now living. Of the others, Elizabeth and 
Ellen Ii ve in Kansas; the former being the wife of 
-\ lexander Must ard. and the latter 
of James Mustard. Margaret, the eldest, Janet, Mary and William live at home. 
Mr. Young has a large farm, owning one lot on the south side, and two on the north 
side of the river, also one hundred acres bush land in the rear of Lachute. 
NICHOLAS B. McKERRICHER, a Highland Scotchman, was one of the early sett1ers 
on the River Rouge, coming here about 1831. He W..lS twice married-the first tim
to Miss Clark j by this marriage they had one son, who went to :\Iissonri rears ago, 
and has not been heard from since. :\Ir. 
Ic Kerricher married the second time 
Catherine :\IcOuat, and became the father of three children, of whom only one. 
. is n0W living. The iatter, born in 1843, has always remained here; he was 
married in 1385 to Mary, daughter of Ewen CamelOn. Cote du 
lidi; she died fi\'e 
weeks after the marriage. 
Ir. )IcKerricher's father ha\'ing died soon after the b"rth 
of his son Nicholas, the latter lives with his mother Oil the old homestead, where he 
has a fine farm of 270 acres. His grandfather, Donald :\IcK.erricher, came to Canada 
in 1802, settled on the south side of the River Rouge, and afterwards \Vent to Cote 
du l\1idi. 
IES GORDON came from Scotland to this place about 1 S35; he was married to 
CatherilH', daughter of J ohn 
Icl\Iartill j they had thirteen children-seven sons and 
si.J\.. daughters-all of whem are li\"ing. Of these, Peter A., John. and El!en, the wife 
of Charles McGregor, live in this place. Mr. Gordon died 5th :\farch. ISS6, at eight\"- 
six years of age, and his wife died 27th .hmuary, IS86, age j se\'enty-nine. John. on 
of the son.., bought his present fJ.rm on the north side of River Rouge from n e 
Howard about 1875; his brother, Peter .\., the youngest son. born February. IS-H" 
li,'es on the old home5t
ad. I [e was married in IS9-J. to .\nna, daughter of D,l\.iJ 
Paul, of Bethany. 
].UIES :\lcADAM, from Ayrshire, ScotlanrJ, was one of the early settl
rs in this 
place, coming here about 1849. He was mal ried in I .achut
 to C.1lheiine, daughter 
of John :\lcIntyre; they had ten children-eight sons and two d lUghters-aH of wl.ol11 
are living. I\lr. MC.\dam died February 5th. IS8-t, aged se,"enty.three. :\[r:,. 
Mc.\dam died 251h March, I SS8. Of the childre'1, .-\gnes J., married to Jame
)IcOuat, is living on the south side of River Rouge; Alf''.ander, Thomas .\. and 
Elizabeth live on the homestead, and the other sons are in the Western State...- 
David in Kansas, \ViHiam and Andrew in Nebraska. James and Quintin R. in Colo- 
rado, and John in California. 
JOHN FRASER came from Inverness-shire, Scotland, and was one ofth
 first settlers 
here. James, his second son, was married to \nn, daughter of John :\Ic:\Iartin. and 
bought the farm now owned by Alexander, his son, and lived here until his dc,n:l. 



which occUlred 6th January, 1876. Mrs. Fraser died 25th October, 1882. They 
had eight children, of whom three daughters and four sons are now living; the 
daughters and two sons, Angus and Alexander, being on the homestead, while James 
;) nd Samuel are, respectively, in California and Missouri, 
DUNCAN MCGREGOR came from Perthshire, Scotland, and settled in the States, 
On the breaking out of the Revolutionary 'Var, being too loyal to fight against King 
George, he came to Canada, and remained in or near Quebec city until 1802, In 
this year he removed to River Rouge, and bought the farm now occupied by his 
p-andson, John McGregor. Mr. McGregor was a Captain of the Militia during the 
war of 1812; he died in 1819, His son, Gregor McGregor, remained on the home_ 
stead j he was married to Susan Robertson, and had five sons and two daughters j the 
Lltter are both Ii ving j but of the sons, only one remains, Mr. McGregor died in 
18 So, aged fifty-two, and his wife died ten years later. 
JOHN MCGREGOR, their son, now living here, has always remained on t}1e home- 
stead. In 1848, he was married to Miss :McArthur, daughter of Archibald McArthur 
üf Dalesville j they have eight sons and one daughter, Of the sons, Gregor A., the 
elòest, is with Sheppard, Knapp & Co., and Arthur A, is with Oppenheim & Sons, 
both in N ew York city; Robert S. is studying medicine in Columbia College, New 
York; John R. is with J. C. 'Vilson & Co., Montreal; Peter C. is studying for the 
ministry in McMaster University, Toronto j Harold 'V. D. is with Dobson Bros., 

ew York j and Herbert D. and Norman F. are at home, Miss McGregor is attend- 
ing college in Montreal. 
MALCOLM MCCALLUM carne from Argyleshire, Scotland, loc3ted in the River Rouge 
Settlement in 1820, and bought the farm now owned by Mrs. David McAdam, 
Donald, his son, who was born in 1817, always took an active part in the military 
.lffairs of the country, and in 1837 was a member of Captain Jones' Company. After 
the Rebellion, he became a member of the militia, and held the rank of Captain, when 
the soldiers were disbanded. He was married to :Mary, daughter of John McMartin, 
of River Rouge, in 1850. They had two sons and five daughters, of whom one son 
and three daughters are now living. 

Beech Ridge. 

This locality is in the eastern part of the parish of St, Andrews, and received its 
name from the quantity of beech growing here at the time of its early settlement. A 
post office was established here in 1878 i A. B. Bell, who settled here in 1851, being 
appointed post-master-a position he stilI holds, Mr. Bell has also won the e5teem 
of his fellow-citizens-the f,tct b
ing attested by his election as Municipal Councillor 
of the Parish. 
The first settlers here were Nichols, Jacob Minkler, 'Villiam, Stephen and 
DJ.vid Bond, and another, whose surname was Borden. Nichols settled where 
'Villiam Drew now lives; Minkler on the lot noW' owned by \Villiam and Malcolm 
Smith. A man named 'Yard Smith had located on land now owned by G. \V. Bond, 
w;1Ose brother, Stephen Bond, purchased it of Smith. In 1824, the latter sold 200 
acres of bnd to 'VILLIAl\I CATTON, who for some years previous had been in business 
at S1. Andrews. He had been an officer in the British army, and was a good linguist, 
ing able to speak several different languages. He rather astonished the inhabitants 
of this section by the stock of merchandise which he brought, with the view of engag- 
ing in mercantile pursuits-having, besides a lot of fancy goods, a large stock of the 
finest and most expensive silks. A few years later, deciding to engage in farming, he 
sold the land he had bought of Bond, and purchased a tract about a mile further east, 
where his two sons, George and James, now live. The old log house which he erected 
in the days of his pioneer labors is still standing. He remained here till his death, 
and his sons, who are among the industrious and respected citizens of the locality, 
have continued the improvements he began, developing good farms with corresponding 
In 1825, the improvements made by Borden were purcJused by THO
who in company had been engaged in the jewelry business in London, Eng. The 
firm was known as Cook & \Valker, and they had a branch house in Montreal. Mr. 
Cook, however, did not live long after his removal to Beech Ridge, for in 1832, while 
on a visit to l\IontreaJ, he was suddenly seized with the cholera, and died, His son 
Thomas remained on the farm at Beech Ridge, and cleared much of it. 
In 1834, DONALD LOYNACHAN, from Argyleshire, Scotland, came to Canada, and 
in 1837, bought a lot on the Ridge, now owned by John \Vebster of St. Andrews. 
There were only two acres cleared on it at the time of his purchase, and Mr, Loyna- 
chan, in common with the other pioneers, endured many hardships in clearing it and 
providing for the wants of his family. Bears were not numerous, but wolves made 
frequent raids on the cattle and sheep, rendering it necessary that the latter shauld be 
kept in folds, from which they were not released till late the next morning. Wood, 
as may be supposed, was not of much value, Mr. Loynachan in those days bought 

15 2 


a cow valued at $30, agreeing to pay thirty cords of hard
 wood for hcr, and 
deliver it at the village of St. Apdrews. AboUl twenty y
ars after he came here, one 
of his small boy
, one day in summer, finding a large wasp's nest in a stump near the 
house, and little knowing the consequ
nces, set it on fire. The wind soon blew the 
fire ;nto another stump, which in turn kindled others, from which the fire was com- 
munie<Hed to the wood
. It continued to rage for six weeks, covering a large area of 
forest land, deslJoying much timber, balk, shingles and cordwood, :\lr. Loynachan 
died in 1886 ; his widow still lives hcre. 
ANGl s D. LOY;\IACHAX, one of his sons, an intelligent farmer, married the 
daughter of Mr. rj homas C. Cook, and until lecently livtd at the Ridge, his time 
being emp!oy\.d betweu1 the d!,ties of farmer and that of auctioneer; he removed to 
:\lontreal about a ) ear since. 
Through the influence of Dunald Lo)"nachan, a friend of his, n.1Iued AXGCS 
LJY;'IJACHAN, also originally flom ArgJleshire, 
cotland, settled at Beech Ridge in 
184 2 . He anived in Canada in 1837, and a short time subsequently joined the 
Glengalry Volunteers. In th
 fall úf 1838, he joined a Yolunteer company or artil1elY 
in Montreal. On coming to the Ridge, he purchased two lots of land, where he still 
reside..:. Through strict industry, integrity and good judgment, he added to his 
estate, and provided a compttency for his decJining years. His wife dÍ<:d in 1889 amI 
he now li\"es with his 
on-ill-Iaw, R. l\Iorin":
 He has had ten children, six of whon - 
four sons and two daughter
-are nc.w living. 
The eldest 
 on, Duncan, and s
cond, John B., are with the Shedden Company, 

Iontreal; the third, Angus A., is in company with Ford, and thcy are milk dea'ers, 29 
Coursol street, :Montreal; the youngest, Donald H., is in company with Scriver, and 
they ale wholesale con. mission lllcrchants, 32 J and 323 CommissiOl
ers street, in the 
same city. Mary Jessie-second in the family, now 
Irs, RoLert C. "ðlorin-liycs 
on the old homestead; Flora Jane, fourth in the family, lives in the same place with her 
.\s above m 
ntioned, one of the first settlers in Beech Ridge was STEI'HE
 nOì\ v, 
who came with his family, among woom wel e three sons-- \\ïlliam, David and 
Stepher.-from Randolph, Vt., about 1797, and bought five hundred acres of land on 
the roarl from St. .\ndrews to the Ridge. He afterwards returned to Vermont, and 
died there. Stephen, the youngest of the three sons, was bOIl1 in I]f)2; he W
married in 1827 to Miss Dorind.l. Powers of Bethany, and took palt of his father's 
farm, which is now owned by John L( ynachan. He lived there a number of yems, 
and afterwards sold it, buying the lot opposite, where he died in 1858, aged si
rive; Mrs. Bond died in 1844, aged thirty-eight. 
Ir, Bond was drafted into the 
militia in the war of 1812, and was stationed three months on Isle aux Koix; he 
served a year altogether. M r. and "ðlrs. Bond had two daughters and four sons; of 
these, George \V" the second son, is the only one of this family now living in Quebec. 
He was born 11th June, J 835, and has always lived in Beech Ridge; in 1860, he was 
married to Eliza, daughter of the late \ralter :\lcVicar, of Chatham. They have two 
--- M r. Loynachan died 2nd Feb.. 1896. 



sons, George ,V. and Franklin, who are both merchants in New Mexico, the former 
being in Wagon Mound, and the latter in Espanola, about 185 miles ap:ut. 
SAMUEL RENNIE came from, Ireland, to Canada in 1838. He was an 
engineer by occupation, and was employed as such in )lontreal for seventeen years; 
during that time he was with 'William Dow, J. H. Molson, Handyside and \Vm. 
Johnson. He was also a distiller, but owing to ill-health was obliged to give up this 
business. He came to this place in 1851, and bought the farm now occupied by his 
son, with whom he is living, still active at ninety-three. George, the yoangest son, 
born 1852, who remained at home, deals extensively in live stock, taking it to the 
Montreal market. He was married in 1879 to Jennie, daughter of the late John 
Oxley of 
Iontreal; they have one son aud one daughter, Mr. Rennie is 
Councillor of St. Andrews. 
THO:\IAS SMITH was born in Dundee, Huntingdon Co., Que., May 24 th , 
1829. He was twice married-the first time, to Catherine Stewart of Huntingdon; 
by this marriage, they had two sons, Malcolm and \Villiam Scott. In 1855, Mr. 
Smith came to this place, and bought Lots Nos. 4 and 5. 
lrs, Smith died in 1867, 
aged 37, of diphtheria-one of the first cases known in the country. 
Ir, Smith was 
married the second time in 1864 tJ Mary Ann Ford, of Huntingdon; Mrs. Smith 
died in 1875, aged 37, alld Mr. Smith died ten years later, on his 66th birthday; 
they had two sons and one daughter-one son is now deceased. Janet L., the 
daughter, married to F. McArthur, lives in Montreal; and Thomas F., the son, is 
in the milk bUòiness in the same place. 
l\IALCOLM, the eldest son, born June, ÜiS5, remained at home, and was married 
in June, 1887, to Jane, daughter of Hugh Cleland, jun., of Jerusalem; they have three 
children, Mr. Smith lives 011 Lot 4-the old homestead; he has taken an active part 
in the County Agricultural Society, having been director of it for several years. He 
is also licensed auctioneer for the District of Terrebonne and agent for the Canada 
Carriage Co. He has a fine farm, on which he has this year been awarded a silver 
medal; he has also engaged extensively in fruit growing, having an orchard of about 
700 trees; 25 difft.:rent varieties of fruit from these wcre shown at the County in 
18 94. 
\VILLIA:\I SC(lTT, second son of Thomas Smith, was born r 2th September, 1858, 
and was married loth September, 1884, to Ellen, daughter of Captain Kenneth 
Urquhart, of Glengarry; they four children,-all boys. Mr. Smith live;; on Lot 5, 
half of the old homestead; he also takes much interest in fruit-growirg, having an 
orchard of several hundred trees. 
JAMES COWAN was born in Co. Antrim, Ireland, in 1792. On first coming to 
this country in 1823, he settled in Jerusalem, and in 1841 removed to Beech Ridge, 
where hc lived for eighteen years on a farm owned by David Bond. He then bought 
the farm, Lot 
o, I, now owned by his son Thomas. !\lr. Cowan took an active part 
in the movements of the 
Iilitia, being with them at St. Eustache in 1837-38. He 
died in 187 I, aged sevel1ty-nine; he had five sons and three daughters, of \vhom three 



sons are now living. James is living in New York State; William in Yermont; and 
Thomas, the youngest son, born 1833, remains at home, He was married in 1'-63 to 
Isabella, daughter of the late Francis Carson of East Settlement; they have three sons 
and one daughter, all at horne, 1\1r, Cowan has been Municipal Councillor and School 
Trustee for several years, also a member of the St, Andrews Troop cf Cavalry for 
eighteen years. 
JOHN FRANCIS MITCHELL was born in Brussels, Belgium, and when 10 years of 
age came to Canada with his father's family, He was married to Hannah M. Lawson 
of Sheffield, England, and came to this place, hiring the farm, Lot 22, on the south side 
of Beech Ridge. This he bought a few years later, and has since put it under a fine 
state of cultivation, making many improvements, and building a new residence; he 
keeps a stock of sixteen head of cattle and three horses. 1\1r, Mitchell has three boys 
and three girls; Hannah, the eldest, married to 'Vi11iam Hume, lives in Bethany; 
Harriet is in 
Iontreal ; Hugh B., the eldest son, in Minnesota ; John F. is in 'Montreal; 
and the two youngest remain at home. 
The following sketch of pioneers of this locality was prepared at our request by 
a former citizen of the place: 
" About the year 1829, Beech Ridge was inhabited chiefly by New Englanders, 
whose habits of neatness and thrift, with fair practical knowledge of farming, resulted 
in giving the locality a prominent position in the county. 
"The Pecks, the Bonds, the 
Ijnklers, the Greens, Centers, l\IcArthurs, Coles and 
other pioneers of that comparatively olden time had cut away the forests, erected 
comfortable dwellings and substantial out-houses, planted orchards, Jaid out gardens, 
and, generally, created one of the prettiest rural settlements in Lower Canada. The 
very few who remember the widow Peck's residence and surroundings, some sixty- 
seven years ago, will have difficulty, even now, in finding an equal in all respects even 
in progressive rural Ontario, The homestead with its immense barns, byres, stables, 
sheep houses, cheese room, corn house, swine pen, driving sheds, and all necessary 
bui\dings, large orchards and gardens, well tiHed and fenced fields, and fine sugar 
bush, was too attractive to remain long without a purchaser, after the owner had 
decided to cast her lot in the embryo village of Chicago. The new proprietor, 
anxious to have early possession, had already sent in some servants with furniture, 
before the widow, her two sons, and old" Uncle Bill" had fairly started for the new 
home in the far 'Vest. 
"Capt. McLean about this time bought the Dr. Green rroperty; Thomas Cook, 
Esq., the farm opposite Peck's, besides the disposal of several other farms to new 
comers, among whom were Mr. Catton, Capt. McCargo and Major May; but the 
Yankee settler made no objection to this foreign invasion. 
" No man could be more respected and beloved by his neighbors than James 
Kennedy Johnstone, Esq., of Ayreshire, Scotland, who succeeded .:\1rs. Peck. Though 
highly educated, by birth an aristocrat, and son of an aspirant to the titles and estates 
of Annandale, yet he apprecia ted the quiet, honest, pious, respectful people among 



whom he had come, and in their religious meetings and Sunday School he took an 
active part, thus gaining the affection of old and young, especial1yof the latter, upon 
whom his smiling countenance and pleasant words of advice made an indelible im- 
pression. In religion, Mr. Johnstone was Scottish Episcopalian; in politics, Conser- 
vative. At the time of his death in March, 1833, he had arranged to visit Scotland, 
during the summer, with the object of pushing his claim to the Marquisate and estate 
of his forefathers in Anllandale, Five sons and two daughters with their mother were 
lefl to mourn his death. The sons were James Kennedy, \Vel1esley, Quintin, Samuel 
and \Vashington Joseph, and the daughters-Ylatilda and Elizabeth, 
" James, without issue, died at St. Andrews, after ha ving long retired from active 
business; \Vellesley, with a family in the \Vest-his son James being inspector of gas, 
Toronto,-devotes himself to the political press, favoring responsible government and 
every real reform, entire free trade, beginning with the Mother land, standing in the 
front. He sometimes expresses serious dissatisfaction 
vith the ignorance (Æ political 
economy evinced daily by Canadians in the House of Commons, who claim to be 
statesmen, Quintin adopted the profession of land surveyor, He died at Thorold, 
Ont., leaving a family; one son-James Kennedy Johnstone, M.D. Samuel had long 
resided in New Orleans, where he died leaving a family. \Vashington and his son of 
the same name entered the Civil Service-the former as inspector of wei!5hts and 
meaSìures, the latter in the Post Office D
partment. Matilda and family reside in the 
Slate of New York. Elizabeth died early, at the old homestead on Beech Ridge, 
deeply regretted. Like her mother, she never sent the beggar away empty-handed or 
hungry. Her chief happiness in the absence of children of her own was in doing 
good, and not refusin; , the cup of cold water' in His name. 
"The residence of \V. J. Johnstone, Esq., with its orchard and well laid out 
grounds, still helps to preserve the f,lÌr name long enjoyed of Bonny Beech Ridge." 


This is the name of a Post Office established in 1860, neculy midway between St. 
Andrews Village and Lachute. It is on the road connecting these places, and which 
has always been designated as the ,; Lachute Road "-the name being much more 
frequently used to distinguish places, even in proximity to the Post Office, than Geneva. 
The Lachute Road settlement has always been an important district, both in the 
parish of 5t, Andrews and in the County--from the fact that it possesse
agricult ural qualities, and for t \vo or three generations has been inhabited by a class 
of most mtelligent, upright and thrifty fanners. There is neither a poor farm nor a 
poor farmer on this road, in 51. Andrews parish; and a drive a
ong this route in 
summer is one of intere
t to any inèividllal interested in agriculture. Those of 
whom the followin 6 sketches are given reside in St. Andrews, and have good farms, 
and besides these are the fine farms of William Todd, - Wood, Jas. Bradley and 
some others. 
Early in this century, GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS HOOKER, a young man who had worked 
in a paper manufactory in Boston, came to St. Andrew
, and was employed for a 
number of years in the paper mill in that village. He was born in Boston, 3 rd 
April, 17 8 4, and was the son of one of the revolutionary heroes, whose name \Vas 
Zibeon Hooker. History informs us that the latter was born in SherLurne, :\lass., 
12th February, 1752, and that he was one of a company of" Minute men" organized 
in the place of his nativity, who proved themselves deserving the title a'isumtd, by 
proceeding to Lexington on the 19th of April, 1775, as early as intelligence of the 
battle at that place reached them. They were not in season, however, to aid the 
inhabitants in defending their homes from the invading foe. Erom the same source 
we learn that Mr. Hooker commenced his military career at the age of seventeen, as 
a musician. DUling the engagement at Bunker Hill, the drum which he carried was 
pierced by a shot of the enemy. Divesting himself of this now useless instrnment, 
he seized the musket of a fallen companion and rushed into the heat of the battle, 
This c:irCllmstance attracted the attention of the commanding officer, and he was 
raised above the rank of a common soldier, from which appointment he eventually 
succeeded to a l
utenantcy. Having joined the ContÏnenLÜ army under General 
'Vashington, he never grounded his arms until peace was concluded in 1783. From 
a sermon delivered at his decease, we copy the following: 
" As a man, our departed father possessed great moral worth, the strictest inte- 
grity, uncommon purity of character, and in the most exemplary manner discharged 
the relative duties of life. Such was his peaceful disposition that, during an unusually 
protracted life, never was he known to be at variance with any human being. Of him 
it can with truth be said, he had not an enemy in the world. Above aU, our 



departed father was a sincere ChristiJn; no man entertained a more becoming sense 
of his own unworthiness than this Israelite, indeed." 
Not long after, his son, Gustavus Adolphus, came to St, Andrews, he purchased a 
gore in this parish, known as Lot 5, comprising about 200 acres, and a part of which 
is now owned and occupied Ly the family of his son, G. A., Hooker. 
On January 6th, 1808, he was married to Pamelia McArthur, daughter of Peter 
McArthur of Carillon Hill, After the paper mill was closed, he gave his attention to 
his farm, and, like the other pioneers of those days, he made many a barrel of potash, 
with which to procure the necessaries of life, He was Captain of Militia many years, 
and in the troubles of 1837-38 was a member of the Home Guard, It is quite 
probable, therefore, that, had the opportunity been given, he would have emulated the 
bravery of his father, He died 7th April, 1870; Mrs, Hooker, 1st April, ) 876, 
They had twelve children who grew up-six sons and six daughters, One son, George, 
and four daughters are now living, Of the latter, Mrs, Giles resides in Lachute, one 
in Illinois and two in Glengarry, Ontario, 
George in his younger days bought a farm in Centerville, Chatham, on which he 
lived till a few years since, when, selling it to his son George, he moved to St. 
Andrews, He has been one of the substantial men of Chatham, has served as Muni- 
cipal Councillor, two or three times as Assessor, and as President of the County 
Agricultural Society. He was married June 14th, 1845, to Sarah Jefferson from the 
North of England, by which marriage he had eight children, Mrs. Hooker died 
15 th November, 1870, and he was again married in September, 1873, to Annie M. 
Hoare, from Surrey, Eng., and by this marriage has three children. 
Gustavus Adolphus, who remained on the homestead, preferred to give his atten- 
tion to his farm rather than to public affairs; he, however, was a School Commissioner, 
and accepted the position of Post-Master when the post-office was established, holding 
it until his death. It was at his suggestion that the office received the name Geneva. 
He was married in 1864 to Alice, daughter of Peter McMartin of the River Rouge 
Settlement; four children-two daughters, twins, and two sons-were born to them. 
.Mr. Hooker died 20th August, 1895, and his loss was deplored by a large community, 
JAMES BUCHAN, with his wife, his son David and three daughters, from Perthshire, 
Scotland, settled on the Lachute road in 181 7. taking up a large tract of land, part 
of which is now owned by his grandson, \Villiam Buchan, :md the balance of it by 

fr. R. \V, McGregor, who still occupies the stone hùuse built on it by Mr. Buchan. 
He was followed, in 1823, by his son, John Buchan, who settled on part of the land 
taken up by James Buchan, and which part is still in the possession of the family. 
John brought with him his wife, four sons, Thomas, Peter, James and Andrew, and 
one daughter, Andrew died soon afterwards. Thomas and James went to Ontario 
and settled near Hamilton j the former died in 1895, James is still living. Their 
father, John Buchan, died in 1876, and their mother in 1873, both of them being 
upwards of ninety years of age. 
David, some years after thcir arriv aI, purcha
ed land at L'Orignal, which is now 
in the possession of his son Andrew. David married Flora McLachlan, sister of 

15 8 


Hugh McLachlan, Esq., of Arnprior, and had a large family, of whom two, David and 
Daniel, died, the former early in 1896, and the latter about 1877. Another son, 
'Villiam, lives at \Vhite Lake in Ontario, and Andrew and a daughter, Mrs. Campbell, 
still live in L'Orignal. William, the youngest son of John Buchan, and his sister 
Mary were both born in Canada, and both have remained at the homestead. In 
r, 1851, \Villiam married Katherine Stewart; they have had five sons and 
four daughters, but four of the sons are deceased. Peter, aged twenty-one, died 
July 2nd, 1875, 'Villiam, aged eighteen, died April 21st, 1882; Andrew, aged 
sixteen, died at Los Angeles, California, the 28th of November, 1888, and another 
died in infancy, 
John S., the only son now living, graduated from McGill University in 1884 and 
is now a successful Barrister in Montreal. He married on the 15th September, 1885, 
Katherine, second daughter of Mr, F, McMartin, of St. Andrews, She died in 
August, 1894, leaving two children, John Stuart and Katherine McMartin Buchan. 
Katherine, the eldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs, 'Villiam Buchan, married David 
Todd, and lives on the farm adjoining the homestead. Annie, another daughter, 
married Duncan McGibbon, and lives in Brownsburg. Mary and Margaret, the two 
remaining daughters, live with their parents. 
Mr. Buchan is one of the thrifty, intelligent and highly respected residents of the 
county, and for a number of years filled several public offices with great ability. 
Among the early residents of the parish was" Johnny JJ Blais, who was for many 
}'ears almost the only French speaking settler in Lachute Road, He owned the farm 
next to that belonging to John and afterwards to 'Villiam Buchan, where he lived 
with a large family until his death, about the year 1860, Bi"s funeral was attended 
by alm03t the whole of his neighbors, by whom he was held in the highest respect 
in his lifetime, 
Walter Galloway lived on the farm adjoining that of 1\Ir. G. A. Hooker. He 
was a typical Scot, and very popular with his neighbors, Hi
 son James lived for 
some years in Carillon, but died in middie age, His daughter Isabelh married J, A. 
Sharman, who lived until the time of his death, in 1874, on the Gl110way farm, 
where he also carried on a tailoring business. After his death his son, Walter G. 
Sharman, lived in the same place, and carried on the business until about the year 
1884, when he sold the farm and removed to Montana, where he is now living. 
Thomas Jefferson was a typical English Squire, He owned the large and fertile 
farm now the property of Mr. Robert \Vatson, where he employed a large number 
of people, and prospered from year to year. He always practiced the best metho::ls 
of farming, and by his success dem
)l1strated the truth that business methojs pay in 
farming as in any other pursuit, After selling his farm to Mr. 'Vatson he lived for 
some years on a piece of land opposite the homestead, which he reserved, and 
eventually removeJ to St. Andrews, where h
 died. This sketch would be incom- 
plete without a reference to James Foley, long the trusted foreman for Mr. Jefferson. 
" Jimmy," as both young and old loved to call him, was capable, hard-working, and 
of sterling integrity. \Vhen the Jefferson farm was sold he moved to Point Fortune, 
where he purchased a Íarm, and farmed it with the success which he well deserved. 




IIN CùLE, from New Hampshire, was one of the earliest settlc::rs on the 
Lac'hute Road, and he lived here till his death. 
Willard, one of his sons, bought the lot on which his own son Benjamin now 
lives; he was marrir:d in 1818 to Susan l\IcLaughlin, of St. Andrews. They had two 
sons and seven daughters-of whom only one son, Benjamin, and three daughters 
are now living. Benjamin lives on the homestead with one of his sisters, Isabel Cole; 
neither of them has ever married, :Mr. Cole is very particular respecting the care of 
his cattle and horses, of which he always has a superior quality. 
RICHARD 'VILSON l\1CGREGO}{ was born in Perthshire, Scotland, in October, 
IS I 5; he thtre learned the carpenter's trade, and followed it untIl the spring of IS41, 
when he came to Canada, remaining for a time with his brother on the Lachute Road. 
He worked at his trade in this locality, St, Andrews and Carillon, for five years. In 
184S, he was married to Jane, daughter of the late Dr. 
1cGregor, of Lachine, and 
came to live on his present farm, which he had bought from David Buchan, two years 
Mr, and l\Irs.:McGregor have had three sons and fi\ e daughters, all of whom are 
living. Margaret, the eldest daughter, and Anna, are both in Califomia; 1\lary, mar- 
rieà to 'Vm. Elliott, grocer, lives in :Montreal; Isabella, married to "'m. \1 cOuat, 
lives in Brownsburg; and Catherine is at home. Norman P. is a Commercial Traveller 
in Minneapolis; John and Andrew live at home. 
Mr. McGregor has taken an active part in the affairs of St. Andrews Parish, 
having been Councillor several terms, Chairman of the Board of School Commis_ 
sioners fifteen years, and Justice of the Peace and Commissioner for the trial of small 
causes for hvtnty } ears; he was also a member of the Militia for a number of years, 
and held the rank of Sergeant when the Militia was disbanded; he was Quartermaster 
of the Argenteuil Ral1gers, and retired with the rauk of .Major, 
JOHN FRASER came from Banffshire, Scotland, to Canada, in 1834, with his wife 
and eleven children. He first settled in Thomas' Gore, remaining there one year, 
and then wc::nt to Hill H ead
 \\ here he lived seven years; he afterwards came to 
Lachute, and bought the place now ownt.d by his youngest son, Hugh, After this, 
he s}Jent seven years on a property near Back River, .l\1ontreal, returning at the 
end of that time to the Lachute farm, where he and 
1rs. Fraser both died. '''hile in 
Hill Head, l\fr. Fraser conducted a distillery five years. 
George Fraser, the third son, b(/rl1 1824, remained at home until sixteen, at 
which age he went with his father to Montreal, remaining on the farm at Back River 
seventeen years. During that time, he had opportunity to help back to hc::alth some 
of the victims of the terrible ship fever raging in 
fontreal, by supplying them with 
buttermilk, canying to them 140 gallons, daily. He was a
ked one day by the doctor 
who attended the emigrants If he was 110t afraid; Ul on his answering ":\0," the 
doctor remarked-I. I do not want to stop you, for taking the buttermilk means life 
to them. II As is well known, hundreds, e\'en thousands of these poor people perished j 





l\lr. Fraser says, he has seen them die by the dozen in thp ]arge emigrant shed. He 
at last gave up supplying with buttermilk from fear of spreading the disease. He 
was married in 1848 to Miss E. Carmichael, daughter of Donald Carmichael of St. 
Eustache, and in 1864 came to Lachute Road, and bought from the late Andrew 

cGregor his present farm, (In which he has made many improvements. Mr. and 
Mrs. Fraser have had three sons and three daughters, of whom only two sons are 
living,-Daniel, the elder, is farming on the Island of Montreal, and John. the younger 
son, remains at home. Miss Jessie CaImichael, sister of Mrs. Frac;er, a1so makes 
her home with them. 
ANDREW TODD, third son of the late \Vm. Todd of East Settlement, was born Au- 
gust, 1 8 3 I, at Lachute. .When sixteen years of age, he commenced learning the black- 
smith's trade with John McAllister of East Settlement. He was married in 1851 to 
Margaret: daughter of the late David Roger of the same place, and first started in 
business for himself in St. Eustache. He opened a shop there. remained two years, 
and was afterwards in Lachute ten years, and in Beech Ridge the same length of 
time, In 1874, he bought his present farm from John McConnell, but still has 
found time to work occasionally at his trade. Mr. and Mrs. Todd have six sons and 
four daughters; Robert, the youngest of the family, and Jennie, are at home. The 
former, having taken a course in the Military School at Quebec, is 2nd Lieutenant in 
Captain \Vanless' Company of Cavalry at St. Andrews, 
DAVID, third son of DAVID RODGER, was bom in East Settlement in 1838, In 
1868, he bought his farm here, and in 1869 was married to Alice Young, adopted 
daughter of the late Dr. Barr of Belle Rivière. Mr. Rodger has been one of the 
prosperous farmers of Argenteuil, bringing his farm Ï11tO a fine state of cultivatilJn. 
Mrs, Rodger died in 1878, and her death was followed, twelve years later, by that of 
the oldest son, David John, The latter was an exemplary young man in every 
respect, and his early demise at the age of twenty years was deeply deplored. 
Agnes H., the daughter, was married in July, 1895, to David Taylor of Isle aux 
Chats. William George is attending Military School in Toronto, and holds a com- 
mission in the St, Andrcws Troop. Mr. Rodger has retired from farming, having 
sold his farm to his brother in 1893. 
JAMES AR:\ISTROl'\G was born in 1803, and came from County Monaghan, Ireland, 
to Canada about 1825, and died 
Iay 7th, 1873. Mrs. Armstrong died in 1878, at 
the age of seventy-five. 
JAMES, their second son, was born April 17th, 1836, in the 8eigniory, and 
remained at home until about twenty-six years of age j he was married Feb. 25 th , 
1862, to l\largaret, daughter of the late James Scott of Lakefield, and after living ten 
years on the fal1n given him by his father, sold it and bought his present one from 
Dr. Christie. Mr. Armstrong has erected several new out-buildings since coming 
here, and made other improvements; he has always been a liberal supporter of the 
Presbyterian Church, and has been Elder in Henry's Church, Lachute, for the past 



twenty-five years. :\lr. and 1\lrs. Armstrong have had four sons and six daughters; 
of whom two sons and five daughters are now living. James, the elder son, has taken 
an active part in the Y. P. S. C. E. of Lachute, having become a member soon after 
the Society was organized, and was President of it for a year j Bella teaches the 
Geneva school j Catherine A. attends the Lachute Academy; and Mary, Elizabeth E., 
Lucinda J. and George S, remain at home. 
The following sketch is contributed by Colin D
NISON was the man chosen for Captain by the Volunteers of Lachute 
Road at the breaking out of the Rebellion in 1837 j he was a cooper by trade, which 
at that time was a good paying busine3s. He was a man in the prime of life, active 
and intelligent, and although moving in the humbler walks of life, was well fitted for 
the position to which he had been chosen, and which he filled to the complete satis- 
faction of his commanding officer, as well as that of his Company. He was passion- 
ate1y fond of hunting and fishing, a circumstance he turned to good account, as wolves 
were very numerous and a great nuisance to the farmers; and he was successful in 
capturing quite a number, for which he received the Government bounty of ten dollars 
He left St. Andrews a few years after the close of the Rebellion, and as the 
part of the country he went to had few postal facilities, there was very little heard of 
him, and in a short time he was in a measure forgotten. About the year 1880 or 1881, 
I noticed an article taken from a Renfrew paper mentioning the death of J olm 
Dennison, and giving some details of his previous life, which sufficiently identified 
him as the former Captain of the Lachute Road Volunteers. The article went on to 
say that Mr. Dennison, although well up in years, still kept up his habit of hunting, and 
had left to visit his traps at some distance from his house, and not returning at the 
usual time, search was instituted, with the terrible result, that his dead body was found 
very much mutilated, and every indication of a fearful encoun:er having taken place, as 
the dead body of a large bear lay close beside him! 'Vhat a fearful struggle that must 
have been to a man n'::arly eighty years of age, and at what a cost! 
:\1r. Dewar says: "The summer of I 847 brought that terrible scourge, the 
'Ship Fever,' into Canada. A few emigrants from an overcrowded steamer going 
westward landed at Carillon, and two of them, a man and his wife, left there to seek 
friends living beyond Lachute. They got as far as Andrew Shield's house on 1.3.- 
chute Road, and being unable to proceed 3.ny farther, were cared for by his wife, 
who, with the help of some of the neighbors, placed them in a nice, clean, airy build- 
ing, and nursed them for many weary weeks, But with all their care, the husband 
succumbed to the disease, and was decently buried in the cemetery on Carillon Hill. 
His wife eventually recovered, and was sent on to her friends. In this case, those 
who nursed and cared for this suffering pair, fur so many long weeks, were those 
who had their own daily tasks to perform, which at times were none of the lightest, 
but they never shirked the duty, faithfully attending them, night and day. Truly, it 



was a labor of love, for there was no reward in prospect, only the satisfaction of a 
(rood conscience' and it is worth y of remark that none of them took the disease" 

JOH:"J \V ATSON came from Glasgow to Canada, and started in business in Mont- 
[(ai, in the tJoot and shoe trade. He was married in this country to l\1iss Janet 
Cmnduff, by whom he had three sons and three daughters. After leaving Montreal, 
he went to Fast Hawkesbury, and vought the Island at the foot of the Long Sault, 
now owned hy Henry Ste\'en
. He afterward removed to :\Ielbourne, Que., and 
became superintendent of the slate quarry in that place. 
Robert Watson, his eldest son, born in 1845, remained with his father until 18 73 ; 
e was married in that year to Jane, daughter of :\1r. George Hooker of St. Andrews, 
and went afterward, with his wife, to California, where they remained six years. On 
his return, Mr. '\Tatson bought the old Jefferson farm on the Lachute Road. His 
father lived with him until his death, which took place in 1883; his mother is still 
:\[r. and Mrs. \Vatson have four sons and three daughters all living at home, with 
the exce;:'tion of Roy, the eldest son, wh3 is in the milk busi!1es5 in Montreal. 


This place, the name of which in French denotes a chime of bells, is located on 
the Ottawa, two miles west of St. Andrew
, and is famed for the beauty of its scenery, 
It is a part of 81. 
\ndrews' Parish, and was incorporated as a village in 18S7. 
Land here had been granted to individuals by the Seignior previous to 1800, but 
there is no evidence that they ever settled on it. Peter Mc_-\rthur was undoubt- 
edly the first actual settler in the limits of what is now the corporation; hence we 
are tù understand that the subject of the following sketch was the first in what is 
genlfally regarded the village, i.e., the most populouI) part. 
CAPT. JACOB SCHAGEL is said to have been the first settler, and to luve built the 
first house in Carillon; this house (of course a log one) was located on the river's 
bank, just in rear of the present hotel of John Kelly; this occurred about the year 
1804. He came from the States, alld lived a while in Stan bridge, one of the Eastern 
Townships, before coming to Chatham. Sùon after this, he sent to Stanbridge for 
his brother Samuel, who, on joining him; erected for an hotel the long,. low building 
new uwned by Mr. Kelly, which stands a little to the west of his present hotel. This 
building he used as a lJUb1ic house for a number of years; he died at Carillon in 1839. 
:\Ir. Jacob Schagel, soon after his arrival, took a contract from Government for 
carryir.g freight between Carillon and Grenville,-a business he followed several years. 

f - 
. . 
I ' r - 
It 1 

.: J,- 






'10_ .. 


f ' 
I t 





.. " 




J J 

 ,l lr- 
> , 
'il . ;r 
" I 


16 3 

In 1809, April 2nd, he married Polly, a daughter of Captain Noble. The latter 
came from England, where he obtained his title from having command of a militia 
company, and had settled in Chatham on a lot of wild land, a few miles from Caril- 
lon. Quite a good sized creek crossed this land, and on this he erected a saw mill; 
he died some time previous to the Rebellion of 1837, This farm became the property 
of his' son-in-law, Captain Schagel, who spent many years ef his life on it, and died 
there, 16th May, 1874, at theage of88, Captain Schagel's military title was conferred 
on him a short time previous to the Rebellion, he having been appointed Captain of 
Militia; his Company was ordered to the front, and he gained much credit for his 
activity during the troubles of that period, Before his death, he was promoted to 
the rank of Major, 
In the early part of his residence in Chatham, he purchased a tract of land ad- 
joining that of Captain Noble, and which is now owned by William Graham; he lived 
on it till he sold it in 185 r, That Captain-or, more properly, 
Iajor-Schagel was 
much respected, and a man of influence, is evident from the manner in which his 
name is always mention
d by those who still remember him, and its association with 
every important local event of the generation past. He had fourteen children, of 
whom one son and eight daughters grew up. 
Jacob D, Schagel,* the son, was married, 17th December, 1850, to PhiIlippa Grace 
Mount-Stephens, and in 1856, or the following year, he bought the homestead on 
which he stilI resides. He built a new saw mill on the site of the old one erected 
by his grandfather, Captain Noble, and it answered its purpose well for several years; 
but owing to the partial drying up of the stream, as the land was cleared, the mill 
fell into disuse, and the only vestige now remaining is the dam; this is a stone struc- 
ture, and now, covered with soil, makes an admirable bridge, Mr, Schagel ably 
sustains the fair reputation of his ancestors, and while giving due attention to the 
cultivation and improvement of his farm, he has not neglected those things tending 
to the moral and intellectual growth of his family. He has had ten children-five of 
each sex; two of the sons are deceased, Of the daughters, Charlotte Amy, married 
to \Villiam Nichols, lives in Ottawa; Julia Agnes, married to \V. S, Gliddon, also 
lives in Ottawa; Alice Phillipp:!, the wife of George \V. Bixby, resides in Steele 
county, Minnesota; George S., one of the sons, living on the homestead, was mar- 
ried 6th September, 1894, to Justina Elliott; he was licensed by the Methodist Con- 
ference as a Local Mi nister, 2 2nd February, 1892 ; he is also Secretary of the A rgen- 
teuil Count}" C. E, Union, 
I)ETER McARTHUR was one of the very early pioneers in this section, having 
located on Cari])on Hill. His house, which was a large two-story building, occupied 
the site of the present residence of Henry Barclay, The hospitality of the family 
was well known; and for a number of years this house often afforded a home for 
Scotch immigrants until they could secure homes of their own. 

.. Mr, Schage1 died in December, 1895, since the above was written. 

16 4 


:Mr, MC.\rthur had lived in the States previous to coming here, and had married 
ill Vermont, Phæbe Lane, a sister of Jedediah Lane, who purchased the tract of 
land in Lachute known as "Lane's Purchase." 
They had six sons-Lane, Royal, Peter, Erick, Armand and Arthur; and four 
daughters, Lurena, Charlotte, Phæbe and Pamelia, 
Of the latter, Lurena was married to Moses Davis; Charlotte, to John Harring- 
ton; Phæbe to Robert Simpson; Pamelia to G. A. Hooker. 
Erick McArthur remained on the homestead tin he sold it to James Barclay in 
18 35, when he went to Ottawa, opened a public house, and remained there until he 
died. Lane 
lcArthur, the eldest son, erected a large building in St. Andrews, 
where he kept hotel for a number of years, and owned a stage line. 
Hi:; two sons, Crosby and !Frederick, followed mercantile life-the former in 
Ontario, the latter in St, Andrews, having purchased the store of 'V. G. Blanchard, 
whose adopted daughter he married. He was killed by accident, in Montreal,leaving 
one son, \VilJiam, now living in St. Andrews, and a daughter who married \Villiam 
Larmonth, a merchant in Montreal. Arthur McArthur, the youngest son of Peter, 
bought a lot in Lachute, and lived there some years; but he finally sold out and left 
the county. 
Royal, another son, studied surveying, moved to Ohio, and surv
yed Illllch of 
the wild land of that State. 


OTTAWA, January 23, 1894. 


A hÜ,tory of Argenteuil would be incomplete 'without more than a passing notice 
of that lovely spot welJ known as CarilJon Hill. 
In point of situation, nothing can surpass its love1iness. Standing on the brow 
of the hilJ, and taking a survey up and down, whit:hever way you turn, your eyes rest 
on the natural beauties of both land and water-the view of the Rapids and country 
away to the west, the lovely appearance of the country to the south, the course of 
that magnificent expanse of water, as it flows on until it seems to be lost or shut in 
by the Rigaud Mounta
ns, and the pure invigorating breeze as it rises from that 
majestic stream of water, always spoken of in early days as the" Grand River." 

o wonder this lovely spot could always boast of an intelligent and industrious 
class of honest yeomen; and if it be true that " he who makes two blades of grass 
to grow instead of one " can be called a benefactor, so well might they be called by the 

ame name, as alJ of them did their best, not only to beautify their homes, but also 
to benefit future generations (and it was from no fault of theirs that, in after years, 
their labors were destroyed), 
This thrift could be witnessed by the splendid gardens and orchards surrounding 
their homes-the shade trees and cherry trees growing along the highway, the pastures 


16 5 

filled by nm-bearing trees, as the hickory, oak, beech and butternut j all of this, and 
more, could be seen in the first decade of this century, when such men as my grant....- 
father Dewar, 
Iajor Muir and Auer Mathews occupied the property now known a<; 
" Bellevue "-Pekr McArthur owned where 
Ir. Barclay lives, Peter Benedict ",he:e 
Benj. Wales, and in later years John Dewar lived, and !\Ir. Donnelly was on the !anu 
now held by Hugh Robertson. 
It was a sight well worth witnessing for one to pass through their gardens and 
see the beautiful flowers and vegetables, and to go through their large and extensive 
orchards and see the lovely and delicious apples and plums growing in such rich pro- 
fusion, scarcely a vestige of which i5 to be seen now. Scientists mav be able to explain 
the cause of the destruction which came upon the fruit trees in that locality-th
remains that they have nearly all disappeared. 


From the deck of a steamer ascending the Ottawa, the traveller notices as she 
rounds a headland, away on his right, a high ridge, or bluff, descending abruptly to 
the river. Cultivated farms with good looking dwellings and white picket fences in 
front stretch along the brow of this ridge, and these, with the fruit and ornamental 
trees around, give the impression that the proprietors are well-to-do as well as per- 
sons of taste. The river, still presel ving its noble breadth and volume, flows quietly 
on; but just ahead are rapid, tumbling waters, and, beyond, the imposing Darn of Car il- 
lon, stretching from shore to shore. On the left, the land, for the most part pasture 
and meadow, and clothed here and there. with groves of trees, rises gently as it 
recedes from the river. 
The steamer now draws nigh to the wharf, yet the traveller is scarcely conscious 
of the fact, so engrossed is he with .the scenery around him. The ridge above re. 
ferred to, receding at this point a little farther from the shore, leaves a level space of 
ground near the river, at the eastern end of which is Carillon Park, shaded with a 
thick growth of hickory, oak and maple. Standing vis-a-1.!is on opposite sides of the 
river are the small, quiet villages of Carillon and Point Fortune, the white cottages 
of which, with their green fields and evergreen trees in the background, form, es[c- 
cially at sunset, a mo')t beautiful picture. 
A number of substantial brick and stone houses are also found in each village, 
and especiaHy the Government houses in Carillon, in which dwell the officials COIL 
nected with the canal, are attractive, as well as the grúlll1ds around them. .\t the 
steamer's wharf is a long, low building, which serves as station and freight house for 
both steamers and the railway. Several rods distant, and the first structure at the 
entrance to the village from the east, stands a very large and imposing stone building 
which a sign proclaims is the "Sovereign Hotel," but which for several dec.lrles 
has been known through all the country side as II The Barracks." 



But directly hack of the station, on the brow of the ridge, one hundred feet or 
more above the river, is a clump of buildings to which the traveler ascends in order 
to enjoy the wide view which their location commands. But his attention is soon 
engrossed by the buildings and surrounding objects; everything has such an evidence 
of care and prosperity in years bygone, that he wiiI inevitably wish to know the 
history of the early proprietor. 
A delightful grove of pine, butternut and acacia trees, in which squirrels chatter 
and gambol, nead}' approaches the buildings on the east, Passing through this, one 
enters an extensive pasture, where a number of horses, sheep and cattle are grazing, 
or seeking shelter from the sun, in the shade of gigantic elms, oaks and maples. A few 
yards in front, a lakelet, formed partly by nature and partly by art, sends its waters 
in a babbling stream down through a deep gorge, rendered dark by overhanging trees 
J.cross the park to mingle with the Ottawa. On the farther side of this gorge, located 
in a bower of evergreens, stands the cottage of Mr. John Halsey, the engineer on the 
Carillon &. Grenville Railway. Twenty yards in front of this are the roofless walls 
of a stone structure, enclosing trees whose tops shoot many feet above them. 
And thus one may wander for a day, over a tract ofland stretching from the Ottawa 
half a league back to the North River; and at every step will be discovered some 
memento of a time when energy and wealth were expended with lavish hand to render 
this a beautiful and productive hi Jmestead, Here and there tumble-down stone walls 
:Ire found in woods where once were cultivated fields. Here, the last decaying timbers 
of an old mill; and there. in the forest, are moss-covered mounds, which tradition 
says are the resting place
 of the servitors of the Ce Lord of the :\1 anor "-the toilers 
who helped to clear these lands and rear the struct
res now in ruins.; 
During this survey of so many vestiges of the past, the impression has been stead- 
ily growing, that the early proprietor of this estate must have possessed means far 
exceeding those of most of the early pioneers, and th3.t he used it in opening up busi- 
ness, the extent and character of which seem unique in the features of a new settle- 
ment. The researches incited by our curiosity develop the following facts ;_ 
One hundred and six years ago, or in 1790, the lot on which the house and out- 
buildings stand was granted to a man named L'Olive. In May of the same year, 
however. it was reunited to the domain, by a judgment of the Court of Common 
Pleas j and on the 3rd of May, 1792, it was granted anew to M. J. Ladouceur. It 
seems, however, that it must have once more returned to the Seignior, as it was again 
granted, Jan. 7 th , 1800, by Maj. Murray to J. \Vhitlock. Eight years later. it was 
sold to Peter Dewar, who retained it till the year 1819, when he sold it to Maj. Muir. 
On the 27 th 
lay, 182 7, Maj. Muir conveyed it to Commissary General C. J. Forbes, 
during whose ownership the buildings-house, barns, hotel, brewery, malt house and 
saw mill-were erected, and the large improvements made, the place receiving the name 
ce Rellevuc," by which name it has been known for more than three-score years. By 


16 7 

request, the folJowing interesting sketch has been prepared by one familiar with the 
history of 


"CHARLES JOHN FORBES was born in Hampshire, England, Feb. loth, 17 86 , and 
during his life on the Ottawa, the loth of February was as wen known to his large 
circle of friends as Christmas or New Year. At an early age he was sent to the 
College of Altona in Denmark, and when only fourteen, was wrecked in returning to 
England, on the coast of Holland. While waiting for a ship to carry them to their des- 
tination, he was taken by the Captain to a coun try Fair, and such was his wonderful 
memory and genius for picking up languages, even at that early age, thathe learnt there 
a song, sung by the peasantry, and afterwards di<;continued by ord
r of the Govern- 
ment, but remembered and repeated by him in a visit to HoUand in his seventy-third 
year. On his return to England, he entered the Navy; but when he was nineteen he 
went into the army, and first saw active service in that unfortunate affair in Egypt 
under Sir J olm Stuart. He was taken priso
:er and confined in the dungeons of the 
citadel of Cairo: but was fortunate enough to attract the notice of Mahomed Ali, and a 
friendship struck up between the English boy and the pO\verful Pasha. The following 
year, he again served under Sir John Stuart, at thè battle of Maida, and then the English 
arms was victorious. For several years he saw service in the Mediterranean, being 
present at the taking of the Ionian Islands and the taking of Sicily, He was also 
daring enough, on one occasion, to swim out under a heavy fire with despatches to 
the Admiral of the fleet, for which service he recei\'ed the thanks of Government and 
a gold snuff-box. He served in the Commissariat department through the Peninsu. 
lar war, where his knowledge of languages made his services very useful. From 
there, he was sent to join the army under Sir James Packenham, and W1.S present at 
the battle of New Orleans. In a l
tter, now in possession of his family, written to 
an uncle in England, immediately after the battle, he describes that unfortunate affair 
and the misapprehension of the feeling in the Floridas and Louisiana, which led to 
such a small force being sent; but he always retained a profound respect for General 
liOn his return to England, the following summer, he married Miss Sophia Mar- 
garet Browne, and their bridal tour was from the church door to \Vaterloo, Imme- 
diately after that decisive victory, Mr. Forbes, accompanied by his wife, was sent to 
Vienna, to take charge of the money lent by the Rothschilds to the British l;overn- 
ment for the payment of the Prussian troops. .Mrs. Forbes often described the 
heart-rending scenes they witnessed; whenever they stopped to change horses, they 
saw women who, having heard of a great battle, were hoping to get news of husb,mùs, 
fathers and sons. 
I. The peace of Europe being now established. they went to Florence, where they 
continued to reside for some years, their eldest children being horn there, During 
their sojourn in that dc1ightful city, they made acquaintance with some very cde- 



brated people,-among them, the Countess of Blessington, Lord Byron and the Abbé 
M ezzofanti, known as the greatest linguist of his own or any other day, being able 
to speak and write seventy diff
rent languages, In I 825, 
Ir. Forbes \Vas ordered to 
cotia, leaving Mrs. Forbes in England. She followed him as soon as possible 
under the escort of an old friend, whose son was afterwards Principal of the Lennox- 
viIIe College. From Halifax, Mr. Forbea was transferred to Montreal, but as that 
town was not healthy for his children, they decided to buy a place where they might 
be sent. Accordingly, they bought the property known as Bellevue at Carillon, on 
the Ottawa, from Major :\Iuir. They liked their home on the Ottawa so much, 
that they bought two other farm
, one from :\Iajor Burke and the other back of the 
village of Carillon from l\Ir. Cameron, which was ever afterwards known as "Cam- 
eron's Land. 
.. The societr of Montreal was at that time exceedingly good, as, besides the mili- 
tary, there was the old aristocratic French element,-the De l\Inntenachs; the De 
Lotbinières, whose daughters inherited the seigniories of Rigaud, Vaudreuil and 1>e 
Lotbinière ; and many more uf the old French families who formed at once the most 
exclusive and charming of societies. There were, besides, the Scotch merchant 
princes of Montreal, whose dignified hospitality added so much to the delight of 
Canadian life. 
.. This pleasant style oflife continued, partly in ÞtlolItreal and partly at Bellevue, 
till 11 r. Forbes was ordered to the \Vest Indies, at the time of the emancipation of 
the slaves. While there, he had two attacks of yellow fever in three months, and 
was invalided home. He returned to Canada, and took up his abode permanently. at 
BelIevue. H is only official duty from that time was acting as ad viser to Sir John 
Colborne, Governor General and Commander of the Forces, during the Rebellion in 
1837-38. He also acted for many years as Paymaster to the old pensioners, and was 
once unanimously returned as Member for the county of Argenteuil. A curious 
thing happened in connection with his election. At a dinner gi\ren at Bellevue to 
his constituents, a quantity of silver was stolen, but was shortly afterwards returned 
by the priest, who requestl'd that no questions should be asked, as it was restored 
under the seal of confes5ion. Families of old friends and relations hat.'!, in the mean- 
time, come out from England, and settled in the neighborhood; the society was 
delightful: Mr. Wainwright, R. N., bought a place which he named ,. Silver Heights," 
from the \\ hite daisies growing on the hill at the back of the house; Mr. Cunning- 
ham, afterwards Sir Francis, at l\IilllecrJ.ig, caned after the fami:y residence in Scot- 
land, and whose house-as they insisted on being their own architects-was found 
to be minus stairs or a support for one of the gables, which had to be built on a 
heavy beam through one of the bedrooms; Mr. Stikeman, at Rose Cottage, across 
the river, one of whose sons married 
Ir. .Forbes' second daughter, Florence; and M r, 
\Villiam Abbott, the genial clergyman of the parish, without whom no festivity in the 
neigh borhood was complete, His still more talented brother, the Rev. Joseph Abbott, 
was also a constant visitor, while his son-aíterward Sir John Abbott-spent a great 



deal of his early life at Bellevue. Prior to this, the building of the canal from Caril- 
lon to Grenville brought a large military force into the neighborhood, the officers of 
which generaliy made their headquarters at Bellevue; and for many years afterward, 
soldiers were stationed at Carillon for the protection of the canal-the military ele- 
ment adding much to the social enjoyment of the neighborhood. In connection 
with military matters, may be mentioned that, during the RebeBion, BeUe".ue became 
the' House of Refuge' of the ladies who were left defenceless from their male relatives 
going off to join the volunteer companies then formed. Some of these ladies thought 
the cellars, which run the entire length of the house, would be a hiding place, in 
which no adventurous rebel would ever find them, and insisted on dragging bedding 
and other things down there. Mrs. Forbes, however, who felt the warlike spirit strong 
within her, remained on deck, spending one whole night casting buBets, as .Mr. 
Giraud, one of the leaders, and who had been tutor to her sons, knowing how well the 
place was victualed, declared his intention of eating his Christmas dinner there, His 
intentions, however, were frustrattd by the determined defence made by our Volun- 
teers. Mr. Forbes' son-in-Iaw,1\1r, Edward Jones, immediately formed a Cavalry 
company, in which l\1r. Forbes' eldest son, Carlo, served as cornet. They did va- 
liant service, both at Grand Brulé and St. Eustache. Many deeds of valor were done 
by heroes from that section, a son of Judge McDonell, of Point Fortune, driving down 
on the ice and capturing some of the enemy's cannon, and dragging them up behind 
his sleigh. Quiet was at last restored, and Mr. Forbes, who always had a mania 
for builJing, was able to pursue his favorite occupation in peace. 
" His fancy for building and agriculture never proved profitable, the brewery, 
which was built in 1833, being a constant bill of expense, and the Barrack, which was 
buil t in 18 30, became useless after the troops were removed ; the powder magazine 
bad only the advantage that it blew up without hurting anybody, and the saw miU 
only led to a feud with his old friend, Col. Johnson; the Seignior. In right of the 
seignioriallaw as at that time established, he prevented his using his saw mill for 
anyone's benefit but his own. The agricultural arrangements were not much more 
profitable, except so far as it enabled unbounded hospitality to be at all times exer- 
cised. Arthur Young, the great English authority, was constantly consulted; but what 
might have suited English farming did not suit Canadian, aU rùot crops had to be 
transplanted; a lime kiln was built, to keep a constant supply oflime on hand for the 
land; large holes were dug in the bog to extract the marl at the bottom; and though 
the farm included 5 00 acres of woodland, a number of Irish laborers were constantly 
employed to make peat to burn in the house, 3S the ashes were supposed to be good 
for turnips. However, all these theories gave constant employment to the p
around there; those who wanted work were never denied it; and if sickness overtook 
them or their families, they were always generou",ly provided for. All this tim', the 
social life was of the pleasantest: people of distinction constantly corning there to 
stay. Sir John Colborne, the Earl of Dalhousie, Sir James Kempt, Sir Charles Rigor, 
Sir Charles :Metc
lf and Lord Sydenham-all Govanors of Canada-have been e.lter- 

17 0 


tained at the old homestead. Sir George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson Bay 
Company, was a frequent visitor, while Monsignor Forbin de Jonson, the Catholic 
Bishop, who put up so many of the crosses on tl
e Catholic churches in Canada, 
staytd at BelIevuc, and even claimed relationship, as he said his family were origin- 
ally Forbes, but the French pronunciation had changed it to Forbin. Of the Epis- 
copal Bishops, Stuart, Mountain and Fulford always made Bellevue their stopping 
place on their paro<..hial visits up the Ottawa. 'Vhile, in spite of political differences, 
Mr, Papineau was a welcOlr.e guest, his courtly French manner being delightful. 
.' Of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Forbes, only four are alive. The oldest son, 
Charles, or Carlo, became a civil engineer, and is now Jiving at St. Paul, Minn. 
The youngest, Frank, is in the City Engineer's office in Chicago. The second 
daughter, Mrs. Stikeman, removed after her husband's death 10 California, as did the 
youngest daughter, Elizabeth; while of the two nieces of Mr. Forbes, whom he tuok 
as children and brought up as his own, the eldest married Captain Powell,ofthe 
9 th Regiment, and the youngest married Dr. Mayrand, ofSt. Andrews, who is related 
to some of the old French families. Bellevue, as a home of the Forbes family, has 
long ceased to exist; and the life in the old homestead is only a pleasant memory 
of a by-gone time to many scattered in various parts of the world." 


1r. Forbes died 22nd September, 1862; Mrs. Forbes died 23 rd June, 186 9. 
The latter had been on a visit to " Silver Heights," accompanied by one of her 
nieces. In returning, the horse, a spirited animal, took fright, the carriage was over- 
turned, and 1\1 rs. Forbes being thrown violentiy against a rock was instantly killed, 
Her untimely death was the cause of much sorrow in the community, especially 
among those who had experienced her kindness and benevolence, She was a 
woman of excellent judgment, active temperament, generous and kindly disposition. 
Mrs. Palliser, now living in Carillon, spent several years of her early life in the 
service of the Forbes' family, and has many interesting reminiscences of BeUevue. 
She remembers particularly the benevolence of Mrs. Forbes, and how generously 
she always supplied poor families with fruit at the season of fruit-gathering, 
In those early da}"s, serious and bloody fights were of frequent occurrence among 
the raftsmen on the river, which were usually followed by the arrest of one or more 
of the most vicious combatants on their arrival at Carillon. 
The culprits were usually brought before Mr. Forbes for trial, and a strong-room 
in the basement of Bellevue confined the prisoner till the hour of his trial arrived, 
The door of this "lock-up," together with a padlock, which looks as if it might have 
done service in the Bastile, still remain as mementoes of those rude scenes which, 
happily, no longer occur, 
In 1864, the Bellevue property, consisting of 700 acres of land and four houses, 
was purchased by the Ottawa River Navigation Company, of which the late R. \V, 
Shepherd, sen., was president, and his son R. 'V, SHEPHERD, jun., is now manager. 


17 1 

The latter left school in 1865, and entered the office of the Company as clerk. 
During the time thus employed, he overlooked the building of the steamer" Dagmar," 
in the Company's shipyard, learned much about boats, their speed, construction, etc., 
-knowledge which was of much service to him in after years. In 1866, when the 
" Dagmar" commenced running. he was appointed purser on her, and remained two 
years, when he became purser on the mail steamer " Prince of \Vales," and held the 
position till 1870. In February, 1871, he made a trip to Europe, and on his return, 
the same year, wa3 appointed assistant manager of the Company-a position he 
occupied till 1882, when he became general manager. 
The construction of the palatial iron steamers" Sovereign " and" Empress" was 
entirely under his control and supervision, and the designs for them were prepared 
by him, after several trips to the States to obtain the most modern and suitable plans 
for river steamers designed for pleasure travel. That he attained his object is abun- 
dantly proven by the fine appearance of these steamers and their populaTity with the 
traveling pu IJlic. 
Mr. Shepherd was married 26th June, 1879, to !vliss Margaret A, Robertson, 
daughter of Hugh Robertson, of" Milncraig," Carillon Hill, Quebec. 
Military affairs have also engaged a share of his attention, and during the Fenian 
raids, he was ensign in the Como Rifles, and was stationed with his company to guard 
the approach to the bridge at St. Ann's. For eight years, he was an officer in the 
Prince of , Vales Rifles: 1st Battalion, and retired with rank of Captain, He saw 
active service when connected with this Battalion, during the Fenian excitement, the 
Guibord interment, and the Bread Riots in Quebec, in 1878. 
He has taken great interest in horticultural matters and fruit growing, and for 
several years was director and vice-president of the Montreal Horticultural Society, 
and is now vice-president of the Pomological Society of the Province of Quebec-a 
Society indebted chiefly to him for its formation. Fruit growing has engaged much 
of his attemion for more than twenty years, especially the cultivation of- the best" 
table apples, and his fine nurseries at Como are now well known in this part of the 
Dominion. He was assistant Commissioner of this Province for the \Vorld's Fair at 
Chicago, and the fine collection of fruit sent from Quebec was collected under his 

Carillon, even for a country village, is remarkably quiet; a bakery and a carpen- 
ter shop comprising all its manufactories. It has neither church, minister, or lawyer, 
and but one store. The Roman Catholics attend their church at St. Andrews, and 
the Protestants the different denominational services of the same place, or the service 
held occasionally at the residence of !vIr, Sharman in this village. 
But notwithstanding the Jack of mills and stores, there is considerable travel 
through thè place even in winter; and when the spring opens and the boats begin to 
run, the aspect of Carillon, as a business place, is greLl.tly improved. Thi
 being the 
terminus of the steamboat line from Montreal, as well as that of the railway running 

17 2 


to Grenville, it is a depot for both passengers and freight; and when summer advances, 
and people seek the refleshing air of the country, numbers flock to Carillon; its 
beautiful and expansive water front and othenvise channing scenery attracting num- 
bers which, through July and August, greatly enhance the life and gayety of the 
The store referred to above is worthy of notice, not only on account of its anti. 
quity, but from the event') which have therein occurred; more than one of the occu- 
pants having acquired a competency, while others have experienced the lot of bank- 
It w..:s built, sometime in the third decade of this century, by A. E. Montmar- 
quet from 
lontreal. Having no competitOls in the place, he soon became forehand- 
ed, and possibly, it may have been from the opportunity he had, of making what the 
Scotchman called" four per cent," profits, really four times the cost. However this 
may be, he acquired much influence in the Coun ty, and the following letter, copied 
from one in the archives of Quebec, shows that he was not devoid of public spirit. 
CARILLON, Sept. 16th, 1846. 

To the Supt, Schools, 
Canada East. 
SIR,- \V e have received a l)etition from the inhabi tants of the school district of 
Carillon, asking for help towards erecting a school-house in said district; and as we 
are not aware that there is any money in the Government hands to be appropriated 
to this district, we would feel extremely obliged if you will let us know whether you 
have any to spare, and what wiI] be the amount you will be able to grant them. An 
answer will greatly oblige the inhabitants of Carillon school, particularly Mr. A. E. 
Montmarquet, who is taking great interest in having a school-house erected in said 

\Ve are, sir, 

Your obedient servants, 

Secretary- Treasurer. 

When Mr. Montmarquet left Carillon, rumor claimed that he was worth the snug 
sum of $100,000; it is said that he was one of the founders of the People's Bank at 
In 1837, his store was the scene of a startling occurrence. At the time when 
the greatest excitement prevailed in St. Eustache, many of the inhabitants of that 
place fled from their homes, leavi
1g them to be plundered by any who might feel so 
disposed. Very soon, therefore, the work of pillage began. Stock was drawn off, 
hen roosts and pig stIes were rifled, houses broken open, and their contents carried 
off or scattered along the street. In such a condition of things, it was quite natural 
that many who would scorn to be the first to cnter a house to appropriate its effects, 
should pick up and carry off things which they well knew would otherwise soon be- 
come the Plcy of others. 



On the Saturday night following the fight at St, Eustache, a man named Hoyle 
was in the store of 1\lr, Duncan Dewar of St. Andrews, declaiming loudly against 
those who would appropriate the property of the absent proprietors. At that moment 
l\Ir. Jamieson, a brother-in-law of C. J. Forbe5 of Carillon, ani who lived on the 
Forbes' estate, chanced to pass with a single 
leigh load of the confiscated prolJerty 
from St. Eustache, The opportunity was favorable for Hoyle to advertise his hon- 
esty and achieve notoriety; and abruptly leaving his auditors, he rushed oat, caught 
up with the sleigh on the bridge, seized the horse by the head, and launched into a 
furious philippic against the astonished Jamieson, The latter merely replied that he 
deemed himself quite res(Jonsihle for whatever property he had taken, and drove on. 
On the succeeding Monday, Hoyle inquired at the store of 
Ir. Dewar for a 
quantity of his favorite brand of tobacco, and Mr, Dewar having none, he informed 
him that he could procure it of 
lontmarq net, at Carillon. To the latter's store, 
therefore, Hoyle proceeded, and Jamieson, in whose breast the insult recently offered 
him was still rankling, seeing him pass, and divining that he had gone to the store of 
l\lortmarquet, followed. His first words on entering the store and seeing Hoyle 
were: "How dare you II1sult m
, sir, as you did Saturday night in St. Andrews?" 
and at the same moment he 5truck him across the back with his cane. \Vithout a 
word of warning, Hoyle instantly drew a pistol from his pocket and shot him. A 
crowd soon collected, in which there were three physicians, who pronounced the 
wound fatal. 
Hoyle quickly placed himself under the protection of Maj. 
layne, commanding 
the two companies of soldiers at the Barracks, who refused to deliver him to the in- 
dignant citizens clamoring for his trial, according to the code of Judge Lynch. "You 
do not know," I:e said to them, "that Hoyle has committed murder; Jamieson may 
yet recover; " and he did recover. 
Forty-one years afterwards, when he died, the bullet and a p
l.rt of a suspender 
buckle which it carried with it were found in his body. 

LlCS OF 1837. 
Mr. Jamieson, of Point Fortune, Quebec, who died in this village on Monday last, at the 
residt:nce of his sister, Mrs. Cunningham, requested a few days ago that if the attack of heart disease 
from which he was suffering should prove fatal, his body shouh\ be opened before burial, amI a search 
made for a pistol bullet and a portion of a brace buckle which he h"d been carrying somewhere 
within him for about forty-one years. 
In I
.H, the memorable year of the Rebellion in Cana(la, 
Ir, Jamieson, then a young and 
strong man, re
ided at Ca1Ïllon in the Lower Province. One day in the post office there, he got to 
argui':g politics with a rebel, whose language became so insulting or otherwh.e provoking that at last 
Mr. jamie!'on struck him, whereupon he drew a pistol and fired at his loyal opponent. The;: bullt:t 
broke the iron buckle of the right Htspender, and then entered his breast, inflicting a wound which 
nearly pwved fatal, and from which he was laid up for 
ix weeks. At the expiration of that period, he 
was neally well again, anù never afterwards felt any ill etTect;; from lh
 hurt; but as the bullet had nClt 



been extracted, and as it "as believed to have taken the missing part of the buckle with it, Mr. J amie- 
son often expressed the wish during his last illness, that, after his death, the locality of the ,. foreiglt 
bodies, II as medical men would call them, should be ascertained; and Drs. Allen and Bryson searched 
for and were successful in finding them on Monday last, 
They were near together and close to the spine-the bullet resting on the diaphragm, and entire- 
ly enveloped by a cartilaginous formation of considerable size, while the other article was partially 
hidden by a deposit more nearly resembling flesh. The bullet is for a pistol of rather large size, 
and was originally round, but is much damaged at one spot, no doubt where it struck the buckle, which 
was broken by the blow, The part with the tongue or tongues attached probably remained fast to 
the suspender. The portion driven in by the bullet formed three sides of the buckle, Rnd is of the 
simplest description, being merely a piece of iron wire about two inches long and bent at right angles, 
a little more than half an inch from each end. It is only rusted in spots, and not deeply, and the mark 
made by the blow of the bullet is still plainly visible. 
Mr. Jamieson died 28th December, 18 7 8 . 

After two weeks, Hoyle was sent to Montreal to be tried, but received bail the 
same day, and nothing further was heard of the case. 
A. E. MO
TMARQUET sold his store and other property in Carillon to 1\1r. Schnei- 
der, and left the place in 1860. In 1871, Schneider sold to John Fletcher, a young man 
from Rigaud, who had spent the four previous ye,us in Scotland in acquiring a know- 
ledge of mercantile business. He died, however, a short time subsequently, and his 
brother, \Vm. L. Fletcher, became his successor in the store and post office. The 
latter was married in June, 1872, to Miss O. Charlebois, daughter of the postmaster at 
Rlgaud. During the few years that he survived, Mr. Fletcher was an active citizen, 
and filled municipal offices. He died 23rd November, 1877, and Mrs. Fletcher was 
appointed postmistress, a position which she still retains, assisted by her daughter 
Five or six years ago, the l\1ontmarquet store was purchased by M. Dwyer, of 
Kingston, who had been in trade in this village for several years, Success attended 
him, and after sixteen years' residence in Carillon, he left in the Spring of 1894 for 
Kingston, several thousand dollars better off than he was when he came here. As he 
had always dealt fairly with his customers, and on leaving touk spécial pains to 
accommodate his debtors, the good wishes of the community w<;nt with him. _\bout 
two rears before his departure, he sold his store and stock of goods to R. V. Gauthier, 
a young gentleman who had acted as clerk for him during the six preceding years. 

Ir. Gauthier springs from stock whose energy and loyalty form an heir-loom of 
honor to their descendants, His grandfather, JOHN BAPTISTE GAUTHIER, was born 
21 st October, 1796, at Montreal Junction. At the ag
 of 18, he enlisted at Montreal 
in a regiment ofVoltigeurs, and took an active part ir. the battle ofChateauguay. for 
which service he subsequently received a pension. In the Rebellion of 1837, he 
joined a company ofloyal Cavalry, and was often employed in carrying dispatches. 
After the Rebellion, he settled at St. Anne, where he died in 1886, upward:; of 90 
years of age. He left two sons and two daughters. 
Victor, one of the former, a man of much enterprise and intelligence, learned the 



trade of carpenter, and for some time was employed by the Great 
orth \Vestern and 
Montreal Telegraph Company. In charge of a number of men, he erected many of 
the lines of this Company in Ontario, and in 1872, as a stationary mechanic of the 
Company, settled in Cuillon, In 1867, he was married to Hermine Crevier of St, 
Anne. During his life in this VilJage, he took an active part in whatev
r promoted 
its prosperity. He was a member of the 
Iunicipal Council, and also of the Board of 
School Commissioners; in the latter, owing to his desire for the encouragement of 
education, he was particularly active, 
He seems to have been one whose natural endowments and powels of observa- 
tion compensate for the lack of a liberal education, and his charts display no little 
skill as a draughtsman, He died in 1890, leaving a family of childr
n whose modesty 
and politeness reflect no small degree of credit on their parental training. 
His eldest son, R. V. GAUTHIER, took a commercial course at Rigaud College, 
from which he graduated in 1887. 
While there, the same devotion to duty which has characterized his subsequent 
career, enabled him always to take either first or second place in his classes, and win 
hon')rs of which a young man less modest might sometimes boast. He won the 
highest prize offered for proficiency in the study of commerci"l law, political economy 
and bookkeeping; the first prize in science, grammar, analysis and themes; and in 
188 7 he won the silver medal offered by Messrs, Fogarty & Co., of Montreal, for pro- 
ficiency in the study of commerce, èesides the $30 prize awarded by the Institution, 
Since his purchase of the store in 1892, his trade has steadily increased, custom- 
ers being attracted, not more by the fair prices than by the probity and courtesy of 
the merchant. His younger brother, Thomas, entered the boot and shoe store of 
James Leggatt of Montreal, in 1889, as clerk; he has been their manager, and is now 
traveLing for the same firm. Donat, a brother still younger, is the assistant of R. V. 
in hi
JAME.5 BARCLAY, who lived for many years in Carillon, was one of her most 
enterprising and influential citizens, and was well known and p.:>pular throughout the 
County. His father had taken an active part in the political troubles by which 
Scotland was agitated, and his radical principles incurring the animosity of the Gov- 
ernment, his property was confiscated and a price set on his head. But he succeeded 
in escaping, and in 1820, with his wife by a second marriage, and his only surviving 
son James, then 17 years of age, came to America. He remained two or three years 
in Montreal, and then removed to New Glasgow; but the place, at that time especially, 
offered but little encouragement to men of enterprise and ambition: and after a 
residence there of three or four ye,us, the father and son decided to go to South 
America. \Vith this design they had gone as far as 
Iontreal, when, by one of those 
simple even ts which sometimes effçct great changes, they were led to throw up their 
plan and remain in Canada. 
The younger Barclay happened, unexpectedly on the street, to fall in with a 
man named John Wanless, whom he formerly knew in Edinburgh, but who then lived 

J7 6 


in St. Andrews. On learning Barday's intention of going to South America, so 
eloquently did he portray the risk he was incurring in going to that semi-barbarous 
and tropical country, and so effectually did he plead the advantages afforded by Canada, 
that young Barday and his father decided to return with him to St. Andrews. 
One Sabhath morning, while living in this Village, James strolled out on the road 
leading to Carillon, and as he passed over the" Hill," and saw the beautiful gardens 
and the fine orchards just then gorgeous with a profusion of blosmros, he thought he 
had seen no other spot in this country so attractive, or one which reminded him so 
forcibly of Scotland; and he then 
aid to himself that, if he ever purchased a farm in 
Canada, it would be on Carillon Hill. After a residence of a few years in St. Andrews, 
he removed to Carillon Village, where for a long time his enterprise contributed to 
the activity of the place, Besides opening a boot and shoe shop, he started a stage 
lit:e between this Village and GrenvilIe, which at that time, before the construction of 
the railway, was an enterprise of great utility. 
In accordance with his determination mentioned above, in 1835, he purchased 
the farm on Carillon Hill which had been owned by Peter 
fcArthur. It was some 
time, however, before he lived on this farm, though he employed men to cultivate it. 
He was for some years agçnt for the McPherson & Crane Forwarding Company. 
When the Carillon & Grenville Railroad was completed, he was the first conductor 
un it ; but soon afterward, advancing age compelled him to resign this position, and 
his last years were spent in quietude .on the pleasant farm still occupied by his 
During the Rebel1ion of 1837, his knowledge of the country and extensive 
acquaintance with its inhabitants, added to his good judgment and activity, rendered 
him a very useful servant of the Government, and he was frequently employed to 
carry despatches between Montreal and St. Andrews. One night, having occasion to 
stop at a wayside tavern to have his horse fed, he found there a number of rebels 
who suspectld him, and intended to take him prisoner; but one of their number, who 
some time previously had, been in his employ, followed him to the stable, revealed 
the plot of his fellow rebels, and advised him to escape. Trusting the man, and 
deciding to follow his advice, he mounted his horse, and putting spurs to him, was 
soon dear of the place, but only in time to escape the volley of shots fired after him. 
It is perhaps needless to say that he did not draw rein until he was well out of their 
reach. The despatches were carried between the soles of his boots. 
In politics, he W.1S a staunch Conservative, being a warm admirer of the late Sir 
John A. l\lacdonald, and his influence in behalfof Conservative candidates was always 
displayed, in no small degree, in times of elections; indeed, he was one whose abilities 
were worthy of a broader field of action. He was a man of sterling integrity and 
inflexible will, yet he possessed a great fund of humor, and enjoyed a good practical 
Mr. Barday was twice married: the first time, in 1832, to Ann Hayes of Limerick, 
Ireland, who died in 1839, and he then married her sister, Joanna, who died in 1866, 



By the first marriage he had four children, but only the eldest, J
hn, is now alive ;- 
he is engaged in an extensive commission business in Glasgow, By the second mar- 
riage, he had a large family of children; but of these, only four sons and two daughters 
are now alive. 
William, the eldest of these, and a man of ability, is a commercial traveller fo1' 
the house of Frothingham & 'Vorkman, Montreal; he was married in 1873 to Adria 
Haines of that city. His family resides in St. Andrews, where the influence of Mrs, 
Rarclay in support of temperance and Christian work is strongly exerted. Hanam, 
their eldest son, is pursuing a course of study in mining and engineering, in Chicago, 
George, the 5econd son of James Barclay. is engaged with 
[CLaughlin Bros., 
lumbermen, in .'\rnprior, Ont, Henry, the third son, after spending some years in 

lontreal as machinist, returned to Carillon; and now lives on the homestead with 
his sisters, Joanna and Florence-all, like their parents, deservedly esteemed by the 
community around them. Colin CampLeIl, the fourth son, is in Rico, Colorado-a 
dealer in hardware and mining supplies, 
ALEXANDER l\I CINTOSH, from Lochaber, Scotland, spent part of his early life in 
England, and in 1850 went to Australia, being in the latter country while the gold 
fever was at its height. He aftenvard returned to Scotland. and in 1866 came to Can- 
ad.! and bought the "PriOlY" on the "Field Farm" in St. Andrews. This building 
was then the property of Mrs. Abbott, widow of the late Rev. 'ViIlia.m Abbott. 
Mr. McIntosh was ma.rried in England to Miss 'Vard, and they had three 
children-all daughters j he died in St Andrews in 1884, Mrs. \Içlntosh survives 
him, living with her daughter, Mrs. :McNaughton. 
The latter, who is the youngest of the three sisters, married Dr. Donald 
Naughton of Hudson; they removed to Carillon, and purchased the present pro- 
perty of Mrs. McNaughton, "D,ll1derav," formerly known as " 
[ilncraig.JI a beau- 
tiful place on the road leading from Carillon to St. Andrews. 
Dr. l\Ic
a\lghton died in December, 1888, leaving a widow, one son and five 
The eldest daughter, Anna, married to C. V. De Boucherville, lives in Ottawa j 
Eliza, married to Martin S. Albright, lives at Prospect Place, La Baie; Eleanor, 
married to James Machan, lives in Grenville; Grace 
L and Flora are attending 
Dunham Ladies' College; I )unc:m, the son, is in the 
MISS AGNES TAYLOR, of Carillon Hill, has been a resident of this place for several 
Her parents, James and Elizabeth (Beattie) Taylor, came to this country from 
Scotland in 18 37, and first settled in St. Andrews. l\Ir, Taylor was employed, soon 
after his arrival, as foreman on the estate of Commis..;alY Forbes, Carillon; and as the 
Rebellion was then in progress, in going to and from his work he w.l.'; daily chal- 
lenged by sentinels posteà between the two villages, and compelled to give the pass- 
word. He afterwards removed to Isle aux Cha.\s, whele he died in 18 8 3; 
Taylor died in 1888. 'J hey had four sons and six daughters. 

17 8 


James. the eldest son, is the propJietor of a fine farm in East Hawkesbury; 
David, the second son, is in Independence, Oregon; Joseph, third son, lives on the 
homestead; and Robert, the youngest, in British Columbia. Of the daughters, five 
married, and all who are now living remain in Canada. 
Iary A., one of the 
daughters. married to James Taylor, lives at Isle aux Chats. 
6-\gnes R., who is the fourth daughter, came to this place in IS89, and purchased 
the residence of her brother David, who was about leaving for the 'Vest, Miss Taylor 
has made maI
y improvements, and her pretty residence, known as "Rosebank 
Cottage," with its fine view of the Ottawa and profusion of flowers in summer, adds 
much to the attractiveness of the street. 
JOHN A. SHARMAN, a native of Norfolk, England, a tailor by trade, came to 
America in 1830. He soon returned to his native country, but came back again in 
18 33, and before 1849 had crossed the Atlan tic with his family nine times, on a few 
occasions as super-cargo, thus 
aving the expenses of the voyage, On one of these 
trips, the vessel, when returning to England, heavily laden with lumber, encountered 
a severe gale, and sprang a leak. The storm continued three days; the hands were 
all set at the pumps, ar
d to enco'Jrage them, the captain supplied them liberally, as 
well as himself, with rum, till, with the exception' of the carpenter, they were all 
drunk. Mr. Sharman, seeing the condition of things, and knowing that their escape 
from death depended entirely on the ability of the sailors to work the pumps, assumed 
command, and with the aid of the carpenter managed, with much difficulty, to keep 
the sailors at work. So badly did th
 vessel1eak, that for some hours he could not 
see that the water in the "essel diminished. Concealing this fact, however, from the 
sailors, and exhorting them to persevere, the ship out-rode the storm, and even- 
tually, badly water-logged, reached port, 
During the year that Mr. Sharman lived in this country, he plied his trade in 
different places: New York State, East Hawkesbury, Ont., Chatham and 51. Johns, 
Que., and lastly on the Lachute Road, St. Andrews, where he died, 24th January, 18 75, 
aged 79. . 
He lived in New York about the time the Canadian Rebellion was approaching; 
and his outspoken English opinions were not calculated to make friend., in that 
locality, hence he came to Canada. Mrs. Sharman, his second wife, died qth 
November, 18 5 2 , aged 44. He married a third time, but had no children, save by 
the second marriage; these were two sons and two daughters. 
ALONZO L., the eldest son, followed the trade of his father, which he still pur- 
sues in Carillon. He was married 26th October, 186 5, to ::\Iary Gordon. She died 20th 
June, 18 75; they had two sons and a daughter. He nurried a second time, 25 th 
}'ebruary, 18 7 8 , .Mary L., dc1Ughter of the late John Dewar; they have one son and 
one daughter. 
lr, Sharman is a Christian man, and an earnest advocate of temper- 
ance. In the fall of 189-1, aided by Mrs. Sharman, he organized a Sabbath School 
in this village, which is held at his residence, 



'1'h e Carillon & Grenvi\1e Railway IS only a section of a road which was to be 
built from l\lontreal to Ottawa; and though it commenced \\ith a fair prospect of 
success, it ended disastrously for its projectors. 
It was begun in 1857 by two brothers from E T'gland, 'Villiam and Samuel Sikes, 
both skillful mechanics, and one, at least, being a mechanical engineer. The money 
for the enterprise was to be provided by an English banking firm, Sike!', DeRerg & 
Co., of which firm, Alexander Sikes, a brother of the two m'lmed above, was a 
Labor on the road was commenced at different points, 
lontreal, St. Eustache, 
St. Andrews, etc., a steam mill being erected at the latter place, near the River 
Rouge, to saw lumber required in the construction of the road, and artesian wells 
were sunk to provide the mill with water. 
The work had progressed favor3bly for nearly two years-the men employed 
had been promptly paid, and the money to pay the last sum of indebtedness for 
labor had been sent from England, when a sad accident abruptly terminated the 
whole project. 
Immediately after the last instalment of money had been sent, Alex'lnder Sikes 
took passage on a vessel for America, with a view, it is sUI'posed, of inspecting the 
work in which his company had invested so much money: but the vessel, with all on 
board, was lost. \Vhen this sad accident became known in England, the company of 
which the deceased, Mr. Sikes, had been a member sent to their repH.sentative here, 
requesting him to return the money he had lately received. 
The order was obeyed, and thus the Sikes brothers on this side of the Atlantic 
were without means to accomplish their object. Unwilling, however, to abandon the 
work, they invested what little capital they possessed, which being soon swallowed up, 
the work, from necessity, was abandoned. 
Others be5ides the Sikes brothers lost heavily in this unlucky venture; none, 
perhaps, more largely than Sydney Bellingham, M.P.P. for Argentcuil. 
The completed portion of the road was th:\t between Carillon and Grenville, 
and this coming into possession of the late Hùn. J. J, C. Abbott, solicitor for its 
managers, was, by him, sold to the Ottawa Ri\er Navigation Company in 18 6 3. 
JOHN :\IcGOWAN, the ptcsent superintendent of the ab Ive Railway, and one of the 
prominent citizens and uusil1ess men of Carillon, was born in B3lmagh parish, Scot- 
land. He carne to Montreal in 184 2 , and was first employed by a fanner residing 
Ilear the city, with whom he remained two years. He then engaged as cler\.. to 
Thomas Masson, Notre Dame street, Montreal; but at the e:"piration of three year!', 
declining health compelled him to ab':l11don the store. IIis father's family was then 
in this country, and in connection with his father, he bought a farm at Hud50n, P.Q., 
where he was engaged till about 1 8 5 8 . In the year previous, hc was married to Jane 
McCuish, who died in 18 7 0 , leaving eight children. Four of these died in infancp 
and two more after reaching the age of eighteen. In 1859, ::\lr, :\1cGowan engaged 
to the Ottawa River Navigation Company, and for fi\'c years W:1S 10c.ltclI at Ottawa. 



In 186 3, the Company purchased the Carillon & Grenville Railway, and the following 
year he came to Carillon to act as superintendent for the Company. 
'\"hile thus engaged, he has not been indiffere!lt to the public affairs of the 
village, anJ has t.\ken sp
ci1.1 intereit i1î" schools. He was Secretary-Treasurer of the 
School B.>ard when living in Hudjon. and is now Secretary-Treasurer of the dissen- 
tient school of this vilhge. He W.lS :\byùr of the village in 18 93, and once since has 
been elected to the same office. In 1874 he went to Scotland, and while there was 
married to Jane Edgar. Mr. McGowan is a man of much energy and activity, and a 
very proficient and careful man,lgcr of the interests committed to his charge. John, 
his eldest son. who W.lS employed several years as purser on the steamer" Princess," 
the duties of which position he discharged to the unqualified approval of the Com. 
pany and the public, has recently been aPPJintcd Captain of the new steamer 
,. Duchess of York." 
George, the only son by his second marriage, wh.:-> has lately attended a Com- 
mercial Collegc in :\[ontre3.I, is now al home. 
Isabella, his only daughter, was married in :May, f 893. to Ernest Howe, of the 
firm of Howe & McIntyre, commission merchants of Montrèal. 
 HALSEY, the engineer on the C. & G. Railroad, was born uf English 
parents in Dublin, and cam
 to Canada in 1870. His father and grandfatha had 
been in the Na\ry, and the f<<;>rmer servçd at the blockade of Kid, and in Egypt won 
three medals for his proficiency and bravery, He afterward entered the Coast Guard 
service, and moved to Dublin. 

[r, John H:J.lsey served his apprenticeship as locomotive fitter on the Great 
Southerr:. & \Vestern R.R., and received the mOjt flattering testimonials from the 
r\f;er going to Montreal, he worked two years in the Grand Trnnk shop5, then 
three years in Brockville for the Can. Centr.\1 R. R., after which he worked another 
year in th
 Grand Trunk shops at :Momrea1. He then accepted the position of 
Locomotive Engineer for the Ottawa River Navigation Company, and hac; held it, to 
their great satisfaction, for eighteen ycars. He was married, 22nd June, 18 7 6 , to 

largaret, eldest daughter of James B
aton. of Her Majesty's Customs, Stornoway, 
Island of Lewis, Scotiand. They have had nine children - eight sons and one 
daughter, of whom six sons are living. The eldest, Robert, who is learning the trade 
of machinist, has been with th
 Ingersoll Sergeant Drill Co. of St. Henri, since 
:\larch, 1893. 
KELLY'S HOTEL, which has bten known to the public for nearly fifty years, is the 
only one besides the Sovereign, in Carillon. L3.1 ge as these two houses seem for so 
small a place, they arc inadequate ill the summcr season to accommodate the number 
applying for hoard, 
 KFLLY, the oldest English-speaking resident of Carillon, is a son of J. 
Kelly, one of the early seulers of Grenville, and he came to Carillon in 1848. Patrick 




1fufl!hy, \:ho .had kept a public this village, was now deceased, and :!\fro Kelly 
marned hIS wIdow, and became propnetor of the hotel. Being active, and pos.iessed 
of an enterprising spirit, as well a
 shrewdness, he engaged in whatever kinds of 
ines;) beside3 hotel keeping presented to him an oPPQrtunity of making money. 
In those days, before the advent of railways, the travel through Carillon far 
exceeded w;1at it has since. The large number of lumbermen who were employed 
on the upper Ottawa and its tributaries all passed to and fro through Carillon, and the 
lumber manufactured at the Hawkesbury and other mills, which now is borne off by 
locomotives, all came down the Ottawa in rafts, manned by a number of men whcse 
patronage added not a little to the profits of the hotel-keeper. At that time, the 
business of towing, in which Mr. Kelly largely engaged. was not the least profitable 
source 0f his income, and, besides, he also became a dealer in wood. He had several 
horses, and their constant employment in conveying travellers, towing and drawing 
wood and freight, together with his farm, secured to him a good income. ""hile 
others slept, or whiled away their time to no purpose, Mr. Kelly was hard at work- 
three and four o'clock in the morning being not an unusual hour for him to begin, 
In those days of greater financial prosperity, his income from different SOurces 
often exceeded $15 0 a day - $80:) sometimes being realiæd betwt:en 
morning and Saturday night. To the credit of Mr. Kelly it can also be said that, 
while he was economical, his economy never bordered on penuriousness, his purse 
always being ready to enco'Jrage charitable objects or public improvements. 4C Money 
is power;" and when to this its possessor adds shrewdness and affability, he exerts 
an influt:nce among his fellows which those who seek favors at the hands of the 
public are always sure to court. For this reason, the aid of Mr. Kelly has not infre- 
quently been sought in election campaigns j and a history of the scenes of political 
excitement and political chicanery he has witnessed would alone fill a volume. In 
18 75, he was induced with some others to place a steamer on the Ottawa, to run in 
opposition to the old line between Carillon and Montreal, he advancing the money 
for the purpose. The first boat purchased wa5 the" Manitoba," at a cost of $. 4,000, 
which, after running fcr four years, was condemned by the in<.:pector. The company 
then purchased the " T. B. MaxweIl," but after a while financial difficulty arose, in 
consequence of which the shareholdas-with the exception of Mr. Kelly and Nelson 
Burwash-withdrew, Mr. KeIIy again advancing money to purchase the shares of 
the retiring partners. After running the boat five years longer, and not finding it a 
remunerative investment, they sold out to a company in Toronto. 
Mr. KeIly was a member of the Municipal Council of St. Andrews for a period 
of fifteen years, but seeing the necessJty of sidewalks and other improvements in his 
own village, he took steps to have it incorporated into a separate municipality, which 
event was secured in the faU of 1888, against determined opposition; he was 
the first four years after its incorporation, and has recently been elected Mayor by 
acclamation. In 1874, he erected his present hotel, which is of brick, and the finest 
building in Carillon; he has retired from active business, having gi\en the manage- 
ment of his business affairs to his son, T. P. K ell}'. The latter was married 5 th 



Ft:bruary, 18 9 0 , to Emma Burrows, of PlOspect, Ont. They own considerable real 
estate in this section, the taxes on which amount to a large share of all levied in the 

lr. Kelly's first wife died 19th September, 1870 j he was married, 27 th OctobefJ 
18 7 S. to Julia, second daughter of the late'Villial11 Lawler, Esq., of Hawkesbury; 
she died 18th October, 188 9' 
The "SOVEREIGN HOTEL," which, as stated elsewhere, has long been called "The 
Barracks," is a fine commodious stone building located near the Ottawa. Though 
erected for an hotel in 18 3 0 by Commissary Forbes, it was found to be too large and 
expensive for that period, and has not been used as a public house until recent years. 
For the la,>t three years it has been under the management of N. L. LADOUCEUR, all 
active young n11n, who has discharged the òuties of his calling efficiently, and to the 
satisfaction of his pa
rons. He is the youngest son of Odilon Ladouceur, noticed in 
the succeeding sketch. In his early days he learned the trade of machinist, which 
trade he followed ten years, and then conducted a grocery for a while in Ottawa. He 
was married, 17th January, 1893, to Victoria Clairmont of Rigaud; she died 24 th 
::\Iarch, 18 94 j and :\lr. Ladouceur was next married, 15 th July, 18 95, to Helen 
Deschamps of Montreal. 
In 18 5 8 . ODILON LADOUCEUR came from St. Scholastique, his native place, to St. 
Andrews, where he still resides. He is a builder and contractor, and has followed 
this occup.nion throughout this section ever since his arrival. He married l\1dlIe. 
::\Iathilde Lalonde; they have had seven sons and three daughters that have 
arrived at maturity. 
One of the sons, EDMOND A, B, LADOUCEUR, is a member of the ðlontreal Bar. 
He was born at St, Andrews, 8th October, 1866, received his early training at the 
school of the Viateur Brothers in that place, and entcred the Bourget College. at 
Rigaud, in 18 79- His course there was a very successful one j he was at the head 
of his classes, and thus, naturally, won the approbation of his professors. He also 
displayed a taste for literary work, and several of his essays, some of which were in 
verse, secured for him many compliments. 
In 1885, having completed his studies, he settled in Montreal, where he was suc- 
cessively attached to L' Etemlard and Liz Patrie. 
In 1886, he was admitted to the study of law, took his law course at Laval 
University, being attached at the same time to the office of Hon. J. J. Curran, now 
judge of the Superior Court, and to th3.t of 
Ir. J. L. Archambeault, the Crown Pro- 
secutor, While a student, 1\1r. Ladouceur wrote for several publications, contributing 
to the Afoude Illustré, under the 1l0"l de plume of Lorenzo; several of his poem s 
were accorded much credit. 
He is a fluent and ready speaker-a talent that he has used effectively on the 
political hustings in behalf of the Libera I cause. 
He has spent some time in the New England and Western States, and, while in 
Michigan, took part in the presidential campaign of 1892. He afterward settled in 
y City, where for a time he had editorial charge of the French newspaper 

r ;í 
I "! 
". , 

E. \. B. L.\DOn'JTH 



18 3 

Le Patriote. Attachment to Canada, however, led him back to :\Iontreal, where he 
was admitted to the Bar, 13 th January, 1893. 
DENNIS GAHERTY, a gentleman well known among contractors and business 
men, is at present a resident of Carillon. He carne from Dublin with his father about 
1827, when he was but three years of age. In 1843 he was given an important 
Government contract on the Ottawa, and since that time has been employed 
chiefly with large contracts of various kinds. His extensive experience and correct 
judgment with regard to labor have cau,;ed his services to be largely soughtj 
and many difficult and dangerous jobs given up by other3 have been brought by 
him to successful completion. He has also engaged quite extensively in running 
boats and in boat building, h3.ving at different tim
s owned thirt een boats which 
plied between Quebec and Kingston. In 1879, in company with two others. he 
received a contract on the new canal at Carillon, and lived here ten years; he returned 
in 1891, and was superintendent of repairs on the Dam-a structure in which he 
had before made extensive repairs on account of breaks, For nearly a year he has 
been employed at Lachine and 51. Anns. 
Mr. Gaherty has been twice married j the last time to 
liss EI:E.n Davis, a 
sister of his first wife. By the first marriage, he had two sons and three daughters; 
one of the former is deceased; the other, D. G. Gaherty, is an 
L D., who, on 
account of ill health, gave up an extensive practice in :\lontreal, and now resides in 
Though Carillon has no important manufactory, this want is in a great measure 
supplied by the Canal-a goodly number of men having found permanent employment 
on it, ever since its completion, sixty year3 ago; and while this benefit, added to that 
of its aid to commerce
 renders it a work of great public utility-its value to the place, 
as a work of art, is a matter not to be ignored-its massive cut-stone locks, the trees 
that adorn its margin, with the pleasure always afforded by running water along a 
traveled route, make up a feature in the landscape of which the visitor never tires. 
It W;tS the hope of the writer, th3.t he would be able to publish so:ne of the corres- 
pondence and documents relating to the canal at its beginning; but, as will be seen 
by the following letter, such papers are not in existence. The letter was written in 
reply to an application of Mr. Colin DewJ.:-, on b
half of the writer, for inform.ltion 
respecting the subject in question :- 

OTTA\\A, 20th July, 1894. 

A t the request of 
Ir. Brophy, I send you some inforI1ntion reg.uding the canals 
in front of the County of ArgenteuiJ, the: most of which was extracted from printed 
reports in this office. 
Mr. B. says some valuable papers which belonged to his late f.lther, and which 
would have given many details not now available, cal1not b
 found; but h.= trusts 
that some of the dates furnished nny not be too late for the object :\Ir. Thoma,> ha:. 

in view, 

Yours truly, 

18 4 


Enclosed with the above letter \Vas the following brief but valuable history of the 
canals :- 
,. The Grenville Canal lies on the north shore of the Otta.wa, and carries naviga- 
tion around the' Long Sault Rapids.' It is excavated partly through solid rock and 
partly through earth; the locks are of cut-st0ne. It was designed and commenced 
by the Royal Staff Corps, for the Imperial Government, in 1819; but owing to the 
limited amount appropriated to this work each year, its progress was very slow. As 
in the Carillon and Chute au Rlondeau canals, the original designs contemplated locks 
corresp(.nding in size to those of the L3.chine Canal. 
"Three of the lo
k'i were commenced and completed on these dimensions; but in 
1828, the enlarged scale of the Rideau locks was adopted for the four remaining. 
" All records relating to the establishment of these three canals-the Carillon, 
Chute au Blondeau and the Grenville-were kept in the Ordnance office in Montreal, 
and were destroyed by fire in 1849, It appears, however, from information given by 
parties engaged in the construction of the works, that the Grenville canal was 
completed in 1829, the Chute au Blo:1deau in 1832, and the Carillon in 1833; and, 
further, that on the 24th of April, 183+, the canals were opened, and the steamer 
, St. Andrews,' with two barges in tow, the first passage through them. 
"These canals were transferred to the Canadian Government about forty years 
ago, and since that time their capacity has been greatly enlarged." 
It will be seen by this that there were three different canals, though the Chute au 
Blondeau has not been used since the erection of the dam. Two of them-the 
Carillor. and Chute au Blondeau, however, are short, the former not being more than 
half a mile in length, and the latter about one-third of a mile, The Grenville Canal 
begins at Grenville and terminates at Greece's Point, the distance between the two 
places being six miles. 
Previous to the erection of the Carillon D..lm, in order to incre..lse the depth of 
water in the canal, a channel was dug from the North River, near the Isle aux Chats, 
about a mile to the canal. This ingenious device, to augment the value of the canal 
to commerce, was aptly termed the "Feeder," a name that still not infrequently 
rouses the curiosity of stranger::. 
After the dam was constructed, a new canal also was made, a little shorter and 
nearer the river than the first; and as the water hlS since been quite sufficient in 
quantity, the ,e Feeder" has fallen into disuse. 

\s státed above, the canal was comtructed by the British or Imperial Govern- 
ment, the Canadian Government at th3.t early day scarcely being able to afford the 
outlay for such public WOI ks. Two companies were enlisted in England for this 
purpose, composed chiefly of sappers and miners, and were called the Royal Staff 
Corps-a name that will often be mentioned on succeeding pages. Besides these, 
many other transient laborers were also em;)loy
d on the canal. L3.bor was firs t 
commenced on the canal at Grenville, and it was several years before work was begun 
at Carillon. The present Sovereign Hotel, formerly known as "The Barracks," was 


18 5 

occupied by the officers of this Corps during the time they were in C,nillon, hence 
the name "Barracks." 
Mementoes of those days and those who were employed here, and of which few 
of the present inhabitants of Carillon have ever heard, are stIli to be seen. On the 
shore of the Ottawa, at a point nearly opposite that where "The Feeder" formed 
a junction with the old canal, are the stone foundatio:ls of an old building, now, 
owiug to the encroachment", of the river on the land, almost perpendicular with the 
water. Trees and bushes ha\Fe grown up so thickly in and around these wans, that 
they may easily be overlooked. 
Here, about the year 1824, a Scotchman named Hugh Chisholm erected a dis- 
tillery. Farmers, in those days, found a good market at this for the little grain they 
raised; but, unfortunately, they nearly an accepted, as compensation for it, the 
whiskey into which their grain was converted. It is stated as a fact, that men 
sometimes took a quantity of grain there, hoping to obtain with it.a little muney, 
and, meeting congenial companions, would begin with a social glass, and before 
leaving, would exhaust not only the price of the grain, but be in debt to tht: pro- 
prietor. But though he had such patrons, the business of 1\1r. Chisholm did not 
prosper; and, after a period of four or five years, he abandoned it, went to Bucking- 
ham, and became the partner of 
lr. Bigelow, a lumberman, In this vocation, he was 
more successful, so that in a few years he was able to retire, During the last years 
of hi:; life, he was a Christia'l and an active supporter of the cause of temperance. 
l\ir, C. Dewar thus writes :- 
" At the time of giving .you the sketch of :Mr. Chisholm, I forgot to mention an 
incident that occurred when he li\Fed at the Old Distillery, and which goes to show 
the instinct and sagacity of the brute creation, and their wonderful powers of compre- 
hension, l\lr. Chisholm always lived alone, and was in the habit of talking to his 
pets as if they were human beings, a fine collie dog being his constant companion. 
'lOne day he had been at work in the hayfield on the Island with my father. 
and on his return home found that he had lost the key of his house. He had small 
hopes of finding it, but, calling the dog, told him he had lost it, and ordered him off 
to find it. The dog started off, but returned in a shoTt time, very dejected and crest- 
fallen; he was scolded and sent off again, his master repeating over and over the 
words 'filld it.' In a short time he came bounding over the hill with every demon- 
stration of joy, having the key in his mouth, thus performing a feat that a human 
being could 110t do." 
The building used as a distillery by Mr. Chisholm was afterward occupied by 
members of the Royal Staff Corps, during the time they were employed on the canal. 
A rough frame work for a bell tower was erected near it, and a bell was rung to warn 
the men of the hour of beginning and closing work and to call them to their meals. 
In proximity to this distillery was a log building, which was originally used for a 
house, and subsequently for a blac!{smith shop. It was \.acant at the time the 
canal laborers came here, an] they used it as a hlacksmith shop in connection with 
their own work till the completion of the canal. 
- 1




JOHN FORBES, who had been in the British service, connected with an Artillery 
Company, came to Carillon about 1842, and soon afterward was appointed Lock 

[aster; he died about 1860, leaving three sons and three daughters. 
"rilliam n., one of the former, succeeded his father as Lock Master, and, later, 
was promoted to the position of Superintendent. A short time before his death, 
which occurred in 1889, he purchased the homestead of the late Lemuel Cushing, and 
repaired and embellished it at much expense. He left one son, John William, who 
was married to Alice Rodger. 
George Thomas Forbes, brother of William B., succeeded the latter as Lock 
Master. He died April 26th, 1872, leaving a widow (who, before her marriage, was 
chneider) and three children-two sons and a daughter. Of the former, George 
Archibald, the elder, married to Elise Bissette, of Quebec, is employed as Bookkeeper 
with James Whitham & Co., boot and shoe manufacturers, of Montreal. Arthur 
Thomas, the second son, has Early in life attained a responsible position, being 
manager and buyer in the retail department of J. Eveleigh & Co., wholesale trunk 
and bag manufacturers of Montreal. He was married 14 th June, J 894, to Margaret, 
daughter of the late Captain J. H. Leslie. 
DANIEL MURPHY, the present C01lector of Tolls on the Canal, is a son of Patrick 

[urphy, who was born in Kilkenny, Ireland, in 1774 j the father became a sailor 
early in life, and came to St. John, N.B., in 1798, and was for some time Captain of 
a fishing vessel connected with that port, He aftenvard returned to his native land, 
entered the navy under Nelson, and was in the battle of TrafaJgar, Subsequently 
he came to Quebec, where he was stevedore, and then conducted an hotel till about, 
1 8 4 0 , when he came to this section and lived on a farm a while, in Chatham, which 
he left to keep hotel in Carillon, He died here in J 848, leaving one son, Daniel. 
His widow, a woman of much tact and energy, married Mr. John Ke])y, who con- 
tinued the hotel business. 
After his school days were ended, Daniel became manager in the hotel. Business 
at that time was most lively in Carillon, and his activity and faithfulness in the dis- 
charge of his duties being noticed by Mr. Sipple, chief engineer on the Canal, the latter 
gentleman suggested that :Mr. 
Iurphy should apply for his present position, that 
of Collector. After some deliberation, he acted on the suggestion, and, aided by the 
innuence of 
[r. Kelly, received his appointment in 1872. It will thus be seen that 
he has held the p03ition twenty-four years, and during this long period has dis- 
-charged his duties faithfully, and to the approval of commercial men and the public; 
he has also served several times as Assessor for this municipality. He was matried 
28th January, 1891, to Emma Jane, daughter of Patrick Kelly of Grenville. 
'\YILLlA:\1 BROPHY came from Queen's County, Ireland, to Montreal in 1823, 
About two years later, he went to Hawkesbury, Ont., where he remained three 


18 7 

years, and then removed to St. Andrews, in \\"hich village he worked several years at 
his trade of shoemaker. About the beginning of the Rebellion, he moved to L3.chute, 
and enlisted in Capt. Quinn's Company of Volunteers. He went with thé1.t Company 
to Cornwall where he became ill, and died in 1838; he left one son and four daughters. 

Iargaret, one of the latter, taught school in Lachute for a number of years. John, the 
son, at an early age, went to live with an uncle in St. Andrews, and remained with him 
until his marriage to Mary Banfield in 1864. Miss Banfield's father was a sergeant 
in the Royal Staff Corps, and after the canal was completed, he was appointed Lock 
Master of Lock No.2, Carillon. He died in 1841, leaving two sons and three 
daughters; the sons are now deceased, and the two sisters of :\lrs. Brophy, Anna 
and Susan,-the former married to Rufus Lamkin, and the latter to 'Viniam ::\IcKeever 
-live in Cambridge, Mass. 
:\lr. Brophy is a carriagemaker by trade, to which he has devoted many years 
of his life; in June, 1872, he was appointed Lock Master at this pla
e, and s till holds 
the position. He has most carefully provided for the education of his childrel1, who 
have proved themselves worthy of h is solicitude, 
John C., the eldest son, received a thorough training at the private school of George 
'Yanless of C:lrillon, and then attended Montreal College, from which he graduated 
in J885 with the highest honors: winning the L'lnsdowne ::\ledal, and taking first 
prize in every branch of the curriculum. After' a few years' study of Philosophy and 
Theology, he received his degree of Bachelor of Divinity, and in 1890 went to Rome, 
where he pursued his studies for two lears, and received the degree of D.D. Refore 
returning to Canada, he visited France, England, Ireland, and other countries of 
Europe. On his return, he accepted a Professorship in his Alma 
Iater: and is now 
Professor of Theology in the Grand Seminary. 
The two remaining sons of Mr. Brophy-Thomas J. and \Yilliam P.-are both 
employed in the General Post Office at Montreal, the former in the ::\loney Order, 
and the latter in the Registry Department. 
:\Iary J., the daughter, attended the Convent of the Sisters of St. Ann's, at 
Lachine, where she also received the Earl of Derby Medal, in 1893. 
JOHN MASON of \Volverhampton, England, at the age of 18, enlisted at Charlton, 
on the 24th April, 1820, in the Royal Staff Corps. He was made a corporal in his 
COl1'pany, which was commanded by Co}. Duvernay, ::\lrs. Duvernay accompanied 
her husband to Canada, and her maid was a girl named .Mary Ann 
lcCue. Between 
this maid and John :\lason, an attachment sprang up after they had arrived in 
Canada, and, in time, they were married. The young couple were deservedly esteemed 
by the Colonel and :\Irs
 Duvernay, who, cherishing the best wishes for their 
prosperity, advised them. when the canal was finished, to remain 111 Canada, Hut 
John Mason had decided to return to England with a number of his Corps, who 
could not be induced by the offer of free grants of land to remain. .After vainly 
endeavoring to dissuade him from his purpose, his wife appealed to her mistress and rt'e 



Colonel to intercede more vigorously in her behalC so her husband was finally induced 
to remain. The Colo\lel offered him any position on th
 canal, not already filled, that 
he might choose, and as a Lock Master was required at Chute au Rlondeau, he accepted 
that appointment. He remained there until his children were old enough to attend 
Scll('ol, when, for the pm pose of 
iving them better educational advantages, he 
ren!oved to Carillon. He act ed as Lock l\Iaster at the latter place for a number of 
years, and then \VaS sllccedt.d by his son Henry, who still occupies the position. He 
died 23 rd November. 18 73 j 
Irs. Mason died in the January preceding. They had 
eight children-two sons and six daughters. John. the tIdest of the children. is in 
the employ of the Government, 

s a mechanic, in Cttawa. One of the daughters 
married James Barron of Grenville, Theresa, the youngest daughter, was married 
m 1866 to Joseph Bryarton, bailiff of Carillon. 
HENRY, the youngest son of Mr. and 
lason, after being employed many 
years on the Ottawa, was appointed, 1st August, 18 71, to his father's position as 
Master of Lock NO.2, Carillon. He was married 16th February of the same year 
to Agnes Doyle of Hawkesbury Village, l.ike his father, :Mr. Mason is desirous of 
educating his children, and has sent his 
on Herbert to Rigaud College. 
P. GiRARD, who lives in Carillon, is foreman on the canal, and also S
Treasurer of the Yillage Council and Board of Schuol Commissioners. His native 
place is Point Levis, Quebec, and there he learned the trade of his father who was 
a boat builder. In connection with him, he built many of the fine boats now plying 
the rivers and lakes of Canada. In the faU of 1871, he came to Carillon to build the 
steamer ,. Princess," and in the following May was married to Mary Boyer of this vil- 
lage j they have eight children-four of each sex. Since tÌ13t period, his horne has 
always been at Carillon, though for a year he worked in Ottawa, an d was also three 
years in the North \Vest, building boats for the North \Vest Navigation Company. 
In 18 8 4, he was appointed foreman on the canal, and after the Superintendent, 
Mr. George ::5impson, was incapacitated through illness, Mr. Girard performed the 
duties of the office for sixteen months, or until the appointment of the present superin- 
tendent, Mr. Herbert Simpson, 
'Mr. Girard ic; a careful and efficient business man, and possesses the geniality 
and courtesy of the people of his nationality, 
, who has a farm and a fine brick residence in Carillon, has 
been an employee on the can:ll for many years; he was formerly foreman of the 
mechanical department; he married Miss Boyer of Carillon. Godfrey, his eldest 
son, is employed in the boot and shoe store ofMr, Mallette, McGill street, Montreal. 
Alphonse, his second son, is checker for the Richelieu & Ontario Kavigation Co. 7 
JOHN HODGSON, a native of the county of Vaudreuil, has been employed as 
mechanic by the Government. for several years j he has recently erected a good 
residence in Carillon. Mr. Hodgson was married 15th June, 188j, to Elizabeth, 


18 9 

daughter of the late James Begg;, of East Hawkesbury, Both Mr. and Mrs. Hodgson 
are staunch and worthy memuers of the Methodist Church. 
\V ALTER :\ICGREGOR, a young man of industrious habits, has been a faithful 
employee here for the last eight years. His parents formerly lived in Carillon, but 
remO\-ed to Ottawa in 1889, where his father has since died. 
, who owns the stone residence formerly known as the \Vanless 
Academy, is employed by the G
nt as diver; it often being necessary to 
descend to the bed of the can:!l to make repairs, A water-tight rubber suit, supplied 
with life line and hose, through which air is pumped to the diver, renders the occu- 
patio:ì a comparatively safe one, though somewhat gruesome to the novice. 
ALEX. BERNIQUIER and C. RAlo'FERTY are lock-men at No.3; the former has 
been employed on the canal 10 During this time, he has spent his winters 
in the lumber-wood5, where he formerly worked. 
The river boats, also, obtain sewral employees from Carillon. 
ISIDORE LEFEBVRE has been an engineer on the Ottawa 32 years. His eldest 
son, Isidore, is assistant engineer on the steamer" Han," and his second son, 
Florimond, holds the same position on the" Olive ;" Olier,another son of Mr. Lefebvre, 
is one of the noted cheese-makers of Argenteuil. 
ALFRED BOILEAU, a very industrious and skilìful mechanic of this village, has 
been in the employ of the Ottawa" River Navigation Co, fJr 3 2 years. 
Carillon, besides being supplied with three mails a day in summer, and two in 
winter, has a telegraph and a telephone office. The for.ner is in the house of N, 
Raymond; his daughter, Miss Donalda Raymolld, being the operator. The telephone 
is in the office of the Callal SUIJerintendent. 
J. B. GAUTHIER,'"a brother of the late Victor Gauthier, has long been in the employ 
of telegraph companies as a mechanic, and is now in the employ of the G, N. 'V, 
Company. He came to Canllon from New Brunswick in 1889. leaving there his 
two eldest sons, Edmund and Joseph; the former has succeeded to his father's 
position, and the latter is engaged quite extensively in the electric light and telephone 
business. Victor and John, two younger sons of l\Ir, Gauthier, who live at Carillon, 
are also in the employ of the G. N. 'V. Telegraph Co. Victor, besides possessing 
much mechanical ingenuity, is also quite a slcillful taxidermist. 
The succeeding paragraph or two, and account of the robbery at Carillon, are 
sent us by Colin Dewar. 
· The water was very low in the North River during the summer of 184 0 , and 
considerable difficulty was experienced in passing heavily laden barges through the 
canal, as the ., Feeder" could not get the supply, To remedy this, a large sum of 
money was expended on the dams at the mouth of the "Feeder," in the spring of 
184[, which, however, was not of permanent benefit. 
In 18.p, John Brophy, Esq., C. E., was appointed Superintendent oftl1<: Carillon 
and Grenville canals, a position which he held for many years. 

19 0 


Owing to the-constantly increasing traffic through the canals, the old-fashioned 
system of working the lock gates by means of a capstall was too slow and tedious, 
Ir. Brophy had them removed, and the 'willdlass introduced instead" hich 
proved a great benefit. Under his directions the dams on the North River were 
greatly improved by filling up, and preventing the waste of water, thus keeping up 
a uniform height. It was also under his directions that the Upper Locks were taken 
down and rebuilt, a d
fect in the "fuddlillg" when they were constructed causing a 
continual leakage. 
On the night of the "Cattle Show" in September, 1844, the Government office 
at Carillon was broken into, and robbed of a large sum of money. The robbers had 
procured an old ricketty ladder, which they placed against one of the upper windows 
in the rear, and entering the cashier's office, secured the small iron chest, which at 
that time contained over one thousand doHars, as pay day was near at hand. They 
threw the chest out of the window, where the marks were visib
e, and carried it down 
near the locks, where it was found in the morning, broken open anù empty. 
Three or four suspected persons were arrested, and sent to Montreal; but as 
nothing could be proved against them, they were discharged, and that was the end of it 


Mayor, John Kelly; Councillors, Mercien Desjardins, ex-mayor, André Yi\'arais, 
Fred. Poulin, Gédéon Thibodeau, Emile Rochon. 
M. DES]ARDlN.3, owner of a pleasant brick cottage in this village, has long kept 
a boot and shoe shop here, assisted by his son Gédéon; the latter received a two 
years' course in the Commercial Department of Rigaud College. Hilaire Desjardins, 
father of the ex-mayor, now 88 years of age, lived at St, Eustaclte durivg the Rebellion 
of '37, and was wounded in the leg while watching the combat. 
:Mr. THIBODEAU was engaged in te3.ching [or many years; he was also Secretary- 
Treasurer of the School Board at Hochelaga, previous to coming to Carillon. A few 
years since, he married Miss Boyer, of this viHage, sister to l\Irs. Poulin and :Mrs. 
E. ROCHON has tong been a skillful blacksmith in this village; he has a penchant 
for fine horses, of which he always has one or more, 
DRE YIVARAIS, eldest son of André Yivarai
, was born in Brown's Gore. Ar- 
genteuil County, in 1f!48; he lived there until March, 1886, when he sold his farm, 
and bought from Robert \Vhite the one on which he still lives in Carillon. He has 
been twice married, first to .\gnes Ploof, who died in 1883, leaving two sons; and the 
second time in 1885, to Adèle Beaudry, widow of Baptiste King. Mr. \Ïvarais has 
been Municipal Councillor of Cari1lon for the past five years. His father died here 
in ) 894, and 1\1 rs. Yivarais, sen" resides with her son, who is one of the industrÏa'.J.s 
farmers of the community. 


19 1 

 is proprietor of the bakery referred to elsewhere. He is a 
native of Como, and was married 1st June, 1880, to "Miss Louisa Parsons, of Hudson. 
He has lived in Carillon but four years, during which he has prosecuted his business 
with a good deal of energy, and the productions of his manufactory have given general 
satisfaction. Mr. and 1\1:-s. Manson have three children, son and two daughters, 
Among the several fine stone dwellings of Carillon is that ofT. Fagan, This was 
erected about 1830, by Rinaldo Fuller, contractor, for an academy, and soon after- 
wards was bought by John \Vanless, who lived in it, and conducted a private school 
many years. 
Mr. 'Vanless was from Scotland, and was a graduate of one of the Scotch U ni- 
versities. On coming to America, he was first employed in teaching in New York, 
and afterward, about 1827, came to St, Andrews, and for a year or two conducted a 
private school in the building which is now the Anglican parsonage. ""hile there, he 
married a cousin named 'Vanless, and moved to Carillon. He was a fine scholar, a 
strict discíplinari3n, and his school was highly popular, being patronized by the sons 
and daughters of all the leading citizens of this section, the late Hon. J, J. C. Abbott 
being of the number. He died in 1882, and his former pupils, from respect to hi
memory, erected at their own expense a tombstone at his resting place in the 5t, 
Andrews cemetery. 


The Carillon Dam, across the Ottawa, is one of the great works of art and 
triumphs of engineering s kill of the present century. It was built by the Canadian 
Government, in the interests of commerce, to increase the depth of water in the 
canal, constructed at this point to overcome the obstruction of rapids in thc river; 
it cost 
h,350,ooo, On account of the great expense, tlll
re was much opposition to 
the project, and for this reason, during the McKenzie administration, work on the 
structure was wholly suspended j but it was resumed when the successor of McKenzie 
came into office. 
The Dam is 2,4 00 feet long and 12 feet high; its construction was commenced 
in 18 73, the engineer being Horace l\1errill, late Superintendent of the Ottawa River 
\Vorks; and the contractors were F. B. 
lcNamee & Co. It was made of cribs fined 
with stone, which was supplied by the neighboring farmers, at 45 and SS cts. per 
yard. Near the middle, is a slide for the passage of timber; this is 28 feet wide, 800 
feet long, and approached by 2800 feet of boom; an apron, at the top and foot of 
the slide, regulates the quantity of water required, and "stop logs" sel ve the same 
purpose in the passage of timber. A house, painkd red, covering the entrance of the 
slide, is quite a conspicuous object on the 1>.1.01, and serves to attract the curio
of strangers. 
The structure was completed in the faU of 1881, and when the sluirc_ were 
closed, and the w.Her had reache j its full height, it wa
 fouml that i! rai:, I the 
water at Greece's Point-six miles up the river-two feet. 

19 2 


In 18 8 3 a portion of the Dam gave way, and was repaired at an expense of 
$20,000, Although the bed of the river, where the Dam crosses it, ii entirely of 
lOck, it was found to be so soft in character, that the water had undermined the 
Dam, thus causing the breakage. Since that, much money and labor have been 
eXI'ended to add to its strength and durability, and it is believed it will now 
effectually withstand th
 assaults of water or ice. 
Mr. )01111 Middleton, of Pt. Fortune, sl:de master, reports that in 1882, 73 rafts 
passed through the slide j in the years following, the number varied considerably, and 
in 18 95 0l11y 6 passed through, But the rafts of hte years have been much larger 
than formerly; one composed of 50 cribs used to b
 regarded a raft of gooj size, 
while now one of 210 is not uncommon. 
Kotwithstanding the large number of men employed for so long a time, and the 
danger of the work, only one serious accident occurred during the construction of 
the I )am, On the day the sluices were closed, a man named Dernier, who had been 
employed un the work, slipped as he was walking on the Dam, fell into the river, and 
was drowned. 
/\. few years later, however, an accident occurred, which, though not attended 
\\ ith loss of life, eseape from so sad a result seems due to nothing short of a miracle. 
Late one summer night, a steam tug came down the river, having in tow sevt>ral 
barges laden with lumber. Just as the tug entered Lock No.2 at the Dam, tIle nearest 
barge struck the end of the pier j the tug gave a vigorous pull, but instead of bring- 
in6 the barge into the lock, the tow line parted, and the barge swung outward into 
the swift-flowing river, a few rods above the Dam. Capt. Smith, the owner of the 
ill fated barge, and his wife, both quite aged people, were on board. 
Like an electric shock, news flew through this little fleet that Capt. Smith and 
nis barge were going over the Dam. Quick hands seized ropes, and soon the men 
were on the broad pier running at right angles to the Dam, and several feet above it, 
Through the vapor and darkness, they descried the outline of the barge fast hasten- 
ing to its doom. But there was no need oflight to show them where to direct their 
aid, the cries of Capt. Smith and his frantic appeals for help defined the spot. A 
rope throw11 by dexterous hands falls on the barge at the Captain's feet. He is safe. 
_\las! he is not; h
 sees it, but the roaring of the grim monster, now but a few yard
distant, which he feels will in a few seconds devour him and all that he holds most 
dear, has filled him with an awful dread, and rendered him powerless to act. The 
barge is gliding on, and the rope falls into the water, astern; but still there is a 
moment left, which the anxious, beating hearts on the pier are determined to 
improve. Again the rope shoots out, and, fortunately, this time rests on the Captain's 
shoulder; now, surely, he will grasp it and be saved, but no, he sees it slip downward, 
glide across the deck, and drop into the water; he is too paralyzed to move. His 
last chance h
1.') flown, the awful moment has arrived, yet, strange to rdate, his facul- 
ties return,-reason resumes her throne. He knows that his wife has descended to 
the caLin, and believes it to be the most dangerous place, He calls ner, and then, 



throwing himself flat on the deck, he thrusts his arm through a large hole in an 
upright plank before him, bends his elbow, and to this ohject clings with desperation, 
The other arm encircles the waist of his wife, who has thrown herself beside him. They 
were not kept long in this awful suspense. Fortunately, the water was low; the barge 
struck the Dam, and quickly swung around, so that she lay broadside against it. 
The water, thus checked, raised the opposite side sufficiently to throw her entire 
deck load of lumber, consisting of many thousands of feet, into the abyss below, 
The barge, now buoyant, rose to the surface, and so quickly followed the lumber, 
that it rested fairly on it, and thus was prevented from being submerged. The boil. 
ing waters, however, soon carried away the lumber; the barge, borne down twenty 
yards or more, struck broadside against a large rock, and there, nearly broken into 
two parts, remained. The Captain and his wife retained their recumbent position, 
till they found the barge moored against the boulder, when they rose to take notes of 
their strange situation, and calculate the probabilities of once more seeing New York. 
It is to be presumed, however, that, like Christian people, their first act was to thank 
God devoutly for their late miraculous escape from death. 
But like the novelist, we must now invite the reader to another scene in this 
story, After the barge went over the Dam, the men on shore hastened to the 
nearest point whence they could see the barge, and shouted to ascertain if it con- 
tained any living occupant. No answer being returned, they turned away with sor- 
rowful hearts, to ponder and discuss the awful doom of their companion and the 
sad tidings they must bear to his friends. But not 10nJ afterward, Mr. 
1ason, the 
Lock Master, who had been roused from his sleep, discovered, as the mists from the 
river rose occasionally an::l floated away, that there were living people on the wrecked 
barge; but, to his surprise, he could obtain no answer to his shouts. The next 
morning, he and one or two more with a skiff rescued the ship-wrecked couple, and 
then learned that their shouts had not been heard, every other sound having been 
drowned by the roari ng waters of the Dam. 
\Ve may add that Capt. Smith made two or three trips up the Ottawa, after hi') per- 
ilous adventure. His barge was insured, but the lumber it carried was a total loss. 


The Isle aux Chats is a small island in the North River, located about a mile 
from Carillon. It contains no inhabitants, but the fact that it has been the site of 
mills for many decades, and that there is a small settlement of intelligent farmers 
near it, has rendered the locality quite noted. The Island itself is in Chatham, but 
the settlement, which is always called" Isle aux Chats," is in 51. Andrews. The name, 
it is said, was given to the Island on account of the number of wildcats infesting it 
when the country was new. It is quite evident, also, that Indians used to frequent 
it, as many In3ian relics have been found here 



HUGH ROBERTSON came to Canada from Glasgow, with his wife and family, in 
18 57. After spending some time in Quebec and Three Rivers, he came to Carillon, 
and bought the property owned by Mrs. McNaughton, giving it the name of" Ottawa 
Lodge." Later, he came to Isle aux Chats and bought the Island, and the saw, grist 
and woollen mills, which did quite an extensive business, giving employment to a 
number of hands. l\Ir. Robertson had six sons and two daughters, cf whom all but 
one son are now living. Hugh \Villiam, the eldest son, born June, 184 8 , in Glasgow, 
was nine years of age \Vh en his father came to Canada. He was educated in 
Bishop's College, Lennoxville, Que., and afterwards took the mills and farm from his 
father, who went to Owen Sound, where he still resides. Mrs. Robertson died there 
16th :\Ialch, 1895, and was interred at St. Andrews. Hugh, the subject of our pre- 
sent sketd1 was married in 1874, to :Miss De Hertel, daughter of Daniel De Hertel, 
of Centerville. They have six sons and three daughters, all of whom, with the excep- 
tion o(the eldest son, are still at home, The son, also, Hugh \Villiam, after spending 
some t:me in the office of Molsons Bank, .:\lontreal, went to Owen Sound, where he 
has a position in a bra nch office of the same Bank. 
Mr. Robertson continues to keep his mills in operation, and also manages his 
farm, which compri
es Isle aux Chats and half a lot in Centerville. 


of Lachute.* 

This place, the chif-liell of the county of Argenteuil, is located on the North 
River, 9 miles from the Ottawa and 44 north of Montreal. It is also on the line of 
the Canadian Pacific Railway,-formerly the Q. :\1. O. & O. Railway. Its location 
is very pleasant, level, high, the center of a good agricultural district, and the scenery 
around, especially along the river, is picturesque. The name was first derived from 
the fall or clllt/e, and was forrneriy written L3. Chute (The Falls), but afterwards the 
two words were united, hence the name L::tchute. No one seems to kn0W how the 
name of the Parish-St. J erusalc111 d' Arg enteuil-of which Lachute forms a part, 

 Lachute. Tow.n 
hall be that portion of the parish of St. Jerusalem in the county of Argenteuil, 
contmned wlthm a Ime drawn as follow!', to wit; 
Commencing on the line dividing the 
aid parish from the to\\nship of Chatham, at a point due 
west of the south.west cnrn-=r of lot 1419 of the official plan and book of reference of the said parish 
(IOJle-walk), thence northerly, along the 
aid line to where it intersects the base of the mountam on 
Jot 1692, and on said plan, eight hundred and fifty.eight feet English, from the centre of Chatham 
road n<<;>r\.h.ö thenceTeas\wa
d, along the ba

 of the said moumain (east of Leggo's farm house), to 
le It Jlllns the North Rlv
r, tl
ence a
cend111g the Centre of said river, to a point formed by the inter- 
ectJon or the northerly contllluatlOn of the ea!ttel n boundary line lIf lot 329 A on said plan with the 



originated; but it has been stated-we know not on what authority-that the name 
was suggested by Governor Metcalfe. 
As the place has grown up chiefly within the last quarter of a century, it natur- 
ally has a youthful appearance, nearly aU the best buildings being new. From no 
one part of the corporation can a view of much of it be obtained, hence, on tra\'eJing 
over it, one finds it much larger than he had supposed. 
The main street, from the \Vest End, through Upper Lachute is two miles in 
length, and there are several shorter streets well populated. Many of the private 
dwellings, both from their location, and architectural neatness, are attractive, while 
some of the public buildings-the Registry office, Ville Marie Rll1k, Argenteuil 
Hotel, the Academy, the establishments of J. Rob)' and J. A. Bedard, besides the 
immense structures of J. C. \Vilson, are most imposing in appearanc(
Fortunately for us, nearly half a century ago an effort was made to collect a few 
facts with regard to the early settlement of this place, and preserve them for future 
use. Commendable as was this act, and valuable as are the few facts thus trans- 
mitted, it is to be deplored that the researches were not far more thorough and 
e xtens i ve, 
While we are told that, :n 1796, a man named Hezekiah Clark came from 
Jericho, Vermont, with his family, and planted the first cabin here, the antecedents of 

I r. Clark, and his motive in coming so far into the wilderness, are ieft as matters 
only for speculation, It would, indeed, be interesting to know why he s0ught this 
particular place for a home, inasmuch as many leagues of land just as fertile, covered 
by forests just as dense, with scenery equalling it in beauty, lay between this plac.e 
and Jericho. \Vithin half the distance from that town to L:lchute, lay a great part of 
what is now the Eastern Townships, but then an unbroken wilderness. Why, then, 
did he come so far? \Vas he a fugitive from justice? Not at all for we are inform- 
ed that he was soon followed by a number of others, and that all were obsen"ant of 
Christian ordinances. \Ve can no more answer the question, than we can tell why 
some of the piop-eers located on rough, stony, rock-bound land, when they coulù ju
as easily have procured the finest land in the country. 
The most proùable reason that we can assign for the course he pursued is. thnt 
he calculated the chances for getting to mar ket, and found that, compared with other 
places, they were decidedly in favor of Lachute. In no other unsettled section, did 
he find such a natural highway to other settlement') and to 
lontreal, as was present- 
ed by the North River and the Ottawa. It is possible also, that with that prophetic 

said centre of Ii ver (
lorrisol1's Bridge); thence somherly, along the said last mentioned line to tlw 
main road; thence to a point on the south side of s:lÎ.l road, where it is joined by the lines, between 
lots 3 12 and 3 2 5 of said plan (Vme's); thence sourherly, along the conrinuarion of the said 
tionetlline, to a point formed by its intersection with the easterly continuation of the 
entre hne. of 
Henry street on plan B of said parish; thence westerly, along the said last mentioned hne to a pomt 
forme(1 by its intersection with the centre line of Isabella street on said plan B (Barron', bush) i 
thence southerly, along the last mentioned line. to a point due east of the point of commenceml nt. ! 
tht"nce to said point of commencement. 

19 6 


vision which characterized, now and then, one of those early settlers, he foresaw some- 
thing of what really has occurred-the rapid opening up of the country along the 
great river, the utilizing of the admirable water-power, and decided that no other spot 
presented such a fair prospect to himse:f and posterity. But whatever were the in- 
ducements, the fact that he came is unquestioned, and we can judge only from 
that fact, that he was a man of superior energy, great endurance and courage, and 
\Va') skilled in woodcraft. Withùut these qualities he never would have come, nor 
could he have nuintained his family, while surmounting the difficulties frequently 
His family, consisting of his wife, three sons and two daughters, came through 
the woods with an Indian sled from St. Andrews, Dot even a cow path, at that time, 
leading to the place of his future home. No house, not even a bark shanty was there 
to J eceive them, and the first night was passed beneath the sh elter of a few Ilranches 
of trees hastily gathered. The next day, with that tact and energy characteristic of 
a woodsman, Mr. Clark constructed a hut, or wigwa.m, which answered the purpose 
of a domicile, till opportunity was given to er
ct a better one. fradition claims, as 
the site of this habitation, a spot near the present Lachute mills. 
But who does not envy the lot of this pioneer? \Vhat a chance for enjoyment! 
On the threshold of summer, when nature has donned her richest garb, and we are 
entranced by the melody of her voices, what seeIl1s more akin to paradise than a 
home in the boundless forest? The woods in summer! \Vhat visions of undisturbed 
retirement, blissful solitude, do they not suggest? 
Hardship and privation are ascribed by general repo..t to the lot of a pioneer. 
But what life is there among the laboring class free from those perplexities and sor- 
rows incident to a life of toil? Though the first settlers had to work hard, and 
sometimes, especially in the beginning of their career, were saddened at the small 
stock of provisions in the hrder and the condition of their wardrobe, yet, who ever 
saw a pione:?r that did not look back on his life in the woods as a pleasant one? 
Who did not regard with pride every acre of land reclaimed from the forest, and 
brol1ght to a state of cultivation? And how many pleasant memories are associated 
,,:\h those early struggles? \Vhat stories the old man will tell of the feats of labor 
in chopping or logging in this spot or that on his farm. \Vith what pride, too, he 
will recount the number of bushels of corn or potatoes he raised on yonder acre- 
the first crop produced by the virgin soil. 
"Y e are not favored with an account of Mr. Clark's experiences while he lived 
heJe, yet we cannot forbear thinking that he had many pleasant ones, even though 
there might have been many discouragements. Of one thing, at least, he had an 
abund:mce, and that was fuel. Then, too, past his door flowed a fine stream, 
whose waters teemed with fish, and the forest was alive with a variety of game-all of 
which not only prevented the possibility of famine, but provided means by which the 
ta:.te, ev
n of an epicure, might he gratified. The seed planted in the new soil grew 
as if by magic; alld the crops were of a quantity well calculated to satisfy and glad- 
den the hearts of their possessor. 



How different, too, must have been his emotions when, in the morning, he stepped 
forth from his cabin to begin his daily task, from those of the laborer dweHing in a 
dilapidated tenement on a narrow street of a city. No vitiated, smoke-laden air for 
inhalation here; no sound ùf cars or carts rattling over the pavements. but the pure
of heaven's air, exhilarating from its burden of ozone, and fragrant with the odor of 
many trees and forest flowers. No discordant sou nds, but, instead, the songs (If 
birds,-solos and duetts, and then the whole choral harmony, amusing and cheering 
through all tbe summer day. 
And what relief from care! No watching for callers at that cabin. No feverish 
anxieties with regard to the toilet, or fears that mesdames wi11 find too much dust 
collected in the parlor; 011 the con trary, the inmates realize their emancipation from 
the bonds of fa
hion. \Vhat liberty! \Vhat comfort I Pelfect abandonment to ease. 
The wild animals, though giving no real cause for apprehension, suggested enough 
of danger to relieve this life from monotony, and tinge it with romance. :\nd withal, 
how much to encourage and spur to renewed exertion! No surly employer to issue 
orders, and growl at the manner and amGunt of work performed, and then, at night- 
fall, to dole out with grudging hand the wages of their toil. Free from restraint, no 
one but themselves to please, in the most beautiful locality, labor itself was a recrea- 
tion and pleasure, giving as it did strength to the muscles, vigor to the whole framè, 
and, consequently, buoyancy to the spirits and happiness to the mind. Every day, 
the expandiug clearing encouraged to another day of labor, and gave promise of the 
pasture, the meadow, the flocks and herds, and We II fi\1ed barns. 
But what of the Sal
bath? Could there be any moral growth in this isolated 
spot, far removed from church and the sound of church-going bell? Ah! yes, the 
Sabbath t But perhaps they attended church, Seven miles only, intervened between 
this and St. Andrews, and women, as well as men, often performed longer journeys on 
bot, even though the labors of the previous week inclined them on the Sabbath 
to take a needful rest. \\'ho can doubt that people of moral habits, distant from every 
scene of vice and wickedness, in communion with the fairest scenes of nature, should 
': be led through nature up to nature's God? J' Wh
 can doubt if, in thcir early 
years, they had been taught to respect things divine, that in their present abode, their 
6ratitude to the Author and Giver of their blessings increased, and that they remem- 
bered the Sahbath to keep it holy? 
Hezekiah Clark has no descendants 
n this part of the country, but report says 
that they are an intelligent and repntable class who occupy responsible positions in 
distant places. 
According to a brief History of Lachute referred to above, which was compiled 
by Mr, John Meikle, sen., "Mr. Clark remained the sole inhabitant of Lachute for two 
years, when he was joined by six more families from the same place." nut a sketch 
of Lachute, by F. C. Ireland, published in Titc IValch1/lll1l of 3 rd September, 1886, 
mentions but one family which carne within two years after the arrival of Clark. 
He says: " The next pioneer was also one of the hardy sons of Vermont, who 

I9 S 


came about two years later, or in 1798. His name is familiar to most of the resi. 
dents of Lachute to-àay. 
"JOHN S. HUTCHIXS had married Miss Cutter, in their native State, and migrat- 
ed to Canada, to join hands as neighbors with the Clarks at Lachute. They endured 
J.ll the hardships, privations and vicissitudes incident to such a journey and such a 
life. They worked hard on a coarse diet, but the labor brought sweet rest, and the 
diet gave strength to the constitution, as they and their children have proved, for 
whele is there to be found a family with more active frames, better developed 
muscles, firmer limbs and stronger minds than the desce'udants, who s till live and 
move among uc;, of these early piorJeers. The organ of continuity was so laJgely dev- 
doped in this family, that they remained on the site of their early choosing, and 
brought up 
ons and daughters, many of whom became the first men and women of 
the place, in position as well as in point of time." 
There are none, probably. who will deny, that the above tribute to the Hutchins 
family is well deserved. Two brothers, John S. and Phineas Hutchins, seem to have 
settled in Lachute about the same time, The former located on a lot now owned by 
David McF'ulane; the latter on one owned by Mr. McGregor. Both have transmitted 
to US the reputation of being energetic, intelligent, Ch
istian men, with a strong desire 
to encourage whatever promised to enhance the physical, social and moral progress 
of their adopted country. 
John S. Hutchins had learned the printer's trade in Boston, and OD first coming 
to Canada, he engaged as compositor in the office of The Courant, in Montreal. He 
soon began to write articles for that journal, and for some time was a regular contri- 
butor to its columns. After coming to Lachute, he took an interest in religious 
\\'01 k, and it was through his efforts that the Rev. Mr. Osgoode, mentioned an an- 
other page, came here and organized a Sabbath School. He was a member of the 

lethodist Church, and his house was always a home for the ministers who, from 
time to time, visited the place, For many years, he was Clerk of the Circuit Court 
which held its sessions here. In 180 1, his wife died, and it being the first time death 
!-tad visited the new settlement, we can well imagine the gloom his advent created. 
:\[r. Hutchins had one son at this time, whose name was Osman. He married, 
..1I1d after living some years at Hawkesbury, Ont., moved \Vest. iiis father also 
ma.rried again, and by this marriage had thl ee sons and five daughters: Hawley, 
Phineas and Benjamin; Eliza, 
laria, Catherine, Matilda and :J\Iary Ann. Of the 
latter, Eliza was married to :Milo Lane, Maria to Geo. Glines, Catherine to Lemuel 
Cushing, and 
lary Ann to Geo, Holland, Matilda, who never married, died a few 
years since in Montreal. Mrs, Cushing and l\1rs, Holland, both widows, reside in 
that city. 
Hawley R. Hutchins, the eldest son by the seco nd marriage, married J 5th Octo. 
ber, 18 35, Harriet, a daughter of Dr. Rice, of St. And rovs. He engaged in trade 
3. \\'hile at Lachute, then at Carillon, and finally was in business in Montreal. He had 
but one child, which died, and this was followed by the death of his wife; he then went 
to California, and died there 12th June, 1:882, at the age of 62. 



Phineas R., his brother, married Jessie \\'alker of Lachute, 4th May, 1838. They 
had eight children, the most of whom, at the present time, are said to be in prosperous 
cilcumstances in California. :Mr. Hutchins always remained on the homestead and 
engaged in farming un til he moved with his family to the Golden State, where he died 
15 th January, 1875, aged 75 years. 
Benjamin, the third 50n of John S. Hutchins, has spent nearly all his life in busi- 
ness in 
Iontreal, where he is much esteemed. He is at present a broker in real 
estate, having an office in the I\ew York Life Insurance building. He was but 14 
years old \vhen he came to Montreal, and he worked for some time witho
t salary, 
but he soon made his way upward. He was a Candidate in 1867 for tbe office 
of Representative for Argenteuil County in the Dcminion Parliament, and was 
defeated only by a small majority. l\Ir. Hutchins has been twice married; 
first, in 1841 or 1842, to Miss Felton, of Sherbrooke; the seconù time, to Miss 
Sherwood, daughter of Adiel Sherwood, Sheriff of Brockville, and an U. E. 
John S. Hutchins, the father of the children above, was born 15th August, 
1776, and died 4th May, 1865, at the age of 8ß. 
Phineas Reed Hutchins, like his brother last named above, took a prominent 
part in every important public movement, soon after coming to Lachute. We first 
hear of him as Captain of a Volunteer Rifle Company, which he organized during the 
war of I8! 2. 'Ve next find him assiduously laboring to erect a church edifice at St. 
Andrews, and contributing liberally towards the cost of its erection. Evidently, he 
was a man with the requisite energy and ability to push to completion whatever work 
he commenced,-one of the kind who, with better opportunities, broader fieldc; for 
action, have won for themselves enduring names. He was thrice married, and had 
one son and six daughters. James Reed Hutchins, the son, married Elizabeth Ross 
of :\Iontreal; and, for a number of years, was in mercantile business in that city, 
He died 28th June, 1856, leaving one son, Joseph Ross Hutchins, who is also engaged 
in trade in :\IontreaJ. 
" * .\mong other settlers from the American side was a young man, han dsome and 
strong, whose services were secured by Mr. Hutchins in clearing away the forest and 
in building up a comfortable and prosperous home. This was GEORGE GLINES, whose 
engagement with l\Ir. Hutchins was severed by an engagement with one of his most 
beautiful daughters, and resulted in a long, felicitous life, and a large and beautiful 
family, whm,e record is a credit to any community. In fact, it would be difficult to 
find a new settlement peopled with a better class of residents than first made their 
homes along the vanks of the North River at Lachute." 
In the year 179 6 , JEDEDIAH LA
E, al
o from Jericho, purchased a tract of land 
comprising several thousand acres, on which Lachute is located. Having a sister .1.t 

* From a 
ketch by F. C. lreland in TIte 
Vt1lch11lt111 of 17th September, IS8u. 



Carillon, the wife of Feter :\lcArthur, he doubtless had been here before, and selected 
the tract he desired to huy, as, at the time he maáe the purchase, he came on horse- 
back, according to the custom C'f those days, with saddle-bags, in which was the gold 
to pay for the land. All that we know respecting this pioneer, m3Y be summf'd up 
in the few following facts, He was a prosperous farmer, had a good education, 
was tall and prepossessing in appearance, a widower and the fat her of seven sons 
and two daughters; only two of the SQIlS, however, settled in this country. He was 
a college gr3duate, and for a number of years after coming here taught school 
in the school-house occupying the site of the one near the store recently burnt of his 
grandson, P. H. Lane. He also taught in St. Andrews, but how long it is impossible 
to say j it is certain that he taught there in the years 1837-38. 
Although so brief is his biography, he has an enduring memorial in the tract of 
land which he first bought in Lachute; for" L,me's Purchase" * is familial' to the 
citizens of Argenteuil, and will continue to ve" while trees grow and water runs." 
His fame was also enhanced, no doubt. by a famous law-suit to which his purchase 
gave rise. By the terms of the contract between him and Major l\Iurray, the Seignior. 
of whom the land was purchased, this p.uticular tract was to be exempt from the rent 
imposed on other lands in the seigniory j but not so understauding the agreement, 
the succeeding Seignior, in 1807, brought suit against the settlers for the amount of 
the unpaid rent. The time in which this suit was dragged through the Courts has a 
parallel in the case of U Jarndrce & Jarndyce," described by Dickens in Bleak House. 
After seven years of litigation, it was decided in favor of the Seignior. The settlers, 
however, satisfied that their case was one of equity, appealed it to the higher court, 
by which, after five years more, the decision of the lo\'rer court was re\'ersed. 
Catherine, the eldest daughter of Mr, Lane, was married to John N. Hutchins: 
1., the youngest child, married \Villiétl1l Gibson, a contractor j she is now a 
widow, and resides in Montreal. 
}edeùiah, his eldest son, settled in St. Andrews, and died there. 
MILO, the second son, born in Jericho, Vt., 18th J lIly, 1800, married Eliza, the 
eldest daughter of John S. Hutchins, in 1825- After living a few years on a farm, he 

", Records which we have examined 5-ince the above sketch of Mr. was written show that he 
}.IUTchasrd his tract from Major Murray, .seignior. 3rd December, 1796. The following shows the 
names of several who pUlchased, the quantIty purchased, anù date of the transaction. 
J. I ane sold (0 :- 


61h Dec., 1797 
28th Feb" 1820 
I Ith Sept., 1799 
15th Mar., 1800 
" " 

Æ 2 5 

5 00 
15 00 
14 6 9 

P. Mc.-\rlhur. ...., ...... 

Dudley Stone...... ... , .. 


...... ...... 
r oel Leonard. . ,. . . . . . . . , 
'If. Clark,."..., .. " . . . 
Roger Lane. _.. ..... ... 
Joel Bixby.. .. .. . .. . .. .. 
N. lliItings.. . . . . .. . .. ... 
r. Bolù ry . . . . .. . , . ,. ... 
\V. Thompmn. . . ., . . . . .. 

17th Nov" 1800 
7th '1Ir., 18.)1 
2ht Apr, " 
18th June ,I 
29th Feb.. I80
th Aug.. 18q 



opened a grocery and hotel in the west end of the village, and gave his attention to 
these until his death, which occurred 6th April, 1857, at the age of 56. He had eight 
children, but only one son and three daughters arrived at maturity; Eliza, the eldest 
daughter, was married to Archibald R, Cameron, who owned the "Struan Farm " 
but he died four years after marriage, leaving one daughter, Margan;t Ellen, who w
married to Thomas Cushing. 
Mrs. Cameron, by a second marriage to \V, H. Quinn, a surveyor of much cele- 
brity, had five children-two sons and three daughters. Of those now living, the 
eldest daughter married John R, McOuat, a merchant of Lac hute ; one son of Mrs. 
Cameron is a compositor in Ottawa, and another is in mercantile business in Buffalo, 
New York. 
Catherine, another daughter of Milo Lane, married John Taylor, a Scotchman, 
who con.jucted a store many years at what is now Lachute Mills. He removed to 
Montreal, and opened a fur store; his wife died there about 1887, and he afterward 
went to Ottawa, where he is at present conducting a Gold Cure establishment with 
much success. 
A third daughter of Mr. Lane married, 18th June, 1867, the Rev, Richard 
Robinson, a 
Iethcdist clergyman; she died 31st August, 1880. 
Phineas Hutchins, the youngest son of Milo Lane, and the only one who sur- 
vived the age of childhood, is a gentleman of ability, and possesses rare business tact 
and qualities. In his youthful days he was clerk 
íx years for Mr. Cushing in Chat- 
ham. In 1857, he opened a store in Lachute which belonged to his father's estate, but 
which had been rented for a long time to John Brunton, and then to his sister, Mr. 
Lane traded here for twenty-nine years, doing a most successful business, and then, in 
1887, sold the store and stock to Mr, \Villiam Banford, and retired from mercantile 
life, He has taken an active interest in local affairs, and held different responsible 
positions, among which was the presidency of the Agricultural Society for several 
terms, out that of Mayor, which was offered him, he declined. He married Miss 
Charlotte Owens, a sister of Senator Owens; she died 17th March, 1890 ; their chil- 
dren died in infancy, but they adopted Charlotte Maria, only daughter of Senator 
Owens by his first marriage, her mother having died when she was an infant. She 
married Farquhar Stewart McLennan, a prominent and successful barrister of 

l\1r. F. C. Ireland gives the following sketch ;- 
"Two years after the Hutchins family came, and four years after the Clarks had 
settled here, another hardy son of Vermont came to join his friends by the b.lI1ks of 
the River du Nord at Lachute, This was 'VILLlA
1 POWERS; he held married another 
Miss Cutler, and sister of Mrs. Hutchins. They started out on their married tour 
with aspirations as full, and hopes as bright, as a modern newly married couple could 
enjoy on a trip to some of the most fashionable resorts of the present day. [heir 
journey through the uncleared woods combined all the novelty and int.:idents ex- 
perienced by those who had preceded them along the <;ame rugged pathway. The 



reader can fancy the joyous meeting of the two sisters at Lachute. The incidents Of 
the journey were recounted in. detail; numerous enquiries of the friends in Jericho 
were made and am,wered with pleasurable gusto j and so the days, weeks and months 
passed; the two sisters were as happy as sisters could be. The two men sought out 
a homestead for the new comer with as much interest as if it were to belong to both. 
Place after place was minutely examined, resulting in a home for the Powers upon 
the site now occupied by Mrs. Paul in Bethany; this was in the year J 800. 
" It was spring time, and all nature was beautiful around the wilderness, or so it 

eemed to these pioneers, for they were contented. Though a little late. Powers 
commenced vigorously to clear a small garden spot for vegetables, and succeeded in 
planting quite sufficient, as they turned out, for the frugal wants of the small family. 
A house also was built as soon a
 possible, and became the residence of as happy a 
couple as ever lived. The summer and early autumn passed without either doors or 
windows to their habitation. This afforded them plenty of light and air, which only 
seemed conducive to their health and vigor. As autumn advanced, there had to be 
a change, and so Powers started off in search of windows and doors, which would be 
necessary to thdr winter safety and comfort. Mrs. Powers, during his absence, spent 
the nights with her sister; but on the third evening, as she expected her husband back, 
she remained alone in the open house, where their sleeping apartment was in the 
loft, which they reached by means of a rudely constructed ladder. On this occasion, 
Mrs. Powers waited and watched until long after dark, 
nd had ascended to the loft 
pulling up the ladder after her, feeling safe though very lonely. She had not been 
long in her seclusion, until she heard the noise of wolves howling in the distance. 
They carne nearer and nearer to the house, howling in their dismal way around the 
dwelling, until they actually made bold to enter, and prowled through the lower apart- 
ment, howling dreadfully with rage at being unable to find their human victim, which 
their keen scent told them was so very near, Mrs, Powers, in breathless fear, covered 
herself ill bed, holding her beating heart lest it should break, or its 50und tell the 
wolves where she was, Hours passed in this way, and that lor.g and dreary night 
seemed to have no end; but as the light of morning broke, the wolves disappeared, 
but it was late in the day when Powers returned, finding his wife still in the loft, but 
happy and jo}'ou
 to greet his protection, and relate the experience she had gone 
through. No wonder she received a gentle chiding for venturing to stay alone. Such 
were some of the ordeals of pioneer life in Lachute. This account ()f the wolves in 
the house was frequently related ùy Mrs, Powers to her children and grandchildren, 
down to her latest day, and always wi
h a pathos of untiring interest to both grand- 
mother and children." 
About 1801, prices of produce were so low that we cannot doubt the new settle- 
ment was lJlessed with food in plenty; and, doubtless, the chief discomfort was the 
trouble experienced in reaching mIlls and market. The market report of 1801 is as 
follows; Pork, $7.00 per cwt, ; beef, $4.00; butter, 25 cents per pound; cheese, 12
cents; corn, 7S cents per bushel; wheat, $1.00. 


20 3 

Roads, there were none; the North River afforded communication with St. 
Andrews, yet the rapids and other obstructions rendered frequent þortages necessary, 
so that, conveying grain to mill, and returning with the products thereof, required, 
even with the aid of the river, strong backs and firm muscles. 
'Ve have shown what a circuitous route the settlers on the River Rouge pursued 
to reach St. Andrews, until a much shorter route was pointed out to them bv the 
Seignior. The mistake committed by the inhabitants of Lachute was no less sll
ing or amusing. To reach St, Eustache, which, beside5 St, Andrews, WclS the only 
place where they went to mill or store, they travelled to Gralld Bru/é (St. Benoit), 
thence to Belle Rivière, and from that place to St. Eustache. Accident revealed a 
shorter route. 
A man named Uriah McNeal lost his cow, His sympathizing neighbors at once 
instituted a search, and after having travelled miles through the woods on their gen- 
erous errand, they ran across a few cattle grazing. Uncertain as to their where- 
abouts, they determined to wait till nightfall, and follow the cattle to their owners. 
pursuing this plan, they were led to the French settlement in Cote St. Louis. On 
inquiring of the settlers there, if they could show them the way to the North River, 
they were kindly led back by an Indian path, four miles north, to the river. Descend- 
ing this, they soon reached home, and ever after used this route instead of the old 
and long one via Grand Brulé, 
In 180 3, the settlers had increased in number to thirty families; and for several 
succeeding years the population was increased by the arrival of Americans. During 
the war of 1812 especially, fear of the draft and consequent military service caused 
no small influx of settlers from the New England States; but as they were generally 
of a class not likely to remain long in any place, they soon departed from Lachute. 
" At the time of the war of 1812," says Mr. Meikle in his chrollicles of Lachute, 
" the 
lilitia Roil numbered 1 So able-bodied men; these were formed into three com- 
panies, two of which were regular militia, commauded respectively by Captains 
Bixby and McNeal, the other a Volunteer Rifle company commanded by Captain 
Phineas Hutchins." 
As in all the new settlements of this country, the making of potash was about 
the only means by wh:ch the pioneer could obtain money, and as this required a 
great amount of wood, the land was soon denuded of fbrest, and, as the timber for 
potash grew scalce, the inhabitants who relied on its manufacture for their subsistence 
removed to other parts. 
In the years 1810 and 181 I, a severe famine occurred, and the prices of provi- 
sions went up to a degree that must have occasioned anxiety ill the heart of many a 
þater familias. Pork at that time was $30 per barrel, beef $14; providentially, 
there was a corresponding advance in the price of potash during the same years, 
otherwise the circumstances of the settlers would have been much worse. 
About this time also, the land which first had been cleared began to } ield more 
scanty crops, and this impediment to prosperity, united with the scarcity of timber 



and the period of famine, induced many to emigrate, But their places were soon 
filled, as will be seen by the following paragraph, copied from F. C. Ireland's sketch 
of Lachute in The fVatchmon of 24th September, 1886:- 
" It was in 1809 that a few Scotch settlers joined the Americans at Lachute, and 
they continued coming in for many years, until about 1818, a lot of Paisley weavers 
others joined the settlement: These were a hardy, industrious class of people, who 
took well to the new country and new employment, and succeeded in building up 
comfortable homes along the North River, reminding them of the little Cart which 
flowed through their own Renfrewshire at home; but the contrast was great-Paisley, 
Glasgow and Grcenock were not close by; the factories for shawls, thread, gauzes, 
velvets, flannels, cottons, with their dye-houses, printing calicoes, foundries for iron 
and brass, distilleries, soap works, alum and copperas works, and timber yards were 
not here. The pursuits of business were new; the country was new; everything was 
new. But the stirring life of Paisley had awakened, as it still awakens, an honorable 
f inquiry and a desire for improvement, and these Scotch settlers plodded on 
with increasing success as farmers, and soon became masters of the soil and owners 
of everything necessary for its cultivation," 
About one of the first of the Scotch settlers was THOMAS (afterwards COL.) 
BARRON, a title he received from holding the rank of Lieut.-Co!. of Militia, He cam
from Morayshire, and lived a while after his arrival with his uncle James at Hawkes- 
bury, He came to Lachute in 1809, and by the possession of those qualities which 
always bring a man to the front, in whatever community he may be placed, he was 
soon a leading spirit among those with whom he had cast his lot, 
He was married to Eliza Hastings, sister of Guy Hasting
, who was one of the 
prominent citizens of Lachute in early days; but they had no children. He seems 
to have soon become quite prominent in military affairs, as in 1812, as Adjutant, he 
took command of two companies of Militia under Captains Bixby and McNall, and a 
Volunteer company under Captain Phineas Hutchins, and marched with them to 
Point Claire, where they were given over to the charge of Col. Kell, who commanded 
the Division enlisted in Lachute, Chatham. Grenville and Petite Nation, 
About the year 1825, he was appointed Justice of the Peace, which office he held 
for many years, discharging ir"s duties with a faithfulness that won the esteem of good 
men, and instilled wholesome fear into the breasts of evil doers. For many years, 
also,.he was Crown Land Agent for thi:; place, Chatham, Gore and \Ventworth; later, 
also, for Morin and Howard, In 1836 hI:: erected, and chiefly at his own expense, a 
bridge acrosS the North River near his own dwelling, which has ever since been 
known as" Barron's Bridge." In like manner, he performed many other acts which 
contributed either to public or priV,1te benefit, and which secured to him the gratit!.lde 
of his fellows. He died in January, 1864, lamented by a large community. John 
Balron, a brother of Co!. Thomas Barron, came from Morayshire, Scotland, to 
Lachute in 1832. He lived with his brother, and found employment in the manage- 
ment of his estate till his death, which occurred in 1866. 


20 5 

Thomas Barron, jun., and Robert, two of his sons, still live here; the former 
being Registrar of the County of Argenteuil, and the latter, his assistant in the Regis- 
try Office. 
THOMAS BARRON, jun., was born in 1832, the year in which his father arrived in 
Lachute, and in the house in which he now resides, the residence of the late Col. 
Barron. Like his uncle, he has taken much interest in all the affairs of his native 
parish-moral, political and social; and in the varied positions he has filled, has 
acquitted himself to his own hunor and to the satisfaction of the public. 
In 1858, he was appointed Clerk of the Circuit Court and still holds the office, 
In March of the same year he was appointed Deputy Registrar of Argenteuil, and in 
1866, on the death of Co I. D'Hertel, the former Registrar, 1\1r, Barron succeeded him 
in office. He has also been :Municipal Councillor and Mayor of the parish many 
years, On the 9th August, 1858, he was married to Harriet Cushing, eldest daughter 
of the late Lemuel Cushing, Esq., of Chatham, by which marriage he had three chil- 
dren-one daughter and two sons. 
Thomas J., the elder son, after receiving his degree of B.A. from McGill, took 
a course at the Presbyterian College, Montreal, and is now engaged in the ministry. 
Lemuel C., the second son, is in California, Mrs. Barron died in February, 1864, 
and in August, 1866, Mr. Barron was married to Grace Jane, eldest daughter of the 
late Rev, Thomas Henry. Ten children resulted from this marriage, eight of whom 
are now living. 
Robert H., the eldest of these-a graduate of McGill-was the Gold Medallist at 
the Law Examination of that Institution in the spring of 1895, and at his final examin- 
ation at Quebec in September last, before the Board of Notaries, he stood first in 
honors. He is now one of the Notarial firm of Cushing, Dunton & Barron, :\[ontreal 
JOHN MEIKLE, another Scotchman, for many years shared with Col. Barron 
the enjoyment of social and judicial honors. He was a native of Glasgow, Scotland, 
and in 18.'
o, with his wife and three boys, left that city to make his home in Lachute. 
He purchased a few acre;; of land of Col. Barron (at that time Major), on which he 
erected a building designed for a general store. In this he b
gan a business which, 
faithfuHy continued, secured to him a competenc
 for his declining years. In the 
early part of his mercantile career he was assisted by his two brothers, Rob
rt and 
Thomas, who came to this country with him, 
Long after he began trading, there wac; very little money in the country, his tran- 
sactions wi th his custom
rs consisting chiefly of barter, as he accepted p.lY from them 
for his goods in the products of the farm, but m03tly in potash, of which at that time 
there were large quantities manufactured, The making of this article afforded him a 
chance to take up a little additional business, by which he doubtless increased the 
number of his customers, and won their esteem. A large part of his patronage wac; 
from the new settlers in Thomas' Gore, North Gore, 'Ventworth and the rear of 
Chatham, who in clearing their land turned all the timber possible into potash. To 
make this, they required leaches, kettles, coolers, barrels, etc., and 
Ieikle pro- 



vided these, placing them in suitable locations, and charged the individuals using 
them a small fee for each barrel of potash they made, In this way, though he charged 
barely sufficient to remunerate himself for the wear and expense of the materials 
provided, he put many a poor fellow in the way of making a little money which he 
otherwise could not have made, After the potash was brought to Mr. Meikle, he 
sent it to Inspector Stone in Montreal, and, as soon as the quality was ascertained, he 
paid the full market price for it in cash, 
In 18 3 6 , Mr. Meikle was appointed Postmaster, and held this position for half a 
century, and was also Justice of the Peace for many years. He was a liberal supporter 
of Henry's Church, of which he was long an Elder, and felt a deep interest in the 
College, to both of which in his will he left a legacy, 
He is held in kind remembrance by his old custom ers and acquaintances-all 
believing him an honest, upright, Christian man; he died in August, 1877; Mrs. 
Meikle in August, 1870. They left five sons-] ohn, 'Villiam, George, Robert and 
Thomas, and one daughter, Mrs. J. D, 'Yells. John and Robert reside in Merrick- 
ville, Ont.; \Villiam in Manitoba; George, Robert and Mrs. 'VeIls in Lachute. 
After conducting the business some years, Mr. Meikle, sen., sold out to his two 
sons, George L. and Robert G., and retin:d from active life. The sons prosecuted 
the business in company till 1878, when Robert retired and entered politics, being 
that year elected Representative of Argenteuil in the Provincial Legislature, in the 
intere5ts of the ]oly Government. He was a candidate for the House of Commons 
in 1887, but was defeated by J. C, 'Vilson, 
The business which was established by his father in 1830 is still conducted by 
George L. Meikle and his son-in-law, H, M. Gale, G. L. Meikle was appointed 
assistant postmaster in 1844; he now has had charge of the office fifty years. 
among the quite early pioneers of Lachute. They came from Vermont, and located 
in what is known as the Hill Settlement. Stearns, having a family of four sons and 
three daughters, procured five hundred acres of land, with the design of providing his 
sons with farms from the homestead. The realities of pioneer life, however, he found 
quite different from the view enjoyed in anticipation, and in about a year after his 
arrival he had become so thoroughly disheartened from his hardships and spare 
diet, that one day he abruptly started back to Vermont. After a year's absence 
from his family, he returned and resumed his labors, but died a few years subse- 
quently, His children all settled in thIs section. One of his daughters, Mary, mar- 
ried Alvah Stephens, and Mrs. Emslie, one of the well-known citizcns of Lachute, is 
a daughter resulting from this union. 'Ve may remark incidentally, that the mother 
of Mrs, Emslie was a cousin of Senator Stearns, 
Mrs. Emslie remembers many of the tales of hardship and destitution related 
by her mother, and one incident especially, the sale of her side-saddle, which was a 
source of much grief to her mother. 



In the early part of their residenre here, there was a great scarcity of provisions 
in the settlement, and a still greater scarcity of money, The family of 
lr. Stearns 
were not the only sufferers, and, fortunately for them, Miss Stearns had a valuable 
.ddle, on which she had ridden all the long distance from their former home in 
Vermont, which could be exchanged for provisions. The sacrifice was an unpleas- 
ant one; the 
addle had become endeared by many associations,-but what woman 
would hesitate to part with any inanimate object, in the necessity of procuring food 
for her family? The late Co!. Barron wanted the saddle, and was willing to exchange 
corn for it, so the bargain \Vas concluded, and discomfited famine, shame-faced, re- 
1\[rs. Emslie also relates an incident which occurred within her own recollec- 
tion, that illustrates the manner in which the early settlers surmounted little dif- 
ficulties that were often occurring. Her father was obliged, unexpectedly
 to go 
to Montreal, and an examination of his wardrobe, by his careful helpmate, revealed 
the fact, that a pair of drawers was needful to its proper completion,-in fact, they 
were of the utmost necessity,-the journey could not be uEldertaken without them, 
and he must go to-morrow. \Vhat could be done? Recollect, kind reader, that in 
those days one could not jump into a buggy, rid
 down to !\feikle's, McOuat's or 
Fraser's, and buy drawers at socts. a pair. But trust a thrifty housewife of those 
days to get out of such a dilemma, Mrs, Stevens had the cotton warp in the loom, 
waiting for the woof to be woven into cloth; but, unfortunately, the latter part of the 
web was not at hand. But Mr. Stephens had that morning killed a lamb; his active 
spouse soon denuded the skin of its fleece, and then made ready her hand-cards and 
trusty spinning wheel. 
l\f rs, Emslie, who, though young, was an adept at spinning, received the plump 
rolJs as they fell from her mother's cards, and soon transformed them into the woof 
desired. It will suffice to say that before the mother and daughter retired that night, 
the cloth had been woven, the drawers cut out and made, and the next morning 
they were ministering to the physical comfort of the husb.l.nd and father, on his way 
to Montreal. :Mrs. Emslie is the widow of James Em')lie, who for 4.t years was an 
earnest, faithful and successful teacher; sixteen years of this time he taught in Quebec, 
the rest in L3.chute, Her mother and two of her sisters were married to three 
brothers named Stephens, The two named above, Philander and Ebenezer, en- 
gaged in the manufacture of brick in the early part of their pioneer life, and each 
built a brick hOllse for himself, which is still standing. Having no mill or any 
utensils for grinding, neither horses, they used their oxen as substitutes, tramping 
instead of grinding the clay. 
Philander Stephens seems to have been well versed in the requirements of pio- 
neer life, and to have been well fitted for it by nature. He brought a shoem,lker 
with him from Vermont, who, besides doing the work required by 
Ir. Stephens' own 
family, suppiied the wants of neighboring families, and thus brought to his employer 
some profit. 



!\Ir. Stephens being skillful in the use of tools, and quite ingenious, found am- 
ple opportunity to exercise these abilities in his new home. First, he made a full 
set of farming tools for himself, then his wife lamenting the want of a loom, he set 
to work and made one, even to the shuttle. These utensils would appear crude, no 
doubt compared with the machine-made articles of the present, yet they answered 
' . 
every requirement. saved the maker many a dollar, and Illustrated the adage, 
ecessity is the mother of invention." 
The fo]Jowing article is contributed at our request: 



In the summer of 1817, an emigrant ship sailed from Belfast, Ireland, and after 
a thirteen weeks' voyage, arrived at Quebec. On board the ship was James Orr, 
a respectable Scotch-Irish farmer and Methodist local preacher from Downpatrick, 
with his wife Sarah Swail, and their sons, James, Samuel, John, Edwards and 
'Villiam. A daughter, Sarah by name, had married Matthew Coulter, and remained 
in Ireland. James Orr came to Canada with his family, with the hope of bettering 
their fortunes; but was not destined to remain long at their head. The family set- 
tled on a leased farm at Laprairie, where the husband and father died about 181 9' 
after a short illness (inflammation of the bowels), aged 2bout 56. Samuel, the 
second son, being" lame on both his feet," was unfitted for farm work, and became 
the apprentice ofa Montreal shoemaker, named Kiest. Earl}' in the twenties, the widow 
and four of her sons removed to ArgenteuiI, and settled in Thomas' Gore, Samuel 
remaining behind in Montreal. The shop where he acted as salesman, at the cor- 
ner of Little St. James Street, is, or was lately, still standing. My father was well 
acquainted with old Montreal, and pointed out to me many places of interest, as he 
knew them. He told me that he helped to clear out the second place of Methodist 
worship, when the workmen were done with it. It stood on St. James street, and 
was long known as the "Medical Hall." I remember being in it when it was still 
used as a place of worship. Rev, Robert L. Lusher was the first minister who 
occupied the pulpit ( 18J 9). SO lopular was 
Ir. Lusher, that though the church 
was comparatively large, people \'.1:0 could not get in were oftentimes listening on 
he outside. About 1839, I saw :\1 r. Lusher at an evening service in the third 
Methodist place of worship; he was :1 broken-down, trembling paralytic; my father 
said it made him sick at heart when he saw him, and contrasted what he then was 
with what he had been. All of James Orr's sons except Samuel moved to Upper 
Canada about 18 3 6 ; they have all passed away, but some of their descendants are 
still in Toronto and H3milton. About 1826, Samuel removed to St. Andrews, where 
he entered the employment of Messrs. Davis & Simpson, tanners and shoemakers. 
In 1828, he commenced business for himself at Lachute, where he continued to live 



till his death, 29th March, 1875, when he had nearly completed his seven ty-third y('ar. 
Some time after the Orr family came to Canada, another emigrant ship brought 
among its passengers the family of William and Fanny Hicks, of English origin j 
they came from the County Fermanagh, and settled for a while in the East Settlement, 
but were attracted by the good reports ofIands in Upper Canada, where they went 
about 1831. The Hicks family consisted, I think, offour sons-John, George, 'ViIliam 
and Robert, and three daughters-Francis, Mary and Jane. Samuel Orr and Jane 
Hicks were married by the Rev, 'Villiam Abbott atSt, Andrews, 6th August, 1828, 
and their wedded life lasted nearly forty-seven years. Their home was one where 
piety and industry ruled the lives of the inmates. They were both members of the 
::\Iethodist Church, and were always ready to entertain Methodist preachers as their 
guests. I have seen in that home, Carrol], Poole, Black, Adams, Pbyter. Arm- 
strong, :Musgrove, Taylor, the two Barbers, Hatman, Shaler, Willoughby, McIntyre, 
Constable, Greener, Brownell, Hun tingdon, and the two .:\lcDowells, and others 
whose names do not now occur to me. 

Samuel Orr was for several years superintendent of the Oid Union Sunday 
School, for many years the only Sunday School at Lachute. The attendance often 
amounted to a hundred at nine o'clock on Sunday mornings, gathered from points six 
miles apart. Presbyterians and Methodists worked cordially together, they being then 
the only denominations who had an organized existence in the place. Samuel 
Orr was also, for several years, a Class and Prayer leader, I remember that he 
used to take dry wood in a bag before him on his mare's back, to kindle fires 
with for prayer meetings. My father was a trusted friend and favorite of the 
settlers in the North Gore. I remember that such was the scarcity of money among 
them, that they often asked and got the favor of the loan of a few pence to "release 
a letter from the Post Office." Their payments were made to a considerable extent 
in maple sugar and oatmeal. In the Rebellion, my father's house \\'a
 a kind of 
annoury. Two Yolunteer companies, commanded by Captain Evans and Captain 
Johnson, used to come to Lachute to drill; most of the men left the heavy "Brown 
Bess" muskets in our garret from week to week, to save carrying them so great a dis- 
tance. In the faU of the year, a report was started, without foundation, that a party 
of rebels intended to invade Lachute. Guards were sent to the "dl1gway," where 
the road lies between the hill and the ri ver, to intercept them. 
[y father, feeling 
alarmed for the safety of his small family, harnessed up the mare and cart, and with 
some bedding and provisions, drove into the woods on the Hicks' farm, where we re- 
mained the greater part of the night; but finding that no invasion had taken place, we 
returned to the house again. Afterwards, we spent a fortnight at the house of Mr. 
'VilIiam Clark, in Ch:ltham, whose wife was a cousin of my father's, 'Vhile we were 
there, an alarm was raised, which caI!ed 
lr. Clark and his hired man-whose name, 
1 believe, was Husten-away from home. After they had been away some time, 
Husten came back for food, A large pan full of doughnuts was hastily f'mplicd out 



for him, III m\" presence. I thought the horrors of war were considerably miti- 
gated by the chance of getting such luxurious fare. \"hen the cruel war was over 
we returned home, and on the night of our return we saw from Carillon the flames of 
the burning church of St. Eustache. It stood in ruins for some years, and I 
remember seeing the ruins as I went to Montreal. Dr. Chenier's death occurred at 
the battle of St, Eustache, and I remember a gruesome report, that his body was cut 
open, and his heart laid on the counter of Addison's hotel; but I think the story was 
likely without foundation. In the winter of 1848-49 a sad calami ty happened to the 
family, The smallpox was communicated to them by a French family living at 
Vide Sacque, from whom they bought some onions, a vegetable which never after- 
wards was used in the house. The first three children had been vaccinated; only 
one of them was at home, and he escaped,-a most convincing proof of the efficiency 
of vaccination. All the other children, six in number, took the disease, and Sarah 
Phebe, the pet of the household, in her fifth year, died. I was then living at St. Andrews. 
I came home to attend the funeral, but did not enter the house, I saw through a bed- 
room window the scarred and bloated face of the little darling. 
My father died in his seventy-third year; his funeral service was conducted by 
Rev. S. G, Phillips. When I went home to the funeral, I call ed on John Meikle, 
Esq., who said in all sincerity, that my father had not left his equal behind him in 
Lachute; this referred of course to his reputation for honesty, morality and religion, 
My mother died in her sixty-seventh year; her funeral service was conducted by 
Rev. :\Ir. Robson. 
The family consisted of eight sons and two daughters: Elias Samuel, born 
in 182 9; Wesley Fletcher, born in 1831; James Edwards, born in 1833; George 
:Matthe w , born in 1835; Priscilla Jane, born in 1837; Adam Clarke, born in 18 39; 
William Edgerton Ryerson, born in 1842 ; Sarah Phebe, born in 1844; 'Vatson Coke, 
born in 184 6 ; and Marcus Arthur, born in 1851. I will briefly mention some events 
in my own life, 
)1y education was limited to the common school; my first teacher was Jedediah 
Lane j another, a 11r. MacPherson; another, Lachlan Taylor j another, John ,Yo H. 
Brunton; another, Adam Walker. I attended also, for a little while, a French school 
at St, .\ndrews, taught by Antoine Moret. 
On the 25th day of October, 1839, being the centenary of Methodism, a prayer 
meeting was held in the old school-house led by Mr. Taylor; he prayed that some 
who were present might remember the blessings of the day, fifty years afterwards, 
The prayer has been more than answered in the case of my brother, \V. F., and myself, 
as we have been spared nearly fifty-six years from that day, In that month of October, 
18 39, revival services were held at Lachute, as a result of which, several young persons 
joined the !\lethodist Church. Hen!"y Shaler and 'William 'Villoughby conducted 
the meetings; they both lived for over half a century after, 
Ir. ShJ.ler died at 
Kemptville, Ont., less than a year ago, aged over ninety. 



There are but few living now who joined the Church at the time I reft r to. 
Robert Kneeshaw, Esq., of Ingersoll, Ont., my brother and myself were among them. 
Of myoId scpool-feUows, Dr. Christie, G. L. Meikle and Thomas Barron yet survive. 
In the year 1843, my brother, W. F., and myself assisted in drawing bricks from the 
front of Cha
ham to St. Andrews, for the Methodist Church j a church in which I 
afterwards worshipped and preached for thirteen years. On the 8th day of March, 
18 47, I entered the service of the late Charles ""ales, as clerk in his store. In 1854, 
I became the junior member of the firm of Charles 'Vales & Co., which was dissolved 
in April, 1864. On the 9th September, 1856, I was married at No. 10 St. Joseph 
Street, Montreal, to Miss Jane Colclough '''hite, daughter of 
[r. John D. \Yhite, 
The issue of that marriage was \ViIliam Arthur, who died in 1860, aged 2 years and 
10 months; James Edward, who alsJ died in childhood; John S::m1l1eJ, who died at 

-\namosa, Iowa, in his 29th year j Alfred Elias, now known as Dr. A, E, Orr. of 
:\Iontreal ; and Florence Lilian, teacher and artist. In 1860, I left St, 
\ndrews for 
Sawyerville, P. Q., where I carried on a country trade till 1868. In 1869, I received 
the appointment of County Registrar, which I still hold, 
Wesley Fletcher, next in age to me, left home early for St. Laurent, where he was in 
the employ of the MacDonalds j he went to Ontario many years ago, where he carried 
on for a while the manufacture of saleratus. He was engaged in country trade and 
lumbering at Lynden, Barrie: and elsewhere. He subsequently went to Alberta j he 
now resides in Calgary, of which city he was, and is stilJ, the first :\Iayor, He is 
married, and has two daughters and one son. James Edward also left home early; he 
entered the employment of Chas. D. Proctor in Montreal, was also in the employ of 
Finley McMartin at St. Andrews, and the late Mr. St. Denis at Point Fortune. He 
was also engaged in country trade in Ontario, at Lynden and elstwhere j he now resides 
in Calgary, is married, and has a son and daughter living. (

orgc Matthew spent 
some time as clerk for Chas. \Vales & Co., at St. Andrews, and also in the store of 
Thomas Meikle. He removed to Cookshire, P,Q., where he carried on trade for 
some time; he now resides in St. Catharines, ant.; he is married and has two 
daughters living. Priscilla Jane studied at the Normal School in 
(ontreal, and taught 
at Rivière Rouge and in the Lachute Acad
my. She did not marry, but spent her 
time in loving ministrations to the declining years of our parents. \fter their death, 
she occupied the old home for some years. then went to 
Iontreal and to Ontario j 
she now resid
s in Chicago with Adam C. Orr. Adam Clarke, named afler the 
celebrated commentator, was noted for his early love of books and pursuit of knowl
edge: he read the New Testament through at a very early age. When very small, the 
Rev, James Musgrove called on the family; the children wen asked their names; 
Adam replied, I, Dr. _\.dam Clarke j" the reply caused the minister to smile. .\ pro- 
found discussion arose Letween Adam and a younger brother on the origin of evil, 
and the opposite forces of God and Satan. The younger Loy 1'1 opounded the question. 
" Why does the Lord not kill the devil?" Adam's reply was : " I f he did. the Jews 




would have no father." At the age of 18, Adam was a successful teacher at Hill 
Head, Lachutc. He has lived for many years in Chicago, his portrait and biographi- 
cal record appear in an American publication, from which I will make some extracts: 
" Adam C. Orr is one of the highly esteemed citizens of Park Ridge. His home is 
the centre of sociability, and there men of culture delight to gather and discuss topics 
which tend tomental advancement. On the paternal side, our subject came from the old 
McLean family of Scotland. iu length, however, the family became divided in the 
Scottish feuds, and those who located in the Lowlands took the name of Ayrs, which was 
subsequently changed into the present mode of spelling. In the Co..1mmon school of 
his native country, Adam C. Orr acquired a good English education, In his father's 
country store, he received his first lessons in business, but he left mercantile pursuits 
to engage in teaching, which prcfession he successfully followed for thirteen years in 
Canada. In 1863, he spent a term at the Normal School, affiliated to McGill CoIlege, 

J ontreal, and 
ubscquently, while engaged in teaching, read the Art!\ Curriculum of 
that University, and made translations of the Satires of Juvenal and Odes of Horace 
into English verse; the manuscripts of which were destroyed in the Chicago fire. He 
was for some time employed as teacher of the French language and literature in 
Lachute College, P.Q., and later, as principal of the Central School, St. Mary's, Onto 
It was in 1870 that he came to Chicago, where soon after he engaged as superin- 
tendent with the Cillet Chemical \Vorks. On the 1St October, 1876, Mr. Orr was 
united in marriage with Miss Cleo Petne. To l\Ir. and !\I rs. arr \\'as born a son, 
Samuel Henry, who died at the age of thirteen lears. He was a boy who attracted 
almost universal attention because of his perfect physique, fine intellectual attain- 
ments and gentlemanly bearing. He was a member of a company of Zouaves, in 
which he held the highest offices, and was laid to rest in their unifurm. Both Mr. 
and 1\1rs. On hold an enviable position in social circles, where true worth and intelli- 
gence are received as the passports into good society. They have made their home 
in Park Ridge since 1881. Socially, .Mr. Orr ij connected with the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows and with the Royal Arcanum ; he is also a member ofthe Astronomical 
Society of the Pacific." 
William Edgerton Ryerson, thus named after two members of the celebrated 
Ryerson family. It is seldom that Sweet \Villiams blossom in midwinter, but this one 
dId, as he was born in the month of January. He had the good fortune to be taught 
WI iting by Mr. Gibson, a teacher of L:lchute, who boarded with the family, and has 
made Bookkeeping the principal work of his life. He was in business at Cookshire 
and at Durham for short periods; he now resides at Teeswater, Onto ; has been twice 
married, and has several children. 
\Vatson Coke bears the name of two distinguished :\[ethodists. He went to 
Ontario early in life, and is now engaged in fruit farming at \Vinona. He sells grapes 
by the ton, and is successful also with many other fruits. 
Francis Arthur, the tenth and last child, was born twenty-one years after the 
present writer. He learned photography while quite young, and has pursued it ever 


21 3 

since. He is at present a resident of Chicago, The family present an instance of 
nine out of ten who grew to maturity, and whose members are at the date of this 
writing still unbroken, For the most part, they have had good health, and all of them 
moderate prosperity. 
For about sixty years, the name of Orr was a familiar one at Lachute, but they 
have all left it, except those who are quietly sleeping in the old cemetery,-that is, 
Samuel Orr, Jane Orr, his wife and ., little Sarah." 



I was born in 1829, and have recollections of some of the early inhabitants of 
the County of Argenteuil who have long since passed away. 
ABIATHAR \V ALDRON was my father's next-door neighbor i he had been a soldier 
of the Revolutionary \Var, I think, on the American side. He must have been one of 
the earliest settlers of Lachute. He used to say that the sun had never found him in 
bed for fifty years. 1\lr. \Valdron's wife was a Hutchings, and was said to have been 
the first white woman at Lachute. The \Valdrons were, like many of the first settk'rs, 
Methodists. A story is recorded by Carroll in his" Past and Present," as follows: (It 
must have occurred about 1816.) There is a beautiful tract of land in the neighbor- 
hood of Lachute, on the North River, which falls into the Ottawa. This was 
originally settled by an interesting class of people from the United States, from 
among whom a large and prosperous society was raised up by the labors of a Sawyer, 
a Luckey and others. But a succession of blighting frosts had caused such a fail Ire 
in the crops for several years, that one family after another had left and sought a 
home in a more genial climate, till the society was not only much reduced in numbers, 
but very few homes were left to shelter the hapless itinerant in a place which had 
always been considered "head-quarters" on the circuit; and the occupant of the I'rin- 
cipal one of the few remaining H lodging places for wayfaring men," " Father \Valdron," 
as he was called, had also resolved to leave, The two preachers (Ferguson and Peel) 
were spending a night under his hospitable roof, but the intention of their host to It- l ve 
communicated to them, had made them sad; they did thcir utmost to persuade him 
to stay, setting before him the evil that 
 ould result to the cause if he left, and the 
consequent good he would be the means of doing if he remained, \Vhen the hoUl of 
devotion arrived, both the preachers engaged in prayer, one after the other, and made 
the subject which lay near their hearts ground of earnest supplication. Ferguson 
prayed first, and earnestly besought the Lord to prevent TIro, \Valdron from guing 
away. To each petition, Peel subjoined the expressive response, " Hedge him up, 
Mighty God!" And when the time came to plead in prayer, he told the Lord tht:y 
could not afford to part with Bra, \Yaldron-besought him to induce him to stay- 
and to reward him for so doing with an abundant crop. He enumerated every J... 'd 

21 4 


of produce he could think of by name, and prayed that Bro. \Yaldron's hay and 
potatoes, and wheat and rye, and oats and peas, and barley, etc., might be abundant. 
Mr. \Yaldron was induced to stay another year, and by a very remarkable coincidence 
with Mr, Peel's request, he had an abundant crop of everything both in field and 
garden, excePli1lg 01lÍOl1S. \Vhen this fact was mentioned to the preacher, ,e Oh," 
said Peel, " I forgot the ONIONS." To my personal knowledge :Mr. \Valdron remained 
many years after this incident at Lachute, -perhaps twenty, His wife above mentioned 
was a second wife, and not the mother of Linus, Silas and Abiathar, his sons. Her 
first husband's name was Clark. It was said that he took a grist to the Lachute mills 
to be ground, and that, while waiting for the grist, he went to fish for salmon, which 
were then to be had below the dam, and was drowned. Mr. and Mrs. Waldron, at a 
very advanced age, finally returned to the States, I think, about 18 3 6 . 
JOHN S. HUTCHINS was a man whose personality made a deep impression on 
my mind. He was small of stature, with partially bald head, the remaining hair on 
which was bleached by many winters' snows; he was Clerk of Court, and I suppose 
po:.sessed a monopoly-of the legal knowledge of the settlement. He used to come in 
a camlet cloak from his residence on the north side of the river, to lead the four 
o'clock prayer-meetings on Sunday afternoon, where I have often listened to his prayers 
and exhortations. \Vhen I knew him, he was living with his third wife. He survived 
till about the middle of the century now drawing to a close, and has been sleeping 
surrounded by his wives in the old burying ground for more than forty years. 
The REV. 'WILLIAM BRUNTON.- This hoary, reverend and religious man is no doubt 
still remembered by some who knew him when they were children. He W3S the 
Minister of the Secession Congregation in the old stone church. I was sent to his 
house on an 
rrand, when I was about six years old. I remember well his venerable 
appearance as he stood in the doonvay and handed me a tract entitled, e, The Spoiled 
Child," which made a deep impression on my mind; it lies before me as I write. 
I have also before me "The Judgment of God-a Call to Repentance," a 
sermon preached at Lachute, lower Canada, on Tuesday, the 26th of June, 18 3 2 , 
which day was devoted to the exercise of fasting and prayer in that settlement, on 
account of the alarming progress of the cholera morbus in various parts of the 
Province, hy the Rev, \Villiam Brunton, Montreal; published by Thomas A. Starke, 
1832. The following prefatory notes are reproduced from the pamphlet :- 
,e LACHUTE, 2nd July, 1832. 
" At a quarterly meeting of the Lachute Temperance Society held here this day, 
the Rev. George Poole in the Chair, it 1fJaS resolved lmanimoltsly: That the Rev. 
\Villiam Brnnton be requested to furnish to a committee of the Society a copy of his 
Sermon preached here on the 26th ult., in order that it may he printed for the 
benefit of the Society, It is now, accordingly, publisht:d by their authority. 
"THOMAS BARTON, Vice-Preside/It, 
"JEDEDIAH LANE, Secretary." 

(Barton is a misprint for Barron.) 


21 5 

" To the Lachute Temperance Society :- 
"The following Sermon, which was hurriedly prepared for the occasion on which 
it was delivered, without any idea whatever of its being printed, being now published 
in compliance with their unexpected and unanimous request, is respectfulìy inscribed 
lJy their obedient servant, 

The text of the sermon was Joel, 2d chap., 12th and 13th verses. An Appendix 
gives an address delivered by Mr. Brunton before the Lachute Temperance Society, 
2nd May, 1832. In this it is stated that the Temperance Society was formed at Boston, 

Iass., in July, 1826. I quote a few words to show the gist of the address: "Your 
abstaining from drinking such intoxicating liquids, though ever so moderately, except- 
ing as a medicine, can do you no harm. Your drinking thus, unless for a medical 
purpose, can do no good to yourself. But your abstaining from them, and becoming 
a member of a Temperance Institution, may do much good, indeed, both to yourself 
and to others." 
Mr, Brunton preached in the old school-house before the stone church was 
built, I may have heard him there, but have no distinct recollection of it. I am not 
sure of the date of Mr. Brunton's death, but think it must have been in the fall of 
18 37, His library with other effects was sold at auction, I have some books which 
formed part of it. One which lies before me now is a collection of tracts; on the fly- 
leaf is a neatly written table 'of contents, dated 28th August, 1809' It was written, I 
was told, with a crow-quill, the kind of pen which he preferred to use, The funeral 
was a solemn event. I remember a funeral sermon preached some time after his 
decease, by whom I cannot say, and the singing of the paraphrase which begins, 
" The hOllr of my departure is come," 
In 1834, came another Scotchman, JOHN HAY, from Inverness-shire. He was an 
e>..cellent mechanic, a stone-layer, and a man of intelligence, yet, like most of the 
new comers in those times, he was obliged to accept the wages that were off
red, hence 
he engaged to Colin Robertson for $5.00 per month. His skill, however, and his 
industry soon attracted notice, and it was not long before he was made foreman of 
the work, with a proper increase of salary. The lot on which he settled and 5pent 
his life is now owned and occupied by his son, John Hay; he was a Justice of the 
Peace many years, Two of his sons, George and \Villiam, now live in Ottawa,-the 
formtr a retired merchant. the latter an accountan t. 
John Hay, the son, who has always remained in L1.chute, is one of the prominent 
citizens of this place, and has always taken an active and important part in municipal 
affairs. He has been a School Commissioner and Municipal COllncillor for thirty 
years, and was :\I.lyor of the parish until he resigned, dèclining longer to serve, In 
18 9 2 , he was a candidate for the Legislative Assembly on the Liberal ticket, but was 
defeated by the election of the Conservative candidate, \V. J. Simpson. '1'\\'0 sons 
Ir. Hay 
re doing a pro
perous business in a flour and fèet.! store on 
[ain street 
in this town. 



J AMES FISH, Postmaster of Lachute Mills, has been a familiar figure in Lachutc 
for half a century, and to-day feels that his life is an illustration of the vicissitudes of 
fortune, A sketch in The Watchmall, that delineates him as he appeared in the days 
of his youth, after having engaged a while in the grist mill of the Seignior, says: 
U His was a hobby to play the c1arionet, and, scarcely ever absent from church, 
he led the choir with this musical instrument for abopt half a century, and was always 
in his place, which, to his mind, was as important as that of the minister." * 
To be explicit with regard to dates and events, Mr. Fish came, when at 
young boy, with his father, \Vm. Fish and family, to Lachute from England in 1832, 
H is father, however, soon moved to St. Andrews, where he was employed in the gl :st 
mill as miller for four years. He then went to Cobourg, Ont., where Mrs, Fish 
James, in 1838, returned to 51. Andrews and engaged to R. King, proprietor of 
the grist mill there, for some years. In 1844, he was married to Ellen, daughter of 
Thomas \Vanless of that village, and, after finding employment in mills at Hawkes- 
bury and other places four or five years more, he came to Lachute, and for three 
years tended the grist mill for Cot :Macdonald, agent for the Seignior of Argenteuil. 
For the nine years following, he acted as superintendent of all Macdonald's mills- 
grist, saw and woollen mills, Afterwards he obtained a lease of them for a term of 
years, and then bought them, his income having been so carefully husbanded that 
he now had quite a snug sum to invest in property, After keeping these mills in 
successful operation some time longer, he rented them to different parties; but the 
carding and fulling mill" were soon destroyed by fire. Mr. .Fish rebuilt them, and 
added another two-story building, designed for the manufacture of wooden-ware. 
Within two years, however, the latter manufactory was burnt, by which fire he 
suffered a loss of $7,000 ; and after this, he sold all the other mills. 
In 1877, with that public spirit wÍÚch has characterized his actions, he built the 
bridge, which is known as Fish's Bridge, at his own expense. Though very indus- 
trious, and much devoted to his business, he has found time to serve his parish in 
different positions; he has long been Commissioner for the trial of small causes, 
Councillor both for the parish and town, Mayor of the latter two years, and post- 
master and mail contractor since 1880. In 1890-91 his real estate was appraised by 
the valuators at $25,525. l\Iisfortune, however, has since deprived him of this pro- 
perty-the accumulation of a life of industry aud economy. 
Mrs. Fish died 2nd JJ..nuary, 1891. Their only child, a daughter, was marri
d to 
F. C. Ireland. In 18 9 2 , 13th January, Mr. Fish was again married, to Miss :\1. E. 
Barley, d:lughter of John Barley of Lachute. 
HENRY HAMMOND, who owns a large farm near the village, 011 which the County 
Agricultural buildings are located, was one of the pioneers of this County. He was 
born in the County of Monaghan, Ireland, ill 1818. His father's family came to 
* From a sketch by F. C. Trela nd. 


21 7 

America in 1831, and settled in the North Settlement; but after living with his uncle 
five years, Henry went with his brother John to Mille Isles, and took up a lot of 
wild land. They were the first settlers in that parish, and their nearest neighbors 
were three miles distant. Settlers soon began to come in, however, and after remain- 
ing there five years, receiving a good offa for their land, in 18.F, they sold it and 
came to Lachute. Mr. Hammond says, even at that d.lle, the only buildings there 
were in what is now the \Vest End of I achute were thp. Seigniorial )'Iills, a part of 
what is now the Victoria Hotel, and a school-house, which answered the avo-fold 
purpose of an educational institution and a place for holding religious worship, 
\V olves still prowled in the surrounding forests, and occasionally made an attack on 
the sheep-fold. l\Ir. Hammond was a Volunteer in the Rebellion ofl837,but has:since 
had nothing to do with either military, public or civic affairs, giving his attention entirely 
to his farm, save at times of election, when he has always voted the Conservative 
ticket. He has added to his farm from time to time, until it now comprises a 
thousand acres. He says that he drew many a load of grain to the Brewery of Com- 
missary Forbes, at Carillon, for the purpose of raising I1l0ney, in the first vears of his 
residence here. 
HIS brother John, who never married, always lived with him till his death in 
1891, and gave valuable assistance in clearing up the falm. Henry I-Iammond was 
married to 
lis') Eiiza Bradford, grand-daughter of the Rev. Richard Bradford, of 
Chatham, Their son, Henry R. Hammonà, who now has the management of the 
estate, after graduating at McGill, studied law, arld was admitted to the B:u; but Lhen 
decided to follow the more quiet and healthful ,.ocation of agriculture. 
DAVID RAITT is another who may be styled a pioneer of L3.chute. He is a 
native of .Fifeshire, Scotland, and in his youthful days learned the tailor's trade, 
and afterwards enlisted at Edinburgh, 23rd October, 1835, at the age of 18, in th
Artillery, in which his services as tailor were called in requisition. He s.1.iled with 
his company from \V oolwich for Montreal, and arrived there 20th Augu')t. 1839. He 
then purchased his discharge, which reads as follows: 
" Gunner David Raitt of the Royal .\rtillery has always borne a gClod char.lctcr 
in the corps, and I believe him to be a sober, honest and i ndrstnous young man, 
and one whom I conceive in every way to be trustworthy. 

" J. rUR
.1 Capt. Royal .\rtillcn.. 

" Discharged in consequence of having paid the sum of f:.z 5 under item 12 of 
the Good Conduct Regulations." 

[r. Raitt previous to his discharge had been master tailor in the garrison at 

On the 7th January, 18,p, he came to Lachute, where he has ever since resided. 
He bought 100 acres of land, on which he lived some years. and then selling it, he 



removed to the village, devoting his time chiefly to his trade, On account of failing 
health. however, he accepted the office of bailiff-thus obtaining ample exercise in 
the open air--and he has held the position over forty years. Although 79 years of 
age, on the loth of October, 1895, Mr. Raitt is still active and intelligent, and enjoys 
relating his early experiences here, and describing the old landmarks and characters 
of Lachute. 
:\Irs, Raitt, also, whose maiden name was Isabella Dixon, and whom he married 
before.coming to Canada, is still alive and active. They have four sons and one 
daughter living, two sons and two daughters are deceased. 
James \V., one of their sons, learne.d the trade of tinsmith, and followed it till 18 9 0 , 
when he was appointed Secretary of L':lchute and Clerk of the Commissioners' Court 
-offices which he has filled to the general satisfaction of the public. He is also agent 
for several :Fire. Life and Accident insurance companies, as well as agricultural 
implements. He was married 5th October, 187 1 , to Janet Isabella \rValker, 
John Raitt, his brother, is also a tinsmith, plumber and roofer, and has a shop 
here on Main Street, in which he keeps a variety of tinware, He married Margaret 
a daughter of .x athaniel Copeland, 
ANDREW MCCONNELL who died in 1893, anJ who had then been living a few years 
in Lachute, was for several decades a prominent and influential figure in Argenteuil, 
His father, Andrew McConnell, came from Glasgow to Canada, with his family. 
of John, l\Iary, Andrew, \Villiam and Agnes, in 1819, and settled on a farm on the 
Lachute Road. 
The son, Andrew, was married to :\lary Jane Bradford, grand-daughter of the Rev. 
Richard Bradford, 31st Octooer, 1851. He settled at Cushing in Chatham, on the 
farm now owned by J. B. Clerihue ; he erected fine buildings, and lived there till 188 7, 
when he removed to Lachute. He was a very successful farmer t and was careful to 
educate his children. He filled the office of Justice of the Peace for many years with 
great ability, and when he died he was the olde
t Justice of the Peace in the County, 
He was also a Commissioner for the trial of small causes, and was appointed Cap- 
tain of militia during Lord Monk's administration. He died in November, 1893. and 
the funeral was one of the largest ever seen in J .achute. He had eight children- 
John Bradford, Gilbert Smith, Richard George, Andrew \VilJiam, Jessie Ann, James 
Quinton, Jennie and Hugh, 
Gilbert, Andrew and James settled, a few years ago, in the North \Vest-first 
at Qu' AppelJe; but they are now residing in Vancouver. Andrew acted as courier 
for General Middleton during the Riel Rebellion, and was one of the nine prisoners 
rescued at the battle of Batoche. Richard G. is a B.A. of McGill College, and now 
holds a prominent position in the Geological Survey of Canada, 
John Bradford McConnell, M.D., C.M., was born at Chatham, 28th August, 
ISSI ; educated at \Vanless Academy, at Carillon; entered on his medical studies at 
:\IcGill in 1869, and graduated in 1873. In 1871, he went through the Military 


21 9 

School at .:\Iontreal, and the same year was appointed Lieutenant in the 11th Battalion 
of Argenteuil Rangers. Subsequently, he was for eight years surgeon in the Prince 
-of 'Vales Rifles. He has taught many years in the 
Iedical FacultyofBishop's College 
-first, as professor of Botany, his collection of plants being one of the largest in the 
Dominion; he has filled several important positions in the University. During the 
summer of 1886, he made an extensive European tour, visiting the hospitals of 
Dublin, London, Paris and Berlin, taking a Course on Bacteriology, under Prof. Koch 
at Paris, He has contributed frequently to the M01ltreal JIedical .Iour1zal, and his 
papers have been read at the !\fedico-Chirurgical Society. He was married in 18 75 
to Th
odora Lovell, daughter of Robert ::\IilJer, publisher and stationer. 

K ATHANIEL BOYD, from tht! north of Ireland, came to this country as a member 
of the Royal Staff Corps. After the canal was completed, he settled in the north part 
of Gore, and died there, not many years since, within a few months of roo years old; 
l\Irs. Boyd died a few years later, at the age of 93. They had six sons and two 
daughters; three of the former and the two latter are still living. Hugh, one of the 
sons, and his descendants live in \Vinnipeg; his son Nathaniel is the present M. p, 
for Marquette. 
Stewart, the eldest son of the pioneer, married Margaret Hammond, aunt of 
Henry Hammond of Lachute; she died about 1890, at the age of 93. They first 
settled in Gore, bu t a few years afterward removed to Chatham, where Mr. Boyd had 
bought 100 acres of wild land. On this land, and at that time, of course, he h:ld all 
the varied rough experience of pioneer life; he earned many dollars in those days, 
drawing wood to Carillon and selling it for 90 cents per cord. But he survived all this 
hardship: reared his family, cleared two farms, on one of which, known as the ::\Iile 
End Farm, a fine tract, he lives with his son James. Though 83 years of age, he is 
still very active and ambitious. So great is his desire for work, that he insists on 
t3.king care of the stock, and threshing grain, daily, with a flail for over a dozen head 
of cattle. He was one of the loyal actors in the Rebellion of 1837 ; he is 
Iaster of 
an Orange Lodge, a position he has held over forty years. His children-three sons 
and two daughters-are all living, James, the eldest son, resides on the homestead. 
'YilIiam S., the youngest, is connected with the Customs Department in Montreal. 
Mary, one of the daughters, is married to John Earl, of Lachute; Sarah, the other 
daughter, married to T. B. Johnson, resides in Lennoxville, 
John 'V., third son, at the age of fifteen, was apprenticed to learn the trade of 
milIer, a trade which-sometimes in connection with lumber business-he has fol- 
lowed to the present. \Vhen about 21, he went to California, and was there engaged 
in lumbering five years. After his return, he and his brother bought the old mills 
known as the "
IiIls,'J at St. Canute, with which they were engaged fifteen 
years, doing an extensive business. They sold out in 1886 for $14,000, after which 
John 'V. was connected five years with the new lumber firm of Owens, Lane & Boyd; 



he, also, in 18 9 2 , in company with \V. J. Simpson, M.P. P., bought the grist mi!l and 
saw mill at Lachute, which, during the past fall, 18 95, they sold to J. C, \Vilson. 
Mr. Boyd was married in October, 1892, to a daughter of Dr. Stackhouse of 
JA\IES HENDERSON, a venerable old gentleman, with kind and pleasant face, 
who lives in a neat cottage near McGibbon's mill, has many recollections of the Ínfant 
days of Lachute. He came with his father, Peter Henderson, from Callander, Perth- 
shire, Scotland, in 1820; his father settled on a lot in St. Canute in the county of 
10unlains, which is now owned by \Vm. Boa. At that time, Mr. James Hender- 
son says, the only buildings where now the village is located were the grist mill and 
saw mill, and two or three houses; one occupied tþe site of the present residence of 
Dr. Christie, a man named Proctor lived near the site of the Rev. Mr. Mackie's 
residence; and there was a schcol-house where G. J. \Valker, Esq., now lives. The 
only road to St Andrews was by way of Beech Ridge. 
::\1r. Henderson, who is 82 years old, has spent thirty-five years of his life in :\1011- 
treal. He gives a graphic description of an election tha.t occurred in this county 
some time during the forties. Among other incidents, he relates that one of the candi- 
dates had a barrel of whiskey rolled to the place of polling; the whiskey was served 
in a wooden pail, supplied with a tin cup, and then carried around, so that everyone 
so inclined could drink to his heart's content, The elder :\1r. Henderson died in 
184 1 , and his son was married in 1843 to Elizabeth Vart, of England, who died 
in January, 1884; they had four sons and three daughters. The eldest, Peter, and 
third son, John, are in business in Montreal; the second son, \Vil1iam, is farming 
near Montreal, and the youngest, James, is also farming in Brandon, Man. Mary, 
the eldest daughter, and Elizabeth, the youngest, ar
 married, and live in Montreal, 
and Jean, the second, lives with her father. 
JOHN SCHOLEFIELD, son of the Rev. \VilIiam Scholefield, a prominent clergyman 
in England, came to this country when quitt young, and labored for many years as 
local preacher. He married Ameiia, a daughter of Robert Kneeshaw, an early settler 
at Lachute. They lived a while at S1. Andrews, and their son \Villiam was born 
there; after this, they removed to Ontario, where :\1r. Scholefield died, not n11.ny 
years later. 
William Scholefi
ld, the son, some years since, became Bookkeeper for his cousin, 
Robert Kneeshaw Summerby, who had erected two lumber mills and a grist mill at 
St. Canute. Mr. Sumrnerby was accidentally drowned in his mill pond 3 1st :\1ay, 
1886; his loss wa" widely and deeply lamented. 
::\lrs, Summerby, his widow, and !\Ir. \Villiarn Scholefleld, were married 18th 
August, 1887, and :\fr. Scholefield continued the business; but he died 9th January, 
1 8 9 1 , :\1rs. Scholefield still owns one of the lumber mills at St. Canute, and ha s 
two lots and a fine brick residence in Lachute, where she lives. She has two 
daughters-:\1innie Summerby and .\rnelia Scholefield, Another daughter by the 



first marriage, Ruby Summerby, a bright little girl. nine years old, and a general 
favorite, was drowned at Lachute, in the North River, 6th June, 1895. 
)'Irs. Scholefieìd if. devoted to Christian work, and has been President, Vice- 
President, and 
ecretary of the C. E. Society, and is now Corresponding Secretary, 
BEl'JAMIN BURCH carne from Vermont to Lachute with the earliest settlers, the 
Lanes, Hutchins. and others, and settled on land now owned by his grapdson, Alfred 
Burch. The maiden name of his wife, whom he married in Vermont, was Annie 
Burch. He took up 3 
 0 acres of land, which he afterward divided among three sons, 
and lived here till his death. He had five sons and two daughters. 
His eldest, N. F. Burch. was killed on the railway at Carillon, loth X Q\'ember, 
Alvah Burch. one of the three sons mentioned above, married Miss Grout. of 
Vaudreuil; she died leaving two sons, and he then married 
ws, by 
which marriage he had seven children-five sons and t\\'o daughters. Soon after his 
second marriage, he sold his farm to the Rev. \Villiam Henry, and bought a village 
lot in Lachute, now occupied by Rodrigue's hotel, and conducted a public house 
here thirty years, He was also engaged quite largely in other business-had a 
bakery, grocery, and dealt extensively in cattle, It is said that, at one time, he was 
wealthy, and was always benevolent and kind to the poor. 
BENJ. BURCH. an account of whose sad death by drowning is given in the history 
of Harrington, was a son of Benjamin Burch, the pioneer. He married Eliza Clark, 
and settled on the farm in Upper Lachute now owned by his son, .\lfred A. Burch. 
Some years later, he went to Harrington, took up land, and was drowned there in 
185ð, He had two sons and three daughters j one of the former died in childhood, 
One daughter, nnrried. lives in -'Ianitoba. the other two in Grenville; one, married 
to David Ogilvy ; the other is the widow of the late Richard, 
Alfred A. Burch, the only surviving son, when quite young, went to the States, and 
was married 7th August, 1873. in Slatersville, R.1., to :\Iargaret Smiley, of C Ilatha.m, 
Que. In 188 3, he moved to )'Ianitoba; his wife died in 1892, and the foilowing 
year he returned to Lachute, and bought the old homestead of about 150 acres, which 
had been the home of his father and grandfather. In 1893, July 4 th , he was married 
to.Elizabeth Fraser, youngest daughter of Amaziah Burch. 
IAS SHEPHERD, who now resides in L:1chute, is a son of \Villiam Shepherd, 
who came from Yorkshire, England, to St. Andrews about 1825, and for a year was 
in the employ, as fanner, of the Rev, Joseph Ahbott. About two years after his 
arrival, he was married to l\1argaret Graham. In 1834. or thereabout, he bought 135 
acres of land in the East Settlement, on which he lived till his d
ath. Mr. 
was one of the loyal actors in the Rebelliol1 of 1837, He had eight sons and four 
daughters. Thomas. the eldest son, remained on the homestead, and was married, 
8th February, 186.1-, to Mary Ann 
haw. They have two sons and six d'llIghtcrs. 



Mr, Shepherd sold the homestead to his eldest son, 'Villiam, and moved to Lachute 
in 18 9 1 , The son was married, 1st of March, 18 9 2 , to Grace Griffith. 
:Mr. Shepherd has been a very successful farmer, and has a fme property in 
Lachute. Before moving here, he was for nine years a member of the Parish Council. 
JAMES CAMPBELL came to Canada in 1823, landing in Quebec city on the 23 rd 
of May; he was accompanied by his wife, two sons, the family of one of the latter. 
and a daughter. 
The married son, SAUCEL CAMPBELL, settled in November of the same year on 
100 acres of an uncleared lot in Gore, on the shore of Clear Lake, but before he 
came to this section, his wife (Nancy 
1cLean) died in Lachine. He remained in 
Gore a } ear and a half, then moved to the 11th Range, Chatham, where he lived four 
years. His father, who resided with him, died during their stay in Chatham, and 
willed to him the lot in Gore, to which he then returned, and lived there for twenty 
years. He then removed to Papineauville, and afterwards to Grenville, dying in the 
latter place at the age of 9 I. He was twice married; by the first marriage he had 
two sons and a daughter, and by the last, two sons and four daughters. 
JOSEPH, the eldest son by the first marriage, was born in Co. Antrim, 4 th Novem- 
ber, 18 1 5; he, also, has been twice married: the first time, 6th April, 18 4 1 , to Jane 
1\lcArthur ; six sons and four daughters were born to them. 
(rs. Campbell died 
6th February, 1888; and Mr. Campbell was again married, 12th July, 18 9 2 . to 
Catherine A. Smith, widow of the late Captain 'Villiam Smith. Mr. Campbell is 
now 81 years of age, and can write steadily, and walk five or six miles a day. He 
has done much work as a mechanic during his long life, and still keeps busy, 
usually in the manufacture of light articles of furniture, which are executed with 
neatness and taste. John Campbell, one of his sons, is proprietor of the mills at 
PETER CA:\lPBELL, another son, lived with his father in Chatham tin the age of 17, 
when he came to Lacnllte to learn the trade of miller, He worked five or six years 
with James Fish j his employer then lea'ied the mill to him for five years, and after- 
wards he bought both grist mill and saw mill; in connection with the latter, he also 
engaged in the IUllluer business. He sold the miHs, however, at the expiration of 
three years, and followed the lumber business till the fall of 1895, when the Lachute 
mills having been purchased by J. C. 'Vilson, this gentleman engaged Mr. Campbell 
to resume his former vocation of miller, in which position he is now employed. He 
was married 13th September, 1876, to Catherine 
[atilda Palliser j she died 4 th Feb- 
ruary, 1892 j he has been a member of the Town Council three years. 
JAMES \V ALKER from Ayrshire, Scotland, came to Lachute in 18 3 2 j he was a 
miller, and was first employed a year in the St. _\ndrews mill, and then a year in the 
mill at Lachute. After this, he purchased of Johnson, a son-in-law of Benj. Durch, 
the farm of 170 acres, which is now OW !led by his son, G. J. 'Valker. A portion of 
:\1r. Johnson's present dwelling was erected by Johnson. 



Soon after settling here, Mr. \Valker met with a serious accident. Patrick 
Quinn-or, as he was usually called, Paddy Quinn-a noted character in Lachute 
in those days, with devoted loyalty, determined to celebrate the birthday of his SO\- 
ereign, Securing an old cannon, he charged it so heavily with slugs and a variety of 
missiles, that it burst, injuring Mr. \Valker so badly, that one of his legs h3d to be 
amputated. He spent his remaining days here, clearing up his farm, and was for 
many years Clerk of the Commissioner's Court; he died 26th .-\pnl, 1868; :\Irs. 
\Yalker died yd November, 1876. They had six children-four sons and two daugh- 
ters; of these, Gavin J. is the only one now living. The eldest, a daughter, born in 
Scotland, died soon after their arrival in Canada; the second, a son, died at the age 
of 18. Two daughters, Je
sie and Eliza, who married, res pectively. G. L. :\[eikle 
and Thomas Patton, are now deceased. 
GAVIN \VALKER has always remained on the homestead, and has been dosely 
connected with all the affairs of the Town and County. The following is a list of 
the positions he still holds and those he has filled: 
Secretary County Council, appointed 
Iarch, 1868 i Secretary Parish :")t. J erusa- 
lem, appointed 1879; Secretary School Board, appointed 1867 ; S
cretary .\gricultural 
Society, appointed 1869; Clerk of Commissioners' Court, appointed 1868. He was 
also Secretary of the town of Lachute for a year after it was formed, and took an 
active part in its formation; he then resigned in favor of \V. J. Simpson, the present 
:\I.P.P. He was Official Assignee for a number of years, is also a Justice of the 
Peace, and has been Curator for several estates, and is agent for different Life and 
Fire Insurance companies. The duties of these different ofrices :\[r. \\"alker has dis- 
charged efficiently, and to public satisfaction. He is a supporter of the Presbyterian 
Church, and for some years has been an Elder. He was married, ::!9th October, 
1873, to Janet 1\IcOuat; she died 25th January, 1890, leaving two sons anù three 

fr. \Valker's commodious residence, beneath fotatel)" trees. with it.. view of 
interval meadows across the road in front, is peculiarly atlr.1.ctive. and suggestÍ\-e of 
the comforts and pleasures of an old-time, model homestead. 
In 1827, two orothers, JA;\rES and JOHN CAIDEP, weavers, from Paisley, 
Scotland, settled in Lachute, on the b.l.nk of the North River, on land now owned 
and occupied by the family of the late James PolIock. Finding that the}" could im- 
prove their circumstances, they soon removed to Chatham, 111 the vicinity of I ).1.les- 
ville, where, in the history of M t. Maple, will be found a sketch uf one of these 
brothers, John Calder. 
James Calder, whose wife was a 
[acfarIane of Paisley, had thre
John, Robert and James, and two daughtcrs,-:\[argaret and Eli.laheth, 
John, one of these SOliS, at an eJrly age, manifested a desire to preach th
Gospel, and had decided to enter the ministl y: but, owing to the circumstance;:) of 
the family, and their hardships in the new country-due, in some measure, to their 
utter ignorance of \Jioneer life-he was compelled to relinquish hi5 cherished d ,,; I . 



.-\.s he was the eldest son, his services were sorely needed at home, hence he re- 
mained. But this did not prevent. his preaching the Gospel; and from that time 
till his death in 1876 he never neglected an opprrtl1nity to make known the glad 
tidings of salvation. In those days, churches were few; and in log school-houses, 
on winter nights, after the day's work was over, and in neighbors' houses, on 
Sunday, he continued to hold meetings and expound the Scriptures, He had a 
natural talent for preaching and singing-the latter gift r.ontributing much toward 
awakening and sustaining interest in the meetings. 
He married Sarah Kerr, daughter of an old Irish pensioner who had passed 
his days in the army fighting the battles of his country. The old veteran often 
boasted of his campaign in Egypt, under Abercrombie against Napoleon, He lived 
until he was 97 years cf age, and died at the home of his daughter. John Calder 
prospered, and became one of the leading farmers in his settlement. For several 
years before his death, he was a colporteur for the Montreal Auxiliary Bible Society, 
travel1ing over a large section of this province, especially in the Eastern Townships, 
preaching Christ and distributing His word. It was on a trip of this kind that he 
contracted the cold which resulted in his death, The sudden death of his eldest 
son. James, and the failing health of his wife induced him to sell his property and 
move to Lachme in May, 1875, In the following winter, while on a trip to Har- 
rington, he fell ill, and retnrning home, was seized with an attack of inflammation 
of the bowels, which, at the end of a week, proved fatal. His wife, who had been 
an invalid for over a year previous, survived him only a few months. Of him there 
was much good and
little ill that could be said. A kind-hearted, generous disposi- 
tion, a sterling Christian._ character, no more fitting epitaph could be written than 
" he was a good man." 
The family consisted of four sons and three daughters. The eldest son, James, 
dropped dead (2nd Sept., 1875) from heart disease, at theresirlence of the late John 
Douglas, Front of Chatham, while waiting for the train which was to take him on a 
\Ìsit \0 his blOther John, then in Tiverton, Ont. The latter married Elizabeth, 
second daughter of the late Finlay McGibbon of Dalesville, and now resides in 

lontreal, where he is City Inspector of the Fire Underwriters Association. George 
F. and Charles, the other two sons, are the editors and proprietors of the Lachute 
Watch mall. Of the sisters, Mary, the eldest, married Archibald Murdoch of 
ville, and dierl in June, 1895, leaving a large family. Elizabeth married Mr. 
\Vm. Heatlie of Stonefield,!and Susan married 1\1r. ,V. J. Thompson, of Lake View, 
r.Q., all of whom are yet alive. 
G. F. CALDFR, B..i\., was born 22nd December, 1862, on the eighth concession 
of Chatham. In his early years he attended school in the old log school-house known 
as ,. Warwick School," being situated near the residence of the late David \Vanvick, 
but now commonly called )Iount Maple. \Vhen the family left to reside in Lachute, 
he commenced to attend Lachute Academy, then under the principalsbip of 1\1r, A. 

Ionroe. It is needless to say, the lad was far behind those with whom he now had 



to study, for it must be remembered that our elementary schools in those days were 
not what they now are. He then learned the printer's trade in the tVatclullllll office, 
which at that time was under the management of D. Kerr, and in 1880 returned to 
the .\cademy, of which C. S. Rolid.lY, B.A., was then Principal. To this gentleman, 
Mr. Calder feels himself deeply indebted for his earnest and painstaking efforts in 
e. Reentered McGill in 1881, matriculating in Arts, recei\'ed 
his degree of B.A, in 1885, and the same ye.\f obtained a first.class Academy 
diploma from the :\IcGill .t\ormal School. He then accepted the principalship of the 
Academy at Aylmer, Que.,.. and after teaching there successfully two yeats, entered 
into partnership with W. J. Simpson (now l\I.P.P.), in the publication of the l1
mall, aad lemoved to Lachute, where he has since resided. In 1892, he was married 
to Miss J. C. Roger, one of the staff of teachers in the Girls' High School, :-'Iontreal, 
and daughter of !\Ir. Jos. Roger, then of 'Vickham, but now of Lachutc. In 18 9 1 , he 
was appointed a Commissioner of the Superior Court for taking affadavits, and in 
18 9 2 was admitted to the Bar for the study of Law. 
In politics. :\lr. Calder has always been an active Conservative, and is able to 
express himself on the platform in c'ear and forcible language. He is a member of a 
tian church, and an earnest advocat
 of temperance and every moral reform. As 
a writer, he has a clear and vigorous style, and when he sets out to answer an oppo- 
nent, he does it wilh an array of facts and force oflogic that are not easily overcome. 
Charles Calder, a younger brother of G. F., and assistant-editor of the Iralch- 
mall, was born [3th May, -;:865. After attending school in Chatham and Lachute. 
he spent four years in the Baptist College at Woodstock, Ont., from which place he 
entered the IValdwlllll office in 189[. He was married 7th June, 1893, to Margaret, 
daughter uf Archibald Graham, Cote du 
lidi, SI, Andrews. In the publication of 
the IValcnman, his labors are confined chiefly to the mechanical work j he is also 
agent for several Fire and Life Insurance Companies. 
The following obituary is taken from The IValchfJIall of 29th April, [8i o . Co), 
Simpson was the father of the present member of Argenteuil, in the Local House. 


" Death has been vel y busy in and around Lachute for the last few' months, taking 
many of lhe old and prominent residcnters. The last to fall under his stro\...e is the 
gallant officer whose name heads this article. 
II CO!. Simpson was born at Auchenterran, parish of Keith, Banffshire, Scotland, 
on 9 th February, 18 I I, and dieù :It L1.chute on 29th April, 1890. He joined the Royal 
Artillery in June, 1
36, and on the brt:aking out of the Rebellion in Canada, sailed 
from Woolwich for this country, on the 7th April, 1838, and arrived in :\[ontreal on 
the 15 th of June, After the close of the Rebellion, in which he too\... an active part, 
he receiHd his discharge, and came and located in Lachute. Here \,e íonned a troop 
ofC.l.vdll'Y, which was reckoned the best disciplined in the Province. and .\t the time of 



its disbandment, the troop presented him with a sword, belt and sword knot, in ac- 
1-.nowledgment of his worth, and the esteem in which he was held by the individual 
members of the Troop. Subsequently, he was urgently solicited to take command of 
the 4 th Company of Argenteuil Rangers, which Company he has been the Captain of 
for eighteen years, during which time he has on every occasion of the calling out of 
the Regiment accompanied it on active service, 
"Colonel Simpson was a gentleman held in great esteem in this community, and 
in his official capacity as a magistrate his judgments were always respected; his 
object being to examine carefuUy into all cases brought before him before deciding 
upon them. We speak open to the corrective when we say that Col. Simpson was 
the oldest magistrate in the County, or it may be in the district of Terrebonne. One 
fact we do know, that in the early days of this County's history no man occupied a 
more prominent position in the administration of local justice, when that administra. 
tion was more in the hands of the magistrates than at present. The Colonel was 
always a warm and enthusiastic supporter of the Hon. ::\Ir. Ahbott and the Conser- 
vative party. 

" Lt.-Co!. Cushing, Command:uH of the I nh B.1ttalion, and all the Oftìcers and 
men in the immediate proximity of Lachute, together with the of the Regiment, 
attended the funeral. Lt.-Co1. Simpson's horse, with his boots fastened in front of the 
saddle, was led by one of the men belonging to the deceased's Company. The pro- 
cession was the largest ever witnessed in Lachute, an evidence of the esteem in which 
the deceased was held in thi> community. Th::: pall-bearers were the Officers of the 
I I th Battalion, and on the coffin were three beautiful wreaths of lilies and myrtle. 
The corpse was taken to the First Presbyterian Church, of which the deceased was a 
member, the Rev. John Mackie, pastor of the church, officiating. A.s the funeral cor- 
tege entered the church, the organist began playing the dead marc!1 in Saul. After 
the people had all got seated, :\1r. Mackie gave out the 276th hymn, a very appropriate 
one, at the do ,e of which the pastor off
reclup a most feeling and impressive prayer. 
Then followed an appropriate address, the preacher's text being taken from 39 th 
Psalm and I sth Corinthians, at the close of which the 23nl Paraphrase was sung, the 
Rev. ::\Ir. Higgins closing with prayer, a very solemn and impres5ive one. 
.1 The officers present were Lt.-Col, Cushing, ::\Iajor Lamb, Captains \"cightman, 
\, Adj. ::\[artin, Lieuts, Pollock, McPhail, l\IcCallum and McMartin, Sergt. 
:Major Earle, and Capt. \Vanless of St. Andrews Cavalry." 
\YILLIAM JOHN SnlPSON, M.P.P. for Argenteuil, has always taken an active in- 
terest in the affairs of the County, and has been a staunch and influential supporter 
of the Conservative party; he was for several years Secretary of the Conservative 
Association, and three years Secretary of the Lachute ::\[unicipal Council. He joined 
the Rangers when quite young, as bugler during the Fenian Raid,,;, and subsequently 
was Lieutenant of the same Company for twelve 






W\I. .,o,,
. :\1./'.1'. 



In 1881, he formed a partnership with Dawson Kerr, for the publication of TIle 
Watchman, which continued till 1St January, 1892, when they sold to Messrs. Calder, 
He was married .\.pril 22nd, 1874, to Miss :\Iary Fitzgerald. 
Mr. Simpson's first experience of political life was when he was Secretary-Treas- 
urer of the Liberal Conservative Association, during which time there were many 
exciting political contests in the County, 'Vhen Mr. Owens resigned his seat in the 
Legislature, the Convention called to select a candidate were unanimous in their 
choice of Mr. Simpson. He won the victory after an e'\.citing conflict, in which the 
united forces of the Liberal party were arrayed against him. The issue seemed for a 
time uncertain, as his opponents had selected a most popular candidate-
Ir. John 
Hay, a man of well-known integrity, and a prosperous farmer-the latter fact enhan- 
cing his chances of success, as two-thirds of the constituency are farmers. 
the Liberals were fresh from a cheering victory, in which they had elected Dr, 
Christie to the Dominion Parliament by a large majority. These considerations 
apparently affected Mr. Simpson's chances seriously, but his popularity over.balanced 
every adverse influence, and he was returned. 
In the Legislature, he has been one of the most useful members in the Pri\ ate 
Bills Committee, and has received, on several occasions, the grateful thanks of the 
Good Government .\ssociation of Montreal for the aid given them in obtaining proper 
amendments to their Charter. He has always supported the legislation popular 
with the temperance people, notably the" Tobacco Bill," the license amendments, etc. 
_-\.mong the measures he has introduced, are amendments to the ðlunicipal Code, an 
act to abolish lotteries, an act to open the meetings of School Commi
sioner,> to the 
public, and the extension of the franchise to spinsters and widows, 
The following notice, which was taken froll'1 the 
Iontreal U"i!/lCSS, was written 
by a Trooper of St. Joseph du Lac. It shculd have been inserted on a former page, 
in connection with the St. Andrew's Troop, but was overlooked:- 
" Having observed, in a January number of the Montreal Daily JVII/lt!s, the death 
of Mr. John Oswald, a native of Stirlingshire, Scotland, aged 86 years and 6 months, 
at S
. Augustin on the 16th inst., and having served as a trooper under his command, 
I feel it my duty to narrate, through your valuJ.ble paper, the following, from official 
documents :-The deceased, John Oswald, when in Scotland, was a trooper in the 
Stirling Yeoman Cavalry, and in 1830 came to Canada and joined the Argenteuil 
Troop of Cavalry. On 1St December, 1837, he was commissioned Lieutenant b\" 
John Colborne, and was in active service during 1837-38. In 1848 he was promoted 
to a Captaincy by the Earl of Elgin. In November, 1856, he was appointed by 
Lord Monck, Lieut.Col. of the Militia, until declining years caused him to retire, 
very much esteemed and respected by all his troopers." 


Ir. John 
Ieikle, sen., says :-" About this time (1831) also, the hr,>t d, rtor 
arrived in the settlcment-Vr. 
lcno\Vel1, who, however, did not TllUain l()ng. But 



IHe\ ious to his coming the settlers had enjoyed the services of a Mr. Ellis, who, 
though not an M.D., had much skill in medicine." 1\1r, Robertson succeeded him, 
but soon remo\'ed to St. Andrews. 
THO)I \S CHRISTIE. :\I.D., and the present member for Argenteuil in the Dominion 
Parli<lment, is doubtle
s the oldest medical practitioner in the County. He is the 
son of the late John Christie and his wife Eliz:lbeth 1\ ichol, both of StirJingshire, and 
was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1824. He carne to Canada with his parents in 
182 7. was educated at 
IcGill University, and obtained his degree in 1848. He was 
married in October, 1849, to Catherine, daughter of the late Peter McMartin, of St, 
Andrews, Que. During the terrible ship fever in 1847-48, the Doctor was assistant 
surgeon at Point St. Charles, and the experience amid such constant scenes of misery 
and death must have been severe for one so young, and in the outset of his pro- 
fessional career. Six thousand immigrants, it is claimed, are buried there, who died 
from that dreadful scourge during the years I8-t.7 and 1848. Besides his professional 
duties, and those devolving upon him as a member of Parliament, he has taken a 
deep interest in local affairs, and been c.alled upon to fill responsible local positions. 
He has been Chairman of the Board of School Commissioners of the parish, Secre- 
taryof Lachute Academy, \\'arden of the County, etc. An account of his different 
elections to Parliament will be found in a list of the representatives of the County 
on preceding pages. 
The following sketch of the Doctor, found in F. C. Ireland's "Sketches of 
Lachute," published in The Watchmall, in 1886, will doubtless be endorsed by all 
who know him :- 
., Dr. Thomas Christie commenced his professional career in Lachute under 
discouraging circumstances, owing to the sparseness of the population and the bad 
roads, extending to the far away settlements of the north and west. But trom con- 
stant attention to duty and very moderate charges, he soon entered upon a successful 
career which has continued to the present day. No physician can be held in 
higher esteem for faithfulness in the discharge of his professional duties than Dr. 
Christie; while, as a public citizen, his life and influence have shown an untarnished 
record on the side of morality, temperance and religion. He has reared sons and 
daughters to occupy responsible positions in society, several of the former following 
the profession of their falher, with success shining brightly before them, while they 
all seem to partake of the same sterling principles of character. 
., The first really creditaLle-looking dwelling in Lachute was that erected by Dr. 
tie7 and it still !otands-a most comfortable residence-suitaLle for anyone in 
this last ql'ar ter of the 19th cen tur)". It is sh:.> ded by stately trees, while the grounds 
contain beds of flowers of brilliant hues, and graveled walks; and it needs only a 
fountain ot !>parkling water to complete a most beautiful picture." 
Dr. Christie has had eleven children-seven sons and four daughters; one of 
each sex died in infancy, and the others arrived at maturity. Four of the sons-John, 
Fdmund, George H. and \Vil\iam-
raduated from the 
Iedical department of



John and William also graduated in Arts. The former, who was a clever physician, 
and had secured a large and successful practice in Chicago, died in that city in I 88..J., 
His two brothers, Edmund and \Villiam, are practising in Chicago, and G. H. has 
succeeded to his father's practice in Lac-hute. Thomas, the third son, has a fine 
drug store here, and James P., the fourth, is in business in San Francisco. 
Of the danghters, the eldest remains with her parents; the second is married 
to Mr. Crawford Ross, merchant in Ottawa; and the youngest is married to Dr. .\, 
D. Stewart. of Richmond, Que. 
The following obituary of DR, \VILLTA
nTH, who died at Lachute, 4th 
tember, 1895, is copied from 7 he Watchman (Lachute) :- 
"Dr. Smith was born in the parish of St. Jerusalem on April. 1851, He 
attended school for several years in Brownsburg, being with his aunt, Mrs. Stalker. 
Afterwards, he prepared for McGil1 at Lachute Col1ege. During his course at 

IcGi11, he was characterized by his honest and careful preparation of his work. After 
graduating in 1876, he commenced the practice of his profession here, which he con- 
tinued up to the time of his death. On 5th September, 1883, he was matried to :\bry 
Jane Hammond, daughter of Henry Hammond of Lachute, by whom he had two 
children. In February, 1891, the Doctor sustained a grievous loss by the death of 
his wife. His only regret at going was to leave his two little girls without mother or 
father. Early in his career, he became- connected with the 11th Battalion .\rgenteuil 
Rangers, and, finally, became their medical officer, He always took great interest in 
milital y affairs, and was no mean shot with the rifle. His real entry into public life, 
however, was in the year 1889, when he first became .Mayor of the town. At that 
time municipal waters were exceedingly troubled; the Doctor sought to calm them, 
and his efforts wen
 successful; for, while he never would swerve from a Plinciple to 
please a friend, he did his duty in such a firm and kindly spirit, that he SOdn ,,'on the 
confidence of the public, It was recognized, tint here WL1.S a man who had the cour- 
age of his c
nvictions, and would do what he felt to be right, regardless of the ('on- 
sequences to himself. Such a man is a rarity; and he was continued in office five 
successive years. During these years, he was appointed a Justice of the Peace and 
a Commissioner of the Commissioners' Court, in both of which offices he proved him- 
self a painstaking and careful official. Only hst July, when a ,.aeancy occurred on 
the School Board. the public again turned to him, and he was elected School Com- 
" As a physician, he was frequently called upon bv the poor of this town and 
County, and he never refused to gi,.e his attendance through feLu of not receiving his 
fee. Born among Liberals, for years he followed that party; but there came a time 
when his convictions compelled him to sever his connections therewith, becaus
felt that the course then being pursued by the leaders of that party was not right; 
his alJegiance was to principles first, and party afterwards. He becam
 attached to 
the Conservative party, and was looked upon as one of its coming leaders. 
year, he was dected President of the 
\rgentellil Liberal-Conservative .\ ion; 




but it must not be supposed that Dr, Smith was wedded to the Conservative party 
any more than he had been to the Liberals, He freely criticized the actions of 
the GO\oernment, and was ready again to sacrifice his party ties in order to maintain 
his convictions of what was right. N everthe1ess, the party felt that they would never 
need to look outside for a candidate while Dr, Smith remained with them. 
" Resolutions were adopted by the Town Council of Lachute, exprtssing their pro- 
found respect for the deceased, and sorrow for his death, and all attended his funeral." 
A sketch of the family of Dr. Smith is given elsewhere in these pages. 
] )R. BENJAMIN S. STACKHOUSE, son of the late John Stackhouse, a well-known 
citizen of St. Andrews, has for many years been one of the leading, and, in fact, the 
only Dentist of Lachute. He has a fine residence and office on Main street. Of his 
three brothers, Dr. Charles Stackhouse, who also adopted Dentistry as a profession, 
has his office on Sparks street, Ottawa, and a beautiful residence on O'Connor street, 
in the same city j John Stackhouse, the eldest, who succeeded his father in the chair_ 
making business in S1. Andrews j and Gilbert, the yonngest, who was a photographer 
in the same village, are both deceased. 
DR. L. P. ALEXANDER RODRIGUE, third son of Pierre Rodrigue, was born 
17 th December, 1869, in St. Scholastique, Que. He attended school in Lachute, 
and in 188 3 entered the College in St. Thérèse, After passing his examination 
before the Quebec Medical Board in May, 1891, in Montreal, he entered Laval Uni- 
versity of that city, and graduated in 1895, taking his degree of 1\1. D.; and also 
obtaining his license to practise medicine and surgery at the same time. He then 
came to Lachute, where he has many influential friends, and has opened an office in 
" Rodrigue's Block," on Railway Avenue. 
Jo B. 
IENZIES, M.D., one of the medical practitioners of Lachute, has quietly 
and modestly won the esteem of the people of this section, and built up a good 
practice. He is a son of J, B. Menzies, Registrar of the County of Lanark, Ont., 
from which place he came to Lachute in 1887; he is a graduate of McGill, and 
received his degree in 1879. 
\Y. \V, ALEXANDER, M.D., now occupies the office of the lamented Dr, Smith. 
Dr. AleÀander was born in Prince Edward Island, and received his education at the 
Prince of \Vales College, Charlottetown. In 1887, he entered the Medical Depart- 
ment of McGill University, and received his degree of l\l,D" C.M., therefrom in April, 
18 91. After some months of post-graduate work in Boston and New York hospitals, 
he returned to Canada, and began practice in Hemmingford, Huntington County, 
Que., where he remained till recently, when he came to Lachute. The recommend- 
.ltions he has received, and the interest he takes in religious work, give promise of 
a useful and successful career, 
JOSEPH PALLISER, barrister, is a native of Lachllte; his grandfather, Robert 
Palliser, came from Yorkshire, England, to Lachine, in 1832, with three sons and two 
daughters; he was killed at that place during an election riot in March, 1841. 


23 1 

Thomas, his eldest son, was married in Lachine, in 1838, to Margaret Baird; 
he "as a member of the Lachine Troop of Cavalry during the Papineau Rebellion, 
In 18 44, he settled in Lachute, and lived here tiII 1893, when he visited his son 
Thomas in Morris, lUan., and died there, the 17th December of the same year. 
He had two sons and three daughters, who arrived at maturity. Joseph, the 
second son, attended :Military School in Montreal, and received his certificate in 186 9, 
The year following, while holding the rank of Sergeant-Major in the 11th Battalion, 
he joined the expeditionary force to the Red River. After his return, he studied Law 
with the late Hon. J. J. C, Abbott, being admitted to study in 18 7 6 , taking his degree 
fcGiII in 18 78, and was caIIed to the Bar in 1879. He was married in 18 79 
to Lillian :l\Iargaret McGibbon, Mr. Palliser takes an active interest in all local 
affairs; he drew the Charter when the Town of Lachute was incorporated in ) 885, 
and has been Chairman of the School Board several years. He was the first to 
introduce the electric light into Lachute, and has always been desirous of promoting 
public improvements; he has charge of the telegraph office here. 
G. E. BAMPTON, Q.C., for several years has been one of the prominent members 
cf the Bar in this County. He was born in Plymouth, Eng., and is a son of the late 
Augustus Hampton, Civil Engineer, M. T.C.E., Chief Surveyor of the Corporations of 
the towns of Plymouth and Davenport, England. 
G. E. Bampton was educated at Christ's Hospital, London, and afterward served 
five }'ears on the Pacific, and at other stations, as an officer in the Royal Navy. He 
took a Law course at l\1cGiII, graduating with first-class honors, and was calJcd to the 
Ear in 18 79; he studied with D, Macmaster, Q.C., Bernard Devlin, and others. He 
began practice in Lachute in 1879, and was married 13th August, 188 4, to Ann Louise 
Pollock, third daughter of the late Thomas Pollock, Postmaster at Hill Head. 1\1rs. 
Hampton died 29 th Kovember, 1891, at the age of 27, leaving three children. 

Ir. Bampton was appointed Revising Officer for the County in 188 5, by the 
Dominion Government, and Provir,cial Revenue Attorney, by the Quebec Govern- 
ment, in 18 9 2 . He has always taken a prominent part in politics, being one of the 
effective advocates during election campaigns of the interests of the Conservative 
party, and has been retained in most of the law cases in the county which were 
of public interest. 
TOSEPH EVARISTE VALOIS was born in Vaudreuil, Que. He spent three 
in th
 College of L'Assomption of that place, then went to the College of Montreal, 
and passed his examination for the Notarial Profession in 1878. He was admitted as 
a Kotary in May, 1882, and began practice in St. Scholastique the same year. He 
remained in that village until March, 1890, when he came to Lachute. 'Vhile in St. 
:-\cholastique, he was married in September, 1885, to Corinne, daughter of Joseph 
Langlois, of that place. .NIr. Valois organized a Band in May, 1895; it is composed 
of sixteen members, and he is instructor. 

23 2 


A. BERTHELOT is also a Notary who has practised his profession many years in 
The following history and statistics of schools in this section, during the first 
decade of this century, was recently found among the old pap;::rs ûf J. S. Hutchins 
by his daughter, Mrs. Cushing, of :Montreal, through whose courtesy they are now pub- 
lished :- 

\.TION l

In 179 8 , this Parish contained but five families, numbering about thirty souls; 
in 1800, fifteen families, numbering about seventy-five souls. In this year, one 
school was put in operation, and taught by a female in a private house near the Chute 
:\1ills-numbering about fifteen scholars-for the term of six months. In 1801, a log 
school-house was built, half a mile above the Chute 
Iills, and taught by a young 
man six months, thirty scholars attending daily. [n 1802, the settlement increased 
to more than thirty families, and several small schools were started, located from two 
to three miles from each other, and generally taught by females. This mode of 
education was continued up to the year 1810, when, at the request of the inhabitants, 
a school was established by order of the Governor General, under the Royal Insti- 
tution, a mile and a half above the Chute Mills-a good, substantial, school building 
having been previously erected. John D, Ely was duly commissioned by the Governor 
General to teach in the same, with a salary of sixty pounds per annum. .Mr, Ely, 
being a first-rate elementary teacher, soon raised 111S schooi to a respectable standing, 
and the average number of scholars in daily attendance amounted to sixty. Mr. Ely 
taught this school for four years very successfully, many children being sent to his 
school from the neighboring parishes to receive instruction in the higher branches 
of education. The inhabitants made his salarr nearly equal to one hundred pounds 
per annum; but, unfortunately for him and the parishioners, too, he was obliged to 
relinquish his trust, and Mr. Aaron \V ooù was subsequently commissioned to teach 
the school. The latter continued it for two years, and then resigned his position, in 
consequence of the Bo lrd's reducing their teachers' salaries to twenty pounds per 
annum. They, likewise, multipliLd their schools; and another was established, aLou 
four miles distant, under the name of the Upper Lachute School. Shortly after this 
change by the Board of the Royal Institution, the Government bounty was distributed 
to all the schools in the Province; and its allowance was equal to that of the schools 
under the Royal Institution. 
fr. Carpenter succeeded 1fr. \Vood as teacher, and 
taught for three years successfully. I would here note that, after the salaries of the 
teachers were cut down to twen ty pounds, the trustees were obliged to raise the fee 
of tuition from IS. 3d. to 3S. 9d. per scholar, each month, in order to provide competent 
eachers, The school of which I have been particularly speaking has been continued 



up to the present day by various teachers, generally competent; but it cannot be 
said that it is in as flourishing a condition as when it was under the Royal Institution, 
neither is it so numerously attended. 
The children under the age of fourteen and over seven, belonging to this district 
number sixty-one, but they do not all attend school. There are, at the present time, 
eight school districts in this p.uish, numbering altogether about three hundred and 
fifty children. In the year 18 r 0, the number of children over four and under twenty 
one was two hundred and eleven, male and female. 
The following is a list of the inhabitants) and the number of children between the 
ages of 4 and 2 r, in Lachute, in IS [0, copied from a document founä among the 
papers of J. S. Hutchins: 
1\ umber of children, 2 ( I. 
John Kelly, Abiathar "'aldron, Francis Dureau, Silas Boldry, Samuel Orton, 
Joel Bixby, Osias HosiJton, Benj. Burch, Benj. I. Burch, Asa Kimball, \Vm. Powers, 
\Vm. Evans, Jonathan Burch, Jonathan Hart, Isaac Thompson, John Dunlap, \Vm, 
Powers, jun., 'Yard Stone, Augustus Stone, Benj. Cutter, David Hubbard,-- 
Sampson, Amaziah Church, - Knot, J 01111 S. Hutchins) Nathaniel Davis, Phineas 
Hutchins, Samuel Sanders, Jonathan Burch, jun., Hezekiah Clark, \Vm. Perkin5, 
John Sparrow, D. Hitchcock, James Draper, Richard Dilly, Daniel Pool, Timothy 
Pool, John Blanchard, Philander Stephens, Ebenezer Stephens, Cyrus Calkins, James 
Thompson, \Vm. Thompson, Abiram Boldry, John Jacobs, Nathan Jacobs, Alex. 
Reed, \Vm, McNall, Samuel Thompson, Curtis Stone, E. Blackman, Osias Black- 
man, Charles Ellis, David Bell, James Hubbard, Aaron Stone, Aaron Hamblin, Uriah 
McNall, Elijah \Voodworth, Joseph Herrimon, Rufus Herriman, Benj. Allen. \Vm. 
:\IcGloughlin, David Taslin, Timothy Richardson, Moses Snider, J aIm Snider, 
Samuel Blackman, Isaiah P. Barber, Robert Partlow, Isaiah Hyatt, B. Cramton, Asa 
Sanders, Israel Brooks, Charles Perkins, 
-\sa Starnes, Gideon Blackman, David 
Brooks, Jonathan Brooks, Daniel Starnes, Nathan Brooks. 


Lachute Academy had its origin in the free classes conducted in his own house, 
by the late Rev, Thomas Henry, who felt the necessity of providing higher education 
for the young people of the community, These classes were popular, and the attend- 
ance increased, so that it was soon necessary to remove the school to the basement 
of the Presbyterian Church, of which the Rev, :Mr. Henry was pastor. At a public 
meeting, 23rd February, 1855, the people manifestej their appreciation of such 
instruction, by establishing a superior school governed by five directors. These 
directors organized a school, outlmed a course of study, and appointed a staff of 
teachers, and thus the pastor's pi ivate classes became the well-known public instilu- 
tion, .1 Lachute Academy." 




The Academy classes were continued in the basement of the church until 
proper buildings could be erected. Rev. Mr. Henry was appointed first Principal 
of the Academy, with the fo]]owing assistants: Dr. Thomas Christie and Mr, John 
1\1. GiLson. John Meikle, Esq., was President of the Roard of Directors, and Mr, 
John M. Gibson was Secretary. 
After a year and a half of faithful work, the Rev. Mr. Henry, John Meikle, Esq., 
and Dr. Thomas Christie were successful in obtaining from gO\Ternment, through 
the kind services and loyal support of Sydney Bellingham, then member of 
Parliament for the County of Argenteuil, an Act of incorporation and a government 
grant of .1:75. 
This Act of incorporation was obtained on the first day of July, 1856, when the 
following gentlemen were incorporated a "body poJitic and corporate in deed and 
in name," to be known as "Lachute College," viz.: "John Meikle, Thomas 
Christie, Rev. Thomas Henry, Re\'. \Valler Scott, Rev. James Bishop, Thomas 
Lockie, Thomas PoBock, John McAllister and Thomas Morrison, all of the village 
of Lachute, County of ArgenteuiJ." Thus was Lachute Academy established, on 
23 rd February, 1855, and incorporated by Act of Parliament, passed at Toronto, 1st 
July, 1856, during the second session of the fifth Parliament of Canada, and assented 
to by Sir Edmund 'Walker Head, Governor General. 
The Academy was established in the municipality of St. Jerusalem, which con- 
tained, in 1856, 471 heads of families and 740 children from 5 to 16 years of age. 
The attendance at the Academy in 1855-6 was 210, of which number 94 pupils were 
under 16 years, and 116 pupils were over 16 years of age, These figures prove 
clearly the need of a superior school, and the wisdom of those who labored so earn- 
estly for its establishment. 
The course of study outlined by the directors comprised Latin, Greek, Natu- 
ral History, Chemistry, Natural Philosoph)", Mathematics, English Grammar and 
Composition, Geography, Elementary Astronomy, Drawing, Design and French. In 
1856, the directors purchased a fine set of chemical apparatus valued at ,f,40, and 
later, in 1859, they added a complete set of maps and an orrery to their appliances 
for teaching geography. The public library of the "Mechanics Institute " afforded 
the students many opportunities of reading, and served as an exceBent reference 
library. In the long period of partial leisure from autumn to spring, how pleasant 
and profitable it must have been for the young people to attend such classes, and 
receivc instruction from such disinterested and loyal teachers, most of whom were 
men of zeal for the cause of education, and labored free of charge to the institution i 
the total cost of teaching, in 1856, being only æl20, Rev. 1\1r, Henry continued to 
be connected with the Academy, for several years after its establishment, as teacher 
and adviser, while Dr. Christie labored faithfuBy al1d gratuitously, for many years, 
as demonstrator in chemistry, and the late John Meikle, Esq., continued President 
of the Board of Directors, and befriended the school in various ways. 
On 20th April, 1858, the directors resolved to erect an academy building in a 



central place, and selected the site on which the old academy now stands, in the east 
ward of Lachute town, midway betwcen two of the parish schools, Xos. I and YUI 
These two elementary schools were united by the school commissioners, who buil
the lower storey of the new building, while the directors built the upper part, thus 
bringing the pupils of the two elementary schools, and the classes of the Academy, 
into the same building. 
The new buildings were occupied in 1859, and the Rev. John Mackie was placed 
in charge at a salary of $350 (to be paid in silver at par) and all the fees arising 
from his classes. The staff of teachers in 1858-9, which was the first year in the 
new building, was Rev. John Mackie, principal; Dr. Christie, lecturer; 
[r. James 
Emslie and 1\[r. Adam Orr, teachers. After two years Rev. Mr. Mackie resigned and 
became pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. He was succeeded in 1860 by 
Mr. John Reade, who held the position for three years until 1863. In 1862 the 
Government grant was reduced by one.half, and a still further reduction left the 
institution in debt, and unable to continue its educational W0fk. Under these circum_ 
stances, the directors concluded to amalgamate the academy classes with the public 
schools and make over the Govern ment grant, now Æ44, to the school commissioners, 
on condition that they should engage a head master who was competent to teach the 
classics. This arrangement was made in 1864, and has continued to the present 
Ir, Alex. Stewart was principal 
fter 1\[r. Reade from 1863-...., when he \Vas 
succeeded by 1\[r. George Thomson of Queen's College, Kingston, in 1864. 1\[r, 
Thomson held the position until February, 1867, when he was appointed SchoOl 
Inspector, and Mr. G. H. Drewe became principal until February, 1868, when 1\[r, 
Alex. Stewart was again engaged as principal until 1870. In 1870 1\1r. C. S. Holiday 
succeeded .!\Ir. Stewart, and remained principal untii 1874, when he resigned and was 
followed by 2\lr. 
[urdock Munroe for one year, 18j4-5. Mr, Holiday returned in 
18j 5, and held the position for nine year s, until 1884, in which year he accepted the 
position of principal in Huntingdon Academy, and Mr. H, 
[. Cockfield became 
princilJal of Lachute Academy, which position he filled until 1886, when h
to accept service under the Montreal School Board, and \Vas succeeded by .Mr. J, ,V, 
McOuat, until 1892. In 1892 
lr. McOuat was appointed School Inspector, and 
N. T. Truell, who now (1895) holds the position. was made Principal. Amongst the 
numerous assistant teachers are :\[r. James Emslie and 1\1r, Thomas Haney, two of 
the oldest and best known teachers of the County, 
In 1875 a proposal was made by the directors to the school commissioners, to 
erect a "wing " to the east side of the original building. This suggestion, however, 
was only carried into effect in 1879, when the increased attendance in the elementary 
departments made an enlargement necessary. At the same time an elementary 
school was established in the " 'Vest End II of thc village, thus restoring the former 
school, No. VIII. The upper portion of the c, wing" was used for various purposes 
until a much later date, 1888, when it also became a classroom of the Academy. 
This relationship existed between the two boards (the College Director:; LlI1d the 

23 6 


Parish Commissioners) until the incorporation of Lachute Town in 1885, when the 
parish board withdrew, and re-established their former school, N(I. I, now called 
I' East End SchooL" The directors, however, established the same relationship with 
the school board of the Town, and the whole institution became one school and 
adopted the course of study for academies, In 1891-2 the school commissioners 
unanimously determined to build a new school building worthy of the large attend- 
ance, which was rendering the old buildings far too small. This school board was 
comp03ed ofthe following gentlemen :- Joseph Palliser, chairman; Hugh Fraser, jun., 
Thomas McOnat, Peter Cruise and Rev. \Vm. Sanders, while "'illiam Henry was 
secretary-treasurer, and J, 'v. ì\lcOuat was principal of the school. Four acres of 
land were purchased for a playground, and one of the finest school buildings in the 
province was e
ected thereon, at a cost of $12,000. In this new building, situated in 
the centre of the town, large numbers of students continue to attend from all parts 
of the county and surrounding districis. 
Amongst the benefactors of the school are Sidney Bellingham, the late John 

Ieikle, and, in recent years, J, C. \Vilson, Esq., not to mention the numerous friends 
and students who have contributed to the library, nor the zealous principals who 
devoted many extra hours to prepare students to enter courses of s!udy not in line 
with the Academy work. As a result of the .\cademy's influence, men are to be 
found in every profession who must attribute their start in life and much of their 
later success to the instruction which they received in its classes, while the whole 
county must confess that the school has been a public benefactor and a blessing to 
the community in which it stands. 

WTON T. TRUELL, the subject of this sketch, is the youngest son of Valorous 
Truell, Esq., a prosperous farmer in the Eastern Townships. He was born at "Tays 
.Mills, Stanstead County, 
Iay 8th, 1866, and received his preliminary (ducation at 
Stanstead 'Vesleyan College. At the age of fifteen he wellt to the Collège de St. 
Jij'acÙltlle to complete a course in French, after which he pur sued a classical course 
in St, Francis College, graduating from that institution at the age of nineteen, and 
obtaining, the same year, an Academy diploma for both Engli sh and French schools, 
1\lr. Truell has since devoted himself to the profession of teaching, and has attained 
a high position among the educators of the Province. He was for several years Prin- 
cipal of the St. John's High School, but resigned that position in IS92, to accept the 
l'rincipalship of Lachute Academy, which position he now holds. He is President 
of the Argenteuil Teachers' Association, Vice-President of the Provincial Teachers' 
Association, and a member of the Protestant Committee of the Council of Public 

Ir. Truell is a strong believer in the theory, that the physical nature and the 
mental nature of the child should be developed simultaneously, and he was the first 
head master to introduce an organized system of Calisthenic exercises into any of the 
academies of our Province. On 27th Dec., 1892, he was married to Miss Julia 

laude Fulvoye of St. Johm, Que., second daughter of Mr. I. B. Futvoye, Super- 
intendent of the Central Vermont Railway. 




A sketclz found amo '.r: the þllfers of the late J. S. lIlt/dills. 

In the year 1799, when there were but few families in the place, Dudley Stone, 
an official member from the Congregational SociEty, invited the people to attend 
divine service on the Sabbath. The service consisted of singing, prayers, and reading 
a sermon, and he was generally assisted by others; the place of worship was in a log 
barn, directly opposite the present meeting chapel, on the north side of the river. 
These services were regularly ob3erved for about one year. when an itinerant Metho- 
dist preacher, by the name of Picket, from the Troy Conference, N.Y., found his way 
through the woods to the settlem
nt, and commenced to preach the Gospel to the 
people, formin 6 a circuit emb.acing L'Orignal, E. and \V. Hawkesbury, Chatham 
and ArgenteuiI. A') there were no roads at this time for riding on horseback, nor 
boats for crossing horses over the rivers, he wàlked from place to place, carrying his 
portmanteau on his shoulders. He p reached alternately every fortnight at Lachute 
and L'Orignal, and through the week at the other places above named, as these were 
but thinly inhabited. Thus he continued his labor for six or seven months, when 
the Rev. Elder Jewel came to look after him and his flock, which amounted to a 
considerable number, there being no other minister to dispense the Bread of Life. 
Those who had previously tasted that Bread were not so particular as to whom they 
received it from, as are many at the present day. Elder Jewel was the first who 
tered the sacrament of the Lord's Supper in this place, in October, 1801. 
1\1r. Picket was succeeded by the Rev. l\Ir. Sawyer, who traveled the Circuit for 
two years, when he was succeeded by the Rev. 1\1r. l\Iaòden, and other ministers from 
the same Conference up to the year 1812, when the war ùetween E 1 1g1and and the 
United States broke out, and the ministers, being American subjects: were all obliged 
to leave the Province, leaving the sheep without a shepherd, to do as best they could. 
A Sunday School was foanded in this district, in the year 18IS, by the Rev, 
Thaddeus Osgood, missionary from the Congregational Missionary Society, of Boston. 
It numbered about thirty scholars, a"nd was superintended and taught by the writer 
for seven years, subsequently by other3 ; and it ha
en continued through the sum. 
mer months up to the present time. 
From the time of the first preaching of the Gospel here, up to 1812, the Metho- 
dists had control in religious matters in the above menti01
ed places, there being no 
other denomination, During the war, which lasted more than two years, divine 
service was kept up by a wo rthy local preacher, 
Ir. Kellog, assisted by the official 
members of the Methodist Society, and the Rev. Mr. Bradford, Church of England 
minister, who was situJ.ted in the front of Chatham. He visited this place on several 
occasions, to administer the sacrament to the people, Though the place of meeting 
was in a barn, the reverend gentleman, after the close of one of the services, declared it 
to be one of the happiest seasons of his life. After the close of the war, the preachers 

23 8 


returned to their several circuits to look after their flocks; and now commenced 
great difficulty and damage to the cause of Christianity; however, we are now writ- 
ing for the benefit of generations yet unb::>rn. The5e difficulties need not be detailed, 
Suffice it to say, that they have all been overcome, and that the cause of religion is 
slowly advancing." 




A few families came out from the west of Scotland about the year 1819. One 
young man from Stirlingshire, John l\IcOuat, gave an impetus to the cause of Christ 
In this neighborhood. On arriving at 
Iontreal, he remained some time working 
about the city, but his ambition was to have land, as he had been brought up a 
farmer, and desiring to follow that occupation, he went to St. Eustache, and worked 
there for a short time with a farmer. Hearing that a Presbyterian minister preached 
in St. Andrews, he came to Lachute, and bought a farm on the banks of the North 
river, and sent home to Scotland for his friends. _\1
ny of them came out to this 
country, and settled in and around Lachute; but a great want was felt, as the Sabbath 
came round. They had no church, and their desire for religious in::;truction was so 
great, that many of them went down to St. Andrews-a distance of six miles-on 
the Sabbath to hear Mr. Archibald Henderson, who was the only Presoyterian 
minister at that time in the county. So many of the people waited on his ministry, 
that he was induced to corne up to Lachute, once a month, and preach in the school- 
house, as there was no other place of meeting. 
The people of the neighborhood were drawn together to hear the Gospel 
preached by l\Ir. Henderson, and as the congregation increased, they experienced a 
desire to have a minister settled over them j but that was not ea')ily accomplished at 
that time. In the year 1831, they invited the Rev. William Brunton of St. Therese to 
become their minister; a.nd promised him an annual stipend of $264. He accepted 
the call, and became their pa.stor. The people rallied around him in great numbers, 
so tllat they were encouraged to build a church, and a subscriptio.1 paper was circu- 
lated among them. 
'J here was very little mon ey in circulation among the farmers, and the pe.ople, 
generally, were very poor, many of them having left the Old Country with little 
means. In Scotland, there was great depression among the farmers, after the battle 
of \Vaterloo; they were not able to pay the high rents the landed proprietors were 
accustomed to receive during the Peninsular war, and many of them were forced to 
leave their farms and seek homes in Canada. They had their trials in this new land; 



but by perseverance and industry they overcame them. They reared their homes, 
cleared and cultivated their fields, and were soon in comparative comfort. There was 
one great want-they had no church nor minister, while at home they had churches 
and godly ministers, who labored faithfully among them. They aimed to have the 
same advantages here, but there were many difficulties in the way; they had little 
money; some gave work, and a few gave money, one or two subscribing very 
liberally. Mr. John McOuat headed the subscription list with a hundred dollars- 
a great sum in those days. They were encouraged to proceed in erecting the church, 
and it was commenced without a plan, in the year r833; it was built by \Villiam 
and Andrew !\lcOuat. After the walls were up, they had great difficulty in getting 
the sashes for the windows Ilnde and glazed. :\lr. McOuat came to the rescue. He 
bought the glass and putty, and kept the joiner till he fmished the windows and put 
them in; then the church wac; fit to meet in. Great was th
 joy when the songs of 
praise to God were heard within its walls and the glad tidings of salvation were 
proclaimed. The building was a striking copy of an original Secession Church. It lays 
no claim to artistic b
auty, yet it is a sub3tantial structure, characteristic of the men 
who built it and of the times in which it was built. 
For a number of years the congregJ.tion prospered. 
Ir. Brunton labored 
faithfully and successfully among the peùple, but in a felv years the Lard took him 
up to the higher sanctuary. He died in the 1839. The tombstone erected 
to his memory by his congregation bears the following inscrIption, written by Dr. 
\Villiam Taylor, of i\lontreal:- 
" Sacred to the memory of the Rev. William Brunton, 

linister ofthe United Associate Congregation ofL1.chute, 
who departed this life 12th August, 1839, in the 73 rd 
year of his age and the 45th of his ministry. 
" As a minister it was his chief desire to be found faithful, 
and so to preach the Gospel to save both himself and 
those that heard him, 
" As a Christian, he exemplified, in his daily conduct, 
the virtues which he taught in public, being distinguished 
for the humility of his disposition an ,J the patience which 
he displayed in many trials. 

He being dead, yet speaketh, 
" The Congregation of Lachute have erected this stone 
in testimony of their veneration for his memory. He 
was born in the parish of N ewbattle, County of Edinburgh, 
Scotland, 4th 
lay, 1767. He was ordained to the office 
of the 
Iinistry in 1795. He arrived in this country in 
J 820 and after preaching the Gospel in various othel 
s, undertook the pastoral care of this Congregatio.n 
in 18 3 1 , where he spent the last seven of hi';; 
valuable life." 

24 0 


Af(er Mr. Brunton's death, a dark cloud settled upon tl:e congregation; most of 
the people belonged originally to the Church of Scotland, and they wanted a minister 
of that communion. The few Seceders were strong for remaining in connection with 
the Secession or United Associate Synod. 
A.n inducement was held out by the Presbytery of Montreal, in connection with 
the Church of Scotland, that, if they would join the btler, they (the Presbytery) 
would give fifly pounds a year towards the minister's salary. A meeting of the 
people was called to decide the matter; the Church of Scotland party, being in the 
majority, thought that they should retain the building; and wished the question to 
be decided by vote. :Mr. McOuat, befor
 putting the question to the meeting, re- 
minded them that there was an arrearage of salary, which must be paid before deciding 
the matter. Though the church was crowded before the motion was made, before 
the vote was taken there were very few remaining, principaHy Seceders, and it was 
decided that they should have the church. The party wishing to join the Church of 
Scotland thought it was very hard to lose the church they had helped to build. In 
a most generous manner, John and James McOuat gave the Old Kirk party a vote, 
promising to pay them the sum of fùrty poul1ds- the amount they con tributed towards 
building the church-to be given when they built one in connection with the Church 
of Scotland. 'Vhen they commenced to build the Free Church, they applied for the 
forty pounds, Mr.l\1cOuat said: " N a, na; I promised to give it, when you built a church 
in connection with the Scottish Church." Thus they forfeited not only the forty pounds 
from the Seceders, but also the fifty pounds promised by the Presbytery of Montreal. 
These things caused hard feelings between the two parties. 
The congregation of the First Church was for some time without a minister; 
there was no Presbytery in the Lower Province, hence they were without a preacher. 
Dr. Taylor, of Montreal, the only minister in connection with the United Secession 
Church of Scodand at this time, was about to pay a visit to the Old Country. 
fhey requested him to present their case to the Synod at hon 1 e ; but he was not suc- 
cessful in securing a minister. After waiting for some time, two were sent out: Mr. 
Louden, who was settled at Kew Glasgow; and l\[r. Andrew Kennedy, who was 
placed at Lachute. At this time the congregation was very smaB, and could not give 
him a salary sufficieut to keep him and his family, so the church at home gave con- 
siderable help, which enabled him to remain som 
 time with them; but at length he 
resigned his charge. Thus, again, they were without a settled minister, though oc- 
casionally one was sent to them. At length they gave a call to the Rev. 'Valter Scott 
to become their pastor, which he accepted. He remained a few years, and resigned 
his charge. This was very much against the prosperity of the congregation; a few 
families left the church, as they thought they would never get another minister. The 
small remnant was \'ery much discouraged, but still were sturdy Seceders. True to 
their principles, they stuck firm and fast together, and could not be bribed to leav
their denomination, By this time, a few ministers had come out to Canada; a Pres- 
bytery was formed, and preachers were sent to the vacancies. After hearing a few, 




they gave a call to 1\1r. John 
Iackie, a licentiate of the United PresLyterian Church 
of Scotland, He came to Lachute in the m.:>nth of I, ovember, 18 5 8 , and preached 
to them that wimer. 'Vhen navigation opened, the Presbytery of Montreal-com- 
prising three ministers-came to L1.chute on the 18th day of 
Iay. They met in 
the Church, after hearing Mr. Mackie's trials for ordination, with which they were 
highly pleased, The calI that was presented to him was signed by fifteen members 
and twenty-five adherents. The stipend promised by the congregation W3S forty 
pounds-$I60. The Presbytery hesitated to place 
Iackie on so sm:1l1 a salary, 
He would take nothing from the missionary fund, so he commenced his ministry with 
little pecuniary recompense, and a very small congregation. The people were kind 
to him, and he labored among his litlle flock with some degree of success, preach- 
ing every Sabbath morning in the church at Lachute, and in the afternoon, altern- 
ately at the East Settlement-a distance of six miles-and at Brownsburg-a distance 
of five miles. By faithful preaching, and steady perseverance in visiting the families, 
his flock increased from twenty-five members to two hundred and ten, and the 
salary of $160 rose to $750. Thus, the material success was considerable. The 
regular attendance of the people, and their marked attention to the IIlstructio;1s given, 
showed that they appreciated the ministrations of their pastor. !n this short and 
imperfect sketch, reference has been made chiefly to the material progress of the 
congregation. But who can estimate the spiritual results, or the value and import- 
ance to the peopl
, of the faithful preaching of the Gospel, and witnessing for Christ 
for over sixty years, by the servants of the Lord? 

The REV. JOHN MACKIE, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church at Lachute, was 
born in Hamilton, Scotland, in 18z2, educated at G.asgow University, and received 
his theological training in the United Presbyterian Hall, Edinburgh. He was licensed 
to preach the Gospel by the Presbytery of Hamilton in 1854; a fen. years sub- 
sequently he came to Canada, and was ordained at Lachute in 1859. In 1864, he 
was married to Agnes, daughter of the late Capt. Robert Dunlop, of Greenock, Scot- 
land, who is a faithful helpmeet and a lady highly esteemed in the community, Mr. 

Iackie, during his long pastorate, has become much endeared to the people of 
Lachute; he is a good reasoner, and this advantage is enhanced by his pleasing 
delivery from the pulpit. He is a typical Scotchm::ll1, and, while posses5ing a fund of 
humor, he is quick to feel for the afflicted, and is always a welcom 
 and sympathetic 
visitor at the bedside of the sick. Mr. and Mrs. :Mackie have had nine children- 
three sons and six daughters-the eldest daughter died in infancy; the third son, in 
1888. The eldest son, John l\IcOuat Mackie, is manager of the Gould Manuf..tcturin!; 
Company, Boston, Mass.; the second son, Robert, is an engineer in Kc\V Jer
The second daughter, Mary, was married in 1887 to William Scott, Esq., of the 
lilling Co., Ottawa The four youngest daughters are still pursuing their 

24 2 



The beginning of this church has already been given in the preceding sketch of 
Mr. Mackie, and we have no data from which to compile an elaborate history. 
The Rev. Thomas Henry was inducted in 18....3, and continued to minister to the 
spiritual wants of his people till the year 1862, when he was succeeded by the Rev. 
10hn Eadie, who was pastor for seven years. After his removal to another field of 
iabor, the Rev. \ViIliam Furlong was called to the pastorate, and labored for nearly 
twenty year
. He resigned in the year 1892, and was succeeded by the present 
pastor, RE\'. N. \VADDELI., B.D. 
Mr. 'Vaddell, whose ability and geniality have rendered him popular with his 
parishioners, was born in the township of Osgoode, Carleton County, Ontario, in I8Sï, 
and educated at the Ottawa Collegiate Institute, McGill University, and tÌ1e Presby- 
terian College, ì\Iontreal, graduating in 1887. He was ordained by the Presbytery 
[ontreal, 23rd 
[ay, 1887, and inducted to the charge of Rus5eltown and COyer 
Hill, Que. After a pastorate of nearly six years, he was transferred to Lachute, 
and inducted to his present charge, 9th February, 1893, He was married to 

Iary Jane Fras
r of 
Iorewood, Ont.. in 18SS. 
The REV. THOMAS HENRY descended from the Kenmore Cordons of Lochim"ar, 
was born in the parish of Anwoth, Scotland, in 1798, and was educated at the Edin- 
burgh University; he was married [2th August, 1840, to Helen Dawson of Alloa, 
Clackmannanshire, Scotland. He taught in the family of Hannay, of Rusco, in the 
Parish of Amvoth, and was tutor for several years in the family of John Stein, Esq., 
of Kilbage, Clackmannanshire, one of his pupils being James Duff, nephew of Mr, 
Stein and son of the Hon. Sir Alexander Duff, G.C.H., Colonel of the 37th Regiment 
of Foot. The same James Duff was the father of the present Duke of Fife, son-in-law 
of the Prince of 'Vales. In 1840, the Colonial Committee of the Church of Scotland 
[r. Henry to Montreal, where he resided for a few months in charge of a city 
mission, when he was called to the Church of Scotland congregation at Lachute. .-\.t 
the Disruption in 1844, he severed his connection with that Church, clsting in his lot 
with the Free Church. His congregation, with the exception of one or two families, 
went with him, and, later, everyone of these families joined the Free Church, 
Henry's Church was then formed as the Free Church, of which .Mr. Henry was 
pastor for twenty-four years. He always took a deep interest in education, and was 
the first Principal of Lachute .-\.cademy, commencing that institution in his own 
study, toe room at present occupied by his son, \Villiam Henry, as an office. It was 
stlbsequently removed to the basement of Henry's Church, until suitable buildings 
were erected for it, 
Ir. Henry died in Lachute, 15th July, 1868; 
lrs. Henry, 
also, died in Lachute, 18th June, 1884. They had six children: Robert Hugh died 
in infancy; Grace Jane married '1 homas Barron, Registrar, of Lachute; Thomas 
Hugh died 1889; Helen, a teacher, died 1887; 'Villiam, Secretary-Treasurer of La- 
chute School Commissioners; Katherine Stein, teacher, of Lachute. 




A brief sketch of the Mi5sion of L Lchute, in the County of Argenteuil, mar not 
prove uninteresting to many of our readers. The town itself is beautifully situated, 
lying in a valley of the Laurentian Hills, forty-five miles distant from ::\Iontreal, and 
seventy-six from Ottawa, via the Canadian Pacific Railroad. The population is esti- 
mated to be about 1,7 00 . The first church services were held about the year 181 5 
by a traveIling missionary, who occasionally officiated in a barn or school-house, as 
opportunity presented itself. In the ye3.r 1868, the Rev. ::\Ir, Codd was appointt:d a 
missionary, with headquarters at Lachute, and a number of townships, amung others 
that of Arundel, then in the initial stage of its settlement, under his charge. Let us 
bear in mind this f:lct, that this mission is still in its infancy, so to speak, as com. 
pared with many other parishes in the Diocese of ::\Iont real. Real church life onl
began here, we may say, in the year 1878, when the Rev, H. J. EVclns \vas appointed 
the first regularly constituted Incumbent of the 
Iission. Regular services \\ ere held 
by him at L:lchute, Lake Louisa, 
e\V Ireland, Glen of Harrington, Arundel, Rock- 
away and Ponsonby, He was a man who was highly. esteemed and loved by all 
classes of people, To his untiring zeal and energy, Lach ute may well feel proud and 
happy in possessing such a nice, neat, comfortable church in which to worship" the 
Lord our ::\Iaker." Deep regret was felt at Mr. Evans' departure !rom this ::\Iissior. 
His SUccessor was the Rev. R. W. Brown, M.A., who held the parish for a short 
period, viz., January, 1884, to April, 1885. On the twenty-third day of August of the 
same year, the Rev. 'V. Sanders, B.A. (at the present time, Rural Dean), \\as ap- 
pointed by the Lord Bishop of Montreal, Incumbent. Rev. ,v. S.1nders worked 
hard and zealously for the cause of his ::\Iaster here, and largely through his efforts 
and generous assistance can Lachute offer to-day a very comfortable home to its 
clergyman. During his tenure of office, i.e., in the year 1886, a wise arrangem
was effected-to wit-the fornution of Arundel and parts adjacent into a s
mission, the Rev, 'V. HHris being made the first Incumbent th
reof. This made 
the work somewhat lighter, though arduous enough, and permitted ::\Ir. Sanders to 
concentrate his efforts more upon his work at Lachute, Lake Louis.l. and Edin
 forming, at that date, the pal ish of Lachllte. Owing to poor health the 
Incumbent felt obliged to place his resignation in the Bishop's hand-=. in order to obtain 
the rest which was needful. This was in the spring of 1892. At the same time, the 
Rev, Alex, Boyd Given (the present Incumbent) was appointed to succe
d him, 
The church work go
s on slowiy, but stecldily, we believe, in the name of Him who 
hath said, " My word sh l.ll not return unto 
 void, but shall accompli:>h that which 
I please." Lachl1te itself is not a Church of England town, it is essentially a 
Presbyterian settlement. The church is not strong-it is to be feared, for some tune 
at least, we shall have to depend much upon outside help for assistance to maint.lÌn 
her ministrations. Would that it were otherwise, indeed. fWd services are held 



regularly e,-ery Sunday, with an average attendance of 44. An occasional week-day 
sen-ice is a) so held. Our people do well, on the whole, to maintain the church, 
taking into consideration their numbers and their own plOperty. By the bye, the 
church, which was always considered to be a " U !lion Church II at Edina, was burnt 
down in the rear 1890, and so the services were consequently discontil
ued there. Louisa, in the township of \Ventworth, I 2 
 miles distant from Lachute, is the 
only rC311r out-mission station belonging to Lachute, Here. service is held every 

l1nday afternoon at 3 p.m. \Ve are 
lad indeed to have a church there of our own. 
Largdy, owing to the m:my kind friends in and elsewhere, this has 
become an accomplished fact-built and paid for at a cost of $r :000. A piece ofland 
has also been procured as "God's Acre," wherein the dead may rest until the resur- 
rection morn, when the trumpet of God shall sound-I' Atise ye dead and come to 
J lIdgment." 
Iany thipgs are still needed for this mission -such as a "church bell," 
" font," surplices, etc, \Ye have, indeed. great cause to be thankful for the past. 
:Many have helped us most willingly and ch eerflllly, and for this" we do, indeed, 
thank God for the past, and we do, indeed, take courage for the future." 


Cùpied from Church records. 
LACHUTE, 8th June, 1586. 
For over a year, the Board of the Convention East have been am.ious to have a 
Baptist Church organized in the thriving to\\'n of Lachute. At the earnest request of 
the Board, Rev. ]. Higgins consented to spend two weeks here, in gathering the 
few Baptists together, and preparing the way for the student who has been appointed 
to labor here during vacation. Pastor Higgins came here about the 1st of May, 
and was nearly a month in the field. The L'JrJ was with him, and gave him an 
,. open door." Special services were held in Olivet Hall, twenty-two sermons were 
preached, prayer meetings were held from house to house, and the congregation 
increased from So to 100, as the few Baptists were quickened and refreshed by the 
Holy Spirit. }ive believers applied for baptism, and were baptised by Pastor 
Higgins in the North River, on the last Sabbath of May. Several l,ersons are 
enquiring and searching the Scriptures to find their path of duty, Bro. Alex. Dewar 
has now entered upon his labors, and may the Lord bless him abundantly. 


LA CHUTE, June 4, 1886. 
At a special m
eting held in th
 home of Bro. D. McPhail, for the purpose of 
taking into consideration the advisability of uniting ourselves in a regular Baptist 
Clmrch, it was agreed by the brethren present to h3ld Recognition services in Olivet 
Hall, on Tu.:sday, 8th June. 




The following persons responded to the call to a Recognition meeting :-Dales- 
ville Church, Pastor J,, Deacon P. .!\IcArthur and Bro. John 'Campbell; 
Osnabruck, Rev. J. Higgins; F:rst Church, 
Iontreal, Rev. ilr. Welton, Deacon 
Kennedy; Brethren J. S. Buchan and D. K, 
IcLarin; Olivet Church, Montreal, 
Pastor A. G. Upham, Deacon D. Bentley, \V. 0, Stroud, \V. D. Larmonth, The 
new church was represented in the Council by Erethrell D. 
IcPhail, P. Cruise and 
_\.lex. McGibbon, also the student, Bro. .\lex. Dewar. On motion, Rev. _\. G. Upham 
w3: s 
ppointed Moderator, and D. Bcntley, Clerk. Prayer was offered by Pastor 
Hlggms. The twenty.three persons present adopted the New Hampshire articles, as 
a statement of their faith and practice, believing that to be in harmony with the 
teaching of God's \Vord. There are in all twenty-eight b
ptised believcr-; who ha\-e 
united in forming this Church, The request to Council is herè gi\'en, as follows :- 
\Ve, the undersigned, having been led by God's spirit to receive the Lord Jesus 
Christ as our persorJal Saviour, and having been buried with him in baptism on pro- 
fession of faith, hereby pi esent ourselves before God, and one another, desiring to be 
organized and recognized as a regular Baptist Church, and we do hereby adopt, as a 
statement of our faith and practice, the summary of Scriptural doctrine, the X ew 
Hampshire Confession. 
D. McPhail, Alex. l\IcGibbol1, P. Cruise, Mrs. T. Jackson, 
[iss \[argaret 
. P. Cruise, :\lr. and Mrs. Wm. Ruchan, Miss 
r. Cruise, 
[rs. C, 
Barker, Miss K. 
lcGibbon, Mrs. Ja
. McGibbon, :\Iiss E. Campbell, Mrs. 
. Dunne, 
::\1r. R. S. Stackhousc. :\Iiss L. Stackhouse, l\Ir. A. .McArthur, 
Irs. Peter :\[CGibbon, 

. McGibbon, Miss E. 1\lcGib:,on, 
Iiss Maria :\IcGibbon, 
[rs. .\. \lc.\.r l hur, 
R. Dunne and fohn Cruise. 
After hear
ng this request and the statement of the doctrine by the people, it 
was moved by Dr. \Velton, and seconded by Pastor King, that the Council gladly 
recognize the body of believers who have presented themselves to-day, before this 
Council, as a regular Baptist Church, This was carried unanimously. The folluwing 
committee-Pastors King and Higgin
, and Deacon Bentley-\\ele requcstel\ to 
make arrangements for public Recognition serviccs in the evening, at 7.3 0 o'clock, 
Rev. J. King addressed the Church members on their new röpon::.ihility and dutic<; 
to each other. The 
Ioderator, Pa
tor Upham, gave the I ight hand of fellowship to 
Bro. Dewar (stuùent) in the name of the new Chu:ch, welcoming the L3.chute Church 
into the body of Baptist Churches of Canada, .\fter prayer, the COlincil adjourned. 
During the winter of 188 7, a gracious work was accomplished from special ser- 
vices held by the Pastor, and John Currie, Evangelist, of Montreal. \bout thirty 
persons professed conversion. The present membership is 5 r. . 
Mr. Higgins remained as Pastor of this Church till the faJ1 of 1895, commandmg 
the respect of the peoplc by his able exposition of the Scripture and his consistent 
Christian life, and winning their affections by his kindly, genial manner. 
The late Rev. Mr. King, oÍ DalesviJ1e, in his reminiscences, s
ys :-" John 
Higgins was a remarkable boy. In his early years, by the d
ath of.1 11S parents, .he 
was left a helpless orphan, but the Lord, true to Ills promIses! up for hun 
. He lived in Chatham with Andrew Duncan and hIS wIfe, who were 
childless. Afrer he had been some time with Duncan, he camc to Sabbath School, 
and proved himself a bright and diligent pupil. People felt interested in. him, and 
predicted that, if spared, he would make his mark in the world. It W.:lS wlll
e attend- 

24 6 


ing this school, that he b
came impressed with divine things, and! along with others, 
was baptised and added to the Church. He had a strong desIre to do good and 
preach the Gospel, yet, doubt of his own ability a.nd his. want of means to obtain an 
éducation were obstacles in the way j but these dIfficultIes were overcome, when he 
decided to give himself to the Lord's work-God p
ovided him mean.s and raised up 
friends where he did not expect them. After attendmg school some tIme at Lachute, 
he went to "T oodstock, where he studied the usual time under Dr. Fife, with honor 
to the doctor and credit to himself. During the vacation at 'Voodstock, he went to 
preach at Cote S1. George, wher
 there is a small 
, an
 his preaching was 
blessed to the conversion of souls. After completmg Ins studIes at 'Voodstock, he 
accepted a call from the church at Petite Nation. Between that place and North 

ation Mills, his labors have been greatly blessed of God. He has since removed to 
_\ good many years have passed since Mr. King wrote the above sketch of Mr, 
Hiauins, during which the latter has labofl'd in diffc:rent places, with credit to himself 
andthe good of others. He married a daughter of Mr. McGregor, of Dalesville, who 
has been a worthy partner in his toils-a woman esteemed for her kindness, bene- 
volence and earnest Christian character. 
"Then Mr. Higgins resigned his pastorate at Lachute, a call was given to Rev. 
T. R. Cresswell, RA., who had just completed his university course in Toronto, and 

\'as then in Montreal. 
lr, Creswell was born in Derbyshire, England. He took a 
Theological COUI se at Nottingham Baptist College, completing which, in the spring of 
18 9 0 , he came at once to Canada, and entered Mc
laster University, Toronto, from. 
which he graduated in ] 890. During the time that he remained a student of the Uni- 
versity, he preached one summer in Clarence and Rockland, the next summer in St. 
Catharines, On1., and also the following SUII1mer, after graduating, in Montreal. 
He then visited England, and on his return accepted, November, 18 94, the pastorate 
at Lachute, and was ordained the same month. He was married, 3 rd July, 1895, to 
:\liss 1\1. M. Howell, of Montreal. 11r. Cresswell is highly popular in the community; 
his sermons are clear and logical, diction good, and his delivery fluent and effective. 
.-\ very neat and comfortable Baptist Church building was completed on Main 
street in 1887. It is brick, and possesses all the improvements and conveniences 
found in our most modern city churches. 


 otwithstanding considerable effort to obtain data with regard to the above 
organization, we have gathered but the few fnllowing facts. 
It will be seen by what has already been stated by :\lr. J. S. Hutchins, that the 

[ethodists were the first Christian laborers in this field; a long blank in their his- 
tory follows, and it was not till 1852 that they erected a church edifice. As the body 
was neither large nor wealthy, it is not surprising that in building it, they should have 
ted quite a large debt; but all contributed, as far as they were able, toward 
defraymg the expense-none, probably, more generollsly than the late Thos. Jackson. 
hurch building was erected so far from what now constitutes the main part of 
the village, that another was erected in a more central and convenient location, in 
1882. This is the fine brick church on Main street which this denomination still 
. 'Fhe old c.hurch was destroyed by fire with the store of P. H, Lane, Esq., 
near winch It stood, 111 September, 1894. A substantial and commodious parsonage 
has also been erected contiguous to the new church. 



As !:tated in the history of St. Andrews, Lachute became the head of the 
Circuit ill 18 6 5. The following are the names of the first few ministers who 
came after the change was made, with a table which shows the state of the 
Church at that period. 


'Eß .,ê-V 
::I..... u:...;; 

(!) . 
I ê"'" 

õ . 
d C 
t.I ::I 


I ::l.

186 5 I \V nl. Shaw. B. A . . . . .. ... - -, ....... .",...... , , . . 220 
Grenville united with it. I 
1866 Joseph Kilgour, Wm. S. McCullough, B.A.... ..... . / 234 
1867 r oseph Kilgour * t. . . . . . .. ...... ...... .. , .., .,.,.. 25 0 

335 5 10 I 210 I 12 5 0 
33 6 I 5 1 5 210 12 75 
4 60 5 20 21
 13 61 
I f 

· Korth Gore set off. t Grenville again set off. 

The ministers who have had charge of this Circuit during the last few years are 
th<: Rev. John \Valton, John Armstrong, J. V, McDowel1, B.A., \V. Craig and the 
present pastor, Rev. Mr. Clipsham. 
It should be stated that the late Thomas Jackson, besides contributing liberally 
towards the erection of the new church, also gave the ground for its site. He was 
one of the early settlers of Lachute, was highly esteemed, and died in the spring of 
1895; at an advanced age. He left one son and four daughters j the former, whose 
name also is Thomas Jackson, is one of the prosperous and respected farmers of 
Lachute. l\Ir. F. C. Ireland, in his "Sketches of Lachute," gi\'es the following ad- 
ditional history of l\lethodism in this section of the country, which we règard as well 
worth preserving :- 
I'In 1810, the Rev, Thomas Madden was appointed to the Ottawa Circuit of 
the United States. This Circuit embraced all the territory between Montreal and 
Kingston. !\Ir. Madden had just married a daughter of David Breckenridge, Esq., of 
Brockville, a 11Ian of considerable standing in the communÍly, and his daughter had 
been brought up tenderly, and was accustomed to all the comforts and many of the 
refinements of good society, Mr. Madden took his bride with him on the rounds of 
the Ottawa Circuit-one appointment of which was in the East Settlement near 
Lachute. A few Methodists who had come from the American side lived here, and 
among them was a Mr. Hyatt, whose rudely constructed barn was the first chapel 
in which the settlers from many miles around assembled to hear the Gospel preached. 
In the loft of Mr. Hyatt's new log-house, the minister ar.d his wife found a comfort- 
able 10dg i '1g place for the night. The HyaUs were an intelligent and interesting 
couple, and their house was the home of the itinerates for many years, and was en- 
joyed and looked forward to with pleasing anticipations when traveling for miles, 
through the uncleared country, over the roughly constructed roads and bridgeless 
ri,-ers, from By town to MontreaL" 

Ir. Ireland also records another incident: "The Rev. 1\[r. Luckey, who had 
closed his labors for the year, by preaching his last sermon to the people of the East 
Settlement in Mr. Hyatt's barn, left the next day, to attend the Conference in 
York. In crossing the Ottawa river at Point Fortune, his horse got into the water, 
and was nearly drowned. 1\1r, Luckey also narrowly escaped, but '''as lucky enough 
to get safe on the other side. Being fatigued, he went to a French house, to seek 

24 8 


rest and something to cat, His appearance was not very clerical just at that time, 
His beard had grown out considerably since his last shave, some Wteks previously, 
and when he asked for something to eat, the simple-mir.ded Lut kind French people 
mistook his meaning, and brought him a razor, and it was some time before he could 
get them to understand that he was hungry. Rev. 1\1r. Hibbard was another of the 
itinerates who followed. On one occl!'ion, while attempting to preach at Hyatt's 
barn, and the people had just settled down to hear a good sermon, as they had been 
accustomed to: poor Hibbard suddenly became embarrassed, and" broke down," as 
many a clever young man has done in his first efforts at public speaking. :\lr. Hyatt, 
being a local preacher, took up Ihe text, and held forth to the great delight of all 
present, some of whom had traveled many miles to attend the service." 
The Methodists have always hai a flourishing Sunday SchooL Olivet Hall, built 
by Mr. James Fish, was used for some time by this School, but tinding it too small 
for their accommodation, in 1877, Mr. Fish enlarged it by an addition at the end, 2{ 
feet square. 
REV, \VILLIAM WARNE CLARK, D. D., is a member of an Argenteuil family. 
He is a son of Orange Clark and Ann Warner, his wife, and was born 16th l\Iarch, 
1838. He entered the Methodist ministry when 18, was ordained by Dr. Stenson at 
Kingston, in 1860, went to the United States in 1870, and joined the New York East 
Conference, of which he is still a member. Dr. Clark received his honorary degree 
from the 'Vesleyan University, Bloomington, Ill., in 1880. He is a member of the 
Committee of the Brooklyn .Methodist Hospital, and pastor of Brooklyn Sixth Avenue 
Church. His sermons are illnstrated by large paintings, and among the titles are 
such as these :-" The House that Rum built," " Mr. Tongne of Tattle '1'own,"* 


The first regular Roman Catholic services in Lachute were held by the Rev. 
Calixte Ouimet, curé of St. Andrews, who also erected a church building and pres- 
bytery. This church was destroyed by fire in 1876, shortly after its erection. The 
present church was immediately erected, though it has since been enlarged; it is 
brick, 80 feet in length, 35 feet in width, with seats for 400 péople. 
Rev. Arthur Derome succeeded Mr. Ouimet at Lachute, and was the first resi- 
dent clergyman; he remained here fifteen years, extended the church twenty feet in 
length, and added tlie sacristy. He removed to Montreal, and was succeeded by the 
Rev. Anthirne Carrière, on the 1st of January, 1894, 
The Rev, !\ir. Carrière, who slill remains incumbent, was born at St. Benoit, 
educated at the SeminalY of St, Therese, and ordained in August, 1878. Previous 
to coming to Lachute, he was engaged as assistant in different churches, being thus 
employed ten years in 
Iontrea1. He has recentJy made extensive repairs on the 
interior and exterior of the fine brick presbytery at Lachute. His congregation is a 
large one-the communicants numbering 700. 


The 'V. C. T, U. of Lachute was organized by Mrs. Youmans in Januarr, 1883, 
lrs. ,V. A. Leggo as president; :\11'5. H. Fraser, jun., secretary j and the late 
Mrs. H. :\1. Gall, treasurer
 It was, with the other unions, formed into a Provin- 
cial Union in ::;eptembcr of the same year, 1883. '1 he present officers are :-Mrs. 
Mackie, President; Mrs, A. J. Simpson, secretary; and Mrs. Barley, treasurer. 
'" Contributed by E. S. Orr. 



In October, 1895, Lachute entertained the Provincial Union. 
. !he Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor, a Union one, was organ- 
Ized III 1889; MALCOUI :\IcCALLuM was the first president of the Local Union, and 
James Armstrong, of the Lachute Road, is the present president, The first president 
of the County Union was John Loynachan. 
A short time after the organization of the Y. P. S. C. E., the 
Iethodist Church 
formed an Epworth League, which, after about a year, fell through' but in 18 94, 
was fe-organized, and is still carried on. ' , 
In 1893, a junior Y. P. S. C, E. was formed in connection with Henry's Church, 
The original Christian Endeavor Society has never lapsed, but continues to hold 
meetings each Monday evening in Raitt's Hall. 
_\ Mechanics' Institute was formed in Lachllte, 1st of March, 1855, the trustees 
being Dr. Thomas Christie, John Meikle, and Samuel Hills; John M
ikle was the 
first president. It began with a membership of 21, and the 3.mount subscribed was 
.l3 0 10S. It soon received quite an addition from the District Library Association 
which united with it. From a Report to the Provincial Secretary, 5th January, [856, 
we learn that the Institute had 140 members, and possessed a library of 1,000 vols., 
valued at .;{;200, and that the total revenue was .;{;I60 15 s . 
For a time the records were kept regularly, which shows that the interest in the 
Institute was alive; but later, the blanks that occur grow longer, until it is evidf'nt that 
the organization exi:;ted only in name. An effort on the part of a fe\v individuals has 
been made at different times to resuscitate it, and recently, some interest has once more 
been awakened. The present officers are: Dr. Christie, M. P., president; Thomas 
Barron, vice-pre:;ident and C, D. Dyke, secretary, During the height of its popular- 
ity, it possessed a library of 1,700 volumes; many of these have been lost, but the 
library is still in existence, and contains very many valuable books, 
Lachute has always possessed quite a goodly number of people devoted to tem- 
perance. \Ve have no data to show when the first movement in this direction began, 
but it is well known that it was lon
 before the organization. of the Sons of Temper- 
ance in 1852, 
The erection of Victoria Hall by this Society shows that it mu;;t have been a 
large and flourishing organization, but, as in ail other places, it had its day of progress 
and popularity, and then its period of decline, The Good Templars and other tem- 
pt'rance societies have since followed, and been attended with more or less success. 
But the good work of temperance still goes on, not alone by the influence of organ- 
izations, pledged only to abstain from the use of spirituous liquors, but by those like 
the \V. C. T. U. and Christian Endeavor Societies, which, hand in hand with the 
Church of Christ, lead the erring one to the light which reveals his weakness, and 
shows to him a habitation whose foundation is rock. 
For many years Lachute has not wanted for music to cheer her citiztns on 
days. A Band was formed by the Sons of Temperance, about the year 1855, 
which a similar organization has usucllly been in existence here, though sometImes 
holding to life with a precarious tenure. 
There are now two Bands-one composed of English-speaking members, the 
other of :French; the latter was but recently organized. 
A Masonic Lodge was opened here in September, 1880, called "Argenteuil 
Lodge." \Villiam Hay was the first Master; \V. J. Simpson, M.P.P., filled this 
office three years, and Harry Slater is the present Master. 


25 0 



One has but to gain a view of the \Vest End? or Lachute l\Ii.1ls, as the post o
is named, to comprehend the fact, that Lachute IS a manufactunn
 town o
 no ht.tle 
importance. Its water unsurpassed; 
p and dO\V
1 the r!ver on eIther sIde 
are mills and factories, the dill of whose machmery, combmed wIth the roar of the 
fal1s, is an index of the many industries by which hundreds of families are main- 
By whatever road one ent
rs the west pa
t of the to
vn., the first object t
meets his eye will be the tall chImney and massl\ e stone bUlldmgs-the paper mills 
of J. C. 'VII50n. They rise conspicuo
lsly-a grand wit!less, not only to the possi- 
bilities within reach of a young man's mdustry and energy, but to the progress of 
Canadian manufacturers. 


The first view of :Mr. 'Vilson will assure the most casual observer that he pas- 

esses more than ordinary ability; his clear penetrating eye. and quick, dignified 
movements, at on<..e declare him a business man, and one whose executive ability 
gives him the light to command. He rather enjoys relating the story of his early 
struggles, and is pleased to remember th at, through the blessing of God, his own 
foresight and industry have brought him to his present state of financial indepen- 
dence. He was born in 1841, near Re
halkin, in the County of Antrim, Ireland. 
oon afterward his family came to Montre::!], where his father obtained a 
position as pattern maker in St. Mary's Foundry. 
The taste of the yo
nger Wilson inclining to lI.echanics, he was apprenticed, at 
the age of twelve, to leam the trade of machinist. A severe accident, however, pre- 
vented his completing the full term of apprenticeship, and then, through the kindness 
of friends, he became a pupil for a year and a half in the 
IcGill Normal School. Soon 
after this, the family in which he then made his home moved to Reauharnois, Que. 
On arriving there, not wishing to depend on his friends for his maintenance, he 
at once found employment at painting in a furniture manufactory. 
One evening, soon afterward, when he had finished his work for the day, two 
gentlemen called to see him. Having heard, they said, that he possessed a dipIr,ma 
from the Normal School in Montreal, and having al
o heard of his industrious and 
steady habits, they had come to engage him to teach the village school. the former 
teacher having left. Though reluctant, on account of his youth and inexperience 
in teaching, to accept the position, after some deliberation, he closed with thcir offer 
of t\V

ty dollars per month, for one month, on trial. To op.e knowing him, it is not 
surpnsmg that he was highly popular with his pupils, and that he remained in the 
school for three years. 
. Oue of his greatest anxieties during the first winter was to save money enough to 
e certain debts he had contracted for clothing before leaving Montreal. 

VIth hIS wages and several dollars earned by his mechanical skill during his even- 
mgs! he had enough left, after paying his board, to meet these accounts, and, as soon 
as hIs school closed, he visited the Metropolis and paid them. 
"Never/, said 
Ir. 'Vilson, "have I felt prouder or more happy than I did when 
I fulfilled thIs promIse, and my mind was relieved of these debts." 
. Th
eflection,. that the J;>rofession of teaching gave little scope for the exercise.of 
I11S ambl
l?n, !low 1I1duced h1l11 to abandon it, and going to Belleville, Ont., he obtam- 
ed a positIOn 111 a book store. He rel.l1ained there some time, gaining that experience 

.J. ('. \\ "SUX. 





2; I 

and knowledge of the businEss which equipped him for better positions. He \Va" 
next employed in a large publishing and newspaper house in Toronto, and from this 
in 1863, he went to New York. His pecuniary capital at that time consisted of just 
thirty-four doJlars-a larger sum than that of many other young men who have land- 
ed strangers in the great city, yet not a sum encouraging to one, with neither friends 
nor employment. 
By chance. he fell in w!th anotl'er yo
mg c;anadia!1 of good parentage, but with- 
out money, who for some tune had been III vam seeklllg a position. Ther roomed 
in the same hotel, and spent several days between sight-seeing and looking for 
i\ t last, one morning Mr. \\ïlson received an offer of four dollars per week to 
work in a subordinate position in a warehouse; but resolÙng that he would 110t 
accept this paltry sum until all hopes had failed of doing better, he arranged with the 
manager to keep the place open for him for a week. Fortunately, the next morning, 
as he started out in quest cf work, he noticed the sign of T. W. Strong, pubìisher, 
and he at once entered and enquired for the proprietor. He w
s shown into his office, 
when he made known the object of his visit. 
"You ha,-e seen the advertisement, I suppose, that I I
ut into The IIerald yes- 
terday for an a
sist.111t," said l\Ir. Strong, who, according to :!\Ir. \\Tilson's opinion, 
combintd the qualities of sternness and dignity, "Ko," was the replr. " I came here 
on observing your sign." "'Veil," he said, " I have advertised for a young man, and 
if YOll will come in again this afternoon, I will tell you whethe
 I want you or no1." 
" Very encouraging," thought the young applicant, and, pursuant to the request. he 
was at the office that afternoon. The proprietor had just received a large number of 
letters which he had began to peruse, After reading two or three, he addressed his 
visitor with: 
" 'Vhat wages do you expect, sir? " 
"Twelve dollars a week," was the reply. 
" Here, look over some of these," said :\lr. Strong, h,mding him some letters. 
With many misgivings, perceiving that they were applications for the po::!ition he 
was seeking, Mr. Wilson took the letters and read. The first one did not allay his 
anxiety, as the wriler offered to work for six doJlars per week; still, his crude style 
and bad spelling might counterbalance the effect produced by his moderate dem,llld 
of salary, The ncxt ]ettcr was more assuring, as the writer wanted twenty-five 
dollars per week. After reading two or three more, with the same alternation of hopes 
and fears, he letullled the bundle to Mr. Strong, who had been carefully observmg 
him, and, no doubt, forming an estimate of his capability. "
o you want twelve 
dollars?" he queried, as he took the letters. . 
" I trust I can make myself of that value to you," was the modest reply. 
" 'Veil, J'ou see what offers are made in these letters, 1>üt I can afford to gin
ten dollars per week." Though highly el:üed with the offer, he did not aCCl]>t it 
till after a few minutes delay. On expressing his willingness to begin wOIk at 
that salary, his employer said: . 
" 'V ell, now, this is Friday; you will want a day to look about the cIty; "up- 
pose you come next Monday? " . . 
" Yery well," said Mr. Wilson, "I wIll do so j " he then departed much happIer 
than when he entered. 
His friend who had accompanied him was o
ltside, .anxiolls to hear his .rcpC'rt, 
and was scarcely less pieased at the result than \Vllson hImself. He no\\ deuded t(l 
accept the position first offered to Wilson, which conllnan
ed the salary of four 
dollars per week. Not long after 
lr. \\ïlson entered th
 serVIce of Strong, the 

25 2 


keeper of the estab
ishment was taken sick, and Strong: insiste
t \V
lson should 
manage the books tIll the boo
keeper recovered, To hIs surpnse, In gOIng over the 
books he discovered the startlmg fact, that one account con tamed an error of several 
nd dollars in favor of Strong. The fact was reported to his employer, but he 
was so reluctant to believe it, he asked 'Vilson to go over the account again very 
carefully. Though perfectly satisfied th
t his figures were corr
ct, he did as requ
and with the same result as before, StIll doubtful, the proprIetor now called 111 the 
:lid of an expert accountant, and his labors fully confirmed the truth of \Vilson's 
statement, and Mr. 
trong had the satisfaction of knowin.g !hat he was rich
r by 
several thousand dollars than he had supposed. He now lllslsted that Mr. \VIlson, 
\\ ith a proper increase of salary, should take sole charge of his books, and he shortly 
after lett for a visit to Europe. Not long after his departure, a fire broke out in Bar- 
num's :ðluseum, destroying a building on Fulton street and another on I\nn street, 
both belonging to Mr. Strong. 
'Vith the energy and promptness peculiar to him, Mr, \Vilson at once 
et about 
rebuilding, and, before his employer returned, he had the new buildings, with many 
improvements, nearly completed. During the remaining years he was with Strong, 
he had entire charge of his establishment, enjoying his esteem and confidence, as well 
as that of the other employees. But he married, dming his stay he] e, Miss Jeanie 
Kilgour, of the town of Beauharnois: Canada; and Mrs. .Wilson having a strong love 
for the home of her youth, and being desirous to exchange Ne\v York for 
her husband decided to return to the latter city-a step which he was the more fully 
inclined to take by the solicitations of friends. 
On his return, he entered the employment of Angus, Logan & Co., wholesale 
stationers and paper manufacturers, as bookkeeper. Three and a half years sub- 
sequently, a desire to enlarge his sphere of action led him to begin business on his 
own account, and with the assistance of his employers he Legan to make paper bags 
-the first ever made in Canada by machinery. The business proved a success, so 
[r. 'Vilson soon repaid his old employers for their assistance, and uecame one of 
their largest customers. His business-, begun on a modest scale and sure basis, at 
first required only two flats of a building, but, in process of time, a whole block of 
stores, with six flats each, was secured. In 1880, his business demanded that he 
should make his own paper. He purchased the water power at Lachute, and erected 
the mills-whose history is given below. 
Mr. Wilson has not selfishly confined his time and talents to his own personal 
business; but, whenever they have been called into requisition by the public for a 
salutary purpose, they have never been withheld. The people of the County of 
.-\rgenteuil, in consideration of his ability, elected him to represent their interests in 
the Dominion Parliament. In this new position, fortune, which thus far had been 
50 prodigal of her gifts, did not desert him, and his reputation as a good reasoner, 
debater and politician largely increased. He contributed much toward the reorgan- 
ization of the "Fish and Game Protection Club of the Plovince of Quebec II and for 
twO years was its president. For the same length of time, also, he was pr;sident of 
the Irish Protestant Benevolent Society, and has been an alderman of Montreal, and 
chairman of many important civic committees. He is also a Life-Governor of the 
l, the Protestant Insane Asylum, the Montreal Dispensary, and the 

Iatermty HospItal. He has taken an interest in the educational institutions of 
:\Iontreal, and was for some time a member of the Board of Protestant School Com- 
ners, Religious and benevolent institutions have profited by his generous 
He has always manifested a fondness for tools, a taste enhanced, no doubt, by 





- ...- 
n: - 



I .' 










f .. 



his use of them in his early days, He has quite a number which he then made and 
exhibits them to his friends with no little priòe. Possessed of a.n accurate eve' and 
much mechanical taste, he dislikes to see any work, no matter how trivial, bear the 
appearance of having been done in haste, or with indifference to method. 
The following story, which he sometimes enjoys telling, illustrates how well his 
peculiarity of wanting his work well done is known to his employees :_ 
On a certain occasion he had at his mills, in Lachute, one of his favorite handr 
men, a carpenter whom he had brought from Montreal to do some special work in 
his office. This man, it seems, had been told that .Mr. \Vilson was just as particular 
about his work in Lachute as in :l\Iontreal, and knowing how quick was his eye to 
discern levels and uprights, and that everything must be done by level, square and 
plumb, he thought to have a laugh at !\Ir, \\Tilson's expense. 
The wood-work around a wash-basin needed repairing, and, on being ordered by 

Ir. \Vilson to repair it, the man came into the office with a spirit level under one 
arm, a square over the other, a plumb-bob in one hand, and hammer and nails in the 
,e \Vhat are you going to do with all these tools, Richa
'd?" asked :\fr. \Vilson. 
"Repair the wash-basin, sir," replied Richard. 
" Nonsense, you want nothing but the hammer and a few nails." 
"Indeed, sir, I know when you want a job done, you want it level and square 
and plumb. and, by golly, we OHlst use these tools on every job." 
"Mr. 'Vilson saw and appreciated Richard's humor. 
" Mr. 'Vilson is an ardent disciple of Isaac \Valton, :lnd annually seeks the seclu- 
sion of shady river banks and mountain streams and lakes with rod and line; but 
that he is stren uously opposed to the wanton destruction of the finny tribe, i') witness. 
ed by the efforts he put forth in aiding to organize the Fish and Game Protection 
30cietyof the Province of Quebec."* 
He has five children living-three sons and two daughters. The sons are all 
connected with him in business. 
\Villiam 'V. r.., the eldest, has charge of the pulp mills at St. Jerome, and also 
looks after the manufacturing and the factory, Montreal. 
F. Howard, the second son, occupies the position of a
sistant c:1.shier in the 
Head Office, Montreal. 
Edwin H. is at the paper mills, Lachute, learning the art of paper-making, with 
the intention of having charge of the mills at some future date, 
His daughters are Ethel F. and .-\nnie L.; the three boys being the eldest, and 
the two birls the youngest of the' family living. 


The illustrations represent "Lachme Paper 1\1 ills" as the)' now are, in 18 9 6 
erected at a cost of over $3 00 ,cùo. . 
As stated in the sketch of Mr, Wilson's life, he was seized with the idea in ISj9. 
that, to place his business in a front position in the trade, it would be necessary for 
him to own his own paper mills, and he made several visits to different parts of the 
Country near 
!ontreal, where water-powers exi"t, knowing that a good water-power 
and proper facilities for getting the raw material into the mill, and the prodnct ont of 
it, Wele the first and most essential points to consider. 

'*' For the last paragraph, as well as for some others in the :lh,vt.> <;k_ __ ') of \1 r. \\'il..on, \V :H 
lndebted to "Borthwick's Gazetteer of :\Iontreal." 



The Townships were visited, and the country east and west of Montreal, but 
none of them seemed to suit. 
As the Quebec, 
1()ntreal, Ottawa & Occidental Rai'way had just h
en completed 
from :\[ontreal to Ottawtl, and parties in the parish wae desirous of establishing 
manufacturing industries there, Mr. 'Vilson was led tl) Lachute. "fteT surveying the 
\\'ater-powers, he decided that if a purchase could be made on reasonable terms, he 
would locate his paper mills here. He did not come to this conclusion until he had 
found that there was ample water-power for a mill such as he intended at that time 
to build. Lachute was then a village of about 650 inhabitant-;, and the site on 
which the paper mill stands to-day was a .forest of pines, oaks and mapJes, After 
considerable bantering between the owners of the land, they agreed
with Mr. Wilson in 
the matter of terms. He then made plans for his first mill, and appeared before the 
Mayor and Council of the PMish of St. Jerusalem d' Argenteuil, Tnomas B:uron, 
Esq.. being the :\Iayor. At a meeting convened in the oJd Court House, where 
the Council sat, :\Ir. WiJson exhibited his plans, and petitioned the Parish for exemp- 
tion from taxation for twenty years, providing he built the mills as he designed. The 
Council, with very Iii tIe delay, complied with his request, and, certainly, they have 
no reason to regret their action of the faJl of 1 g79. 
In Jm
e, 1880, the first mill of the four, which the block of buildings now repre- 
sents, was stane1. It was a great task to undertake-excavation.., flumes, wheel-pits, 
tone, and getting the siding in; but the mill-i. e., the building-was com- 
pleted some time in November. The machinery was pldced in it during the Fall of 
1880 and the \Vinter of 1881, and the first pJper run on the machine (which was a 
double cylinder machine, made by Rice, Barton & Fales, of \Vorcester, Mass., after 
:\lr. Wilson's special plans), on or about 1St April, 1881. 
During the years 1881 a:1d 18:-;2, 1\1r. \\'1150n had great difficulty ill procllring a 
proper forem-in for the mill i-he wa:; intent on manufacturing a class of manilla 
papers such as were manufactured in the United States. Not until the winter of 
3 di I he solve the problem, why he did not sllcceed in making the clas') of IXlper 
he wished. and not till he had obtained the second expert from the States. It may 
be a secret in the trade, still it is none the worse for being told, and may help some 
other paper maker placed in the same position that Mr. 'Vlls3n was. The kind of 
lime for boiling the jute stock was the secret of the trouble and the s
cret of the 
success. Lime from :\fontreal, from Hull, and from L:t.chute was tried, but it did 
not prove satisfactory. Not until Mr. Wilson ordered his first carload of lime from 
Dudswe!l (away beyönd Sherbrooke), and bo:led his first boiler of stock with it. did 
he succeed, and then the mystery was unravel1ed. The component parts of the lime 
are a very important maller to consider in boiling jute or manilla stock. 
The Lachute paper mill took a first rank in the Canadian market for manilla 
paper:; from that time forth, and has maintained it ever since. Not onlv did he manu- 
facture maniìla paper, in rolls, for his paper-b:lg machines in Monlrea1; but also made 
"heet or ream paper for his growing trade wilh the grocers and general dealers all 
over the country. 
. In 1885, the business had grown so much, that it was nece
sary to build another 
llllll, or add another paper machine, with all its attendant machinery. That mill 
was commenced in :\Iay, 1885, and was completed in the fall of that year. 
The first pJ.per made on the new machine (which was a Harper Fourdrinier) 
was made on the 7th January, 1886, and after that had been running two or three 
ars, Mr. Wi
son saw that it would be necessary, in the very near future, to add 
sul1 another mill, and of much larger dimensions, The stone was there 0:1 the ground 
waiting to b
 quarried. The cut stone, of course, for trimmings for window:; and 


I \ 
f t \ I " 
i \ I' 


\ , 



. \ 



-. a 

\ j . : \ 
. - 

fit - 

I , 

I' il l "; " 
I I I ,11 1 1 1 ' 
t , 






t I 
, r ____ 








corners-lime stone-is from Montrea1. So, in 1891, Mr. Wilson commenced the 
largest add ition, and the completion of th
 block of buildings, a
d in the 
otograph picture of thes
ills, Tail-races were curied out in 1891. In 1892, 
sull further work was accomphc;hed, and the hwer flats of the addition were com- 
pleted. In 1893, the whole mill was finished, and in 1894, 21st May. paller was run 

)Ver the new machil
e. This new machine, a straight Fourdrinier. one of the largest 
In the country, specially adapted for fast running. 
[r. \Vilson prizes very much. 
The business now has grown so much, that he contemplates, in the very near 
futurr, placin þ the fourth macJ
ine in the. mill; .the building is already there (tint is, 
the room for It), and all that will be required will be to place the machine and the 
pulp engines ;-the water"wheels and wheel-pits are all complete and ready. 
The Lachute Paper Mills now have a daily output of about 15 tons, and when 
the amount reaches 20 tons, 
lr. \Vilson's idea of a perfect mill will be accomplished, 

 ot without proper storage could such a mill be carried on, consequently, there 
have been built, on the line of the siding which comes from the main line of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, five large storehouses and a stone warehouse for storing 
the finished paper. There is also a siding running down in front of the mill, so that 
raw material may be placed in tl,e mill, or in the storehouses, by just handing the 
stock out of the cars, or the finished product from the s tone warehouses or mill into 
them. The facilities for loading and unloading, and for shipping, could not be excelled 
in any mill in the country, 
'Vhen doub1ing the mill, in 1885, Mr. \Yilson conceived the idea, that he was 
going to draw heavily upon the water-power, and as his business up to that time 
was a very exact one, and he could not afford to shut down for any length of time, he 
placed a large steam engine of 250 horse power, \vith boilers to supply steam for the 
same, and this he has found to be a very wise precaution, for in dry summers (such 
as the summer of 18 95), the steam-engine had to be drawn upon to supply the power, 
or, rather, to help the power, and so the business g"Jes on without interruption. 
About three years ago, he conceived the idea of placing not only the paper bag 
machines that were in 
lontreal, but a set of the most impro\ped, to manufacture the 
celebrated self-opening square bag, in the building which he had erected for the 
purpose, that is, for the paper bag factory. at one end of the mill. In thic; paper bag 
factory there are fifteen paper bag m chines, and three flour tubing machines, 
as well as cutters, etc. The paper is brought in from the mill in rolls, and the 
paper bag machines take these continuous rolls and turn out bags, some of the ma- 
chines at the rate of 100,000 per day, others at the rate of 70,000, 60,000,5 0 ,000, and 
4 0 . 000 . There is a capacity in his paper bag factory of about three quarters of a 
million bags per day, aad it is now turnif'g out an average ot about 35 0 ,000 bags da.ily, 
'Vhile all this increase was going on in the way of buildings, of course, the number 
of hands also increased, and to-day there are employed in this manufactory about 
1I0 people. 
The town of L3.chute has grown since 1880 from 650 people to a!:>out 200:>,. 
::\Ir. \Vilson has his private residence on the height of land behmd the mill, a 
beautiful high knoll, and from his verandah a beautiful view can be had of the moun- 
tains and of the town generally, Here he enjoys, with his family, about three 
months every summer. .' 
_\mong the efficient and reliable employes of Mr. \Vllson-and he 
11l not long 
retain any other kind-are his Bookkeeper, Harry Slater, and the Supenntendent of 
his paper mill and bag factory, Robert Daw. 

IR, SLATER was born in Lo"ndon, Eng., and came to Canada in 18 9 0 . He was 
first employed by the ::\foff..'ttt Blacking Company, Montreal, as Bookkeeper, but 

25 6 


eighteen months afterwards, he engaged to 1\1r. 'Wilson, with whom he has since re- 
mained. He was married 2nd Feb., 1880, to Sarah \1ary \Venborn, Upper Hollo- 
way, London. Mr. Slater is a .great reader, is familiar with the Eng
ish authors, and 
withal, an acti ve Mason j he IS the present Master of the Argenteml Lodge. 
ROBERT DAW was born in Bradninch, Devonshire, England, and at the age of 
eleven commenced work in his native place, for Mr. 'Vm. Drew, in K.entham Mills. 
In 18 7 8 , he came to America as Superin.tendent for the Hon. q-eo, 'Vest, a!so a 
native of Bradninch, who had worked hlm
elf up from a machme tender tIll he 
became proprietor of several large paper mills j he is now one of the most extensive 
bag manufacturers in 
his countrr, Mr. Daw came to Canada in 1
93, as the Supe
intendent of Mr. 'VIlson. He IS a devoted member of the BaptIst Church, and IS 
Superintendent of the Sabbath School connected with that church, whose pupils 
number sixty; he was married in 1880, to Elizabeth Crowley, of :\Iilton, N orthamp- 
tonshire, England, 
As one passes up Main street, more quiet scenes prevail, yet here on the left is 
one of the oldest manufactorIes of the place-one which, for many years, has annually 
supplied vehicles of almost every kind to the citizens of the county-the carriage shop 
of A. Mitchell & Sons, 
MR. ARCHIBALD MITCHELL, the senior partner of the firm, was born in Belgium, 
whither his family removed from Scotland. His grandfather was Rev. Hugh Mitchell, 
of Glasgow, a graduate of the University of that city, in which institution he received 
the medal for elocution, and afterwards was professur of elocution. He also pub- 
lished several books and translated others. Mr. 11 itch ell still has copies of books 
written by his grandfather, the title of one of which reads as follows: I, Scotticisms, 
vulgar Anglicisms and grammatical Improprieties corrected." 
"Hugh Mitchell, A.:\I" 
Iaster of the English and French Academies, 
His wife's.maiden name was Emily Nesbitt, and her brother was a surgeon m 
the British Na\y. After the death' of Surgeon Nesbitt, his widow married Nelson, the 
hero of Trafalgar, This lady was also a relative of the Hamilton Brothers of Hawks- 
bury, Ont. 
The Rev. Hugh Mitchell removed to Belgium, and was there, when the battle of 
'Vaterloo was fought. One of his sons was engaged in that conflict, by which he lost 
an eye. The father taught elocution there some time-receiving a guinea for each 
lesson-his pupils coming from France, Germany, England, etc. He had three sons 
and one daughter; the latter was married to Robert Cochran, of whom a sketch is 
given in the history of St. Philippe. 
Two of the sons, Al chibald and Benedict, each erected a factory in Belgium for 
the manufacture of cloths; they failed in the enterprise, and then came to Canada, 
the father of the subject of our sketch arriving in 1848. He settled first at Hill Head, 
then at Beech Ridge, at which place both he and his wife died. They had four 
sons and five daughters. Francis, the third son, still lives at Beech Ridge. 
Archibald, the youngest son, who was eighteen when he came to Canada, worked 
on the farm at Hill Head for a time, but farmers assuring him that he would accom- 
plish little there, on account of the sterile nature of the farm, he turned his attention 
to the manufacture of machinery, for which he had peculiar aptitude, and he soon 
made fifteen fanning mills for neighboring Îarmers. He then learned the carriage- 
maker's trade at Lachute with the Duddridge Brothers, for whoi11 he worked lill18S6, 
when he elltered into partnership with them, the firm becoming Duddridge & 



litchell. This con
inued till 18
8, when tl
e co-partnership was dissolved by the 
death of 
Ir. Duddndge. Mr. Mitchell was 111 busIness alone tiH 1892, when he took 
his second son, John, into partnership, and as another of hi.. sons now works here 
the firm is styled Mitchell & Sons. 1\1r. Mitchell married Grace, a daughter of 
Dewar, of Dalesville. His third son, \Villiam Mitchell, who graduated at :\IcGill in 
1894, is now an M.D., of MansonviIle, P.Q, 

litchell & Sons have a good-sized factory here, employ several hands, and 
make all kinds of carriages and sleighs of the latest style, and their work has won a 
wide reputation for neatness and durability. 
Another manufactory, adjacent to the above, on ::\Iain street, is that of TOH
HOPE, baker and confectioner; he is also proprietor of a Spool, Shuttle and Bòbbin 
Factory at the \Vest End. 
::\Ir. Hope was born in Edinburgh, his father being an officer in the Scotch 
Fusilier Guards. He came to Canada in 1870, and after remaining in :\Iontreal 
seven years, he came to Lachute, arriving on St. Patrick's Day, 1877. He at once 
opened a bakery, and as the railway was then in process of construction. and business 
active, he wa.s very successful in his venture, and his business has been a progressi\"e 
one to the present. He supplies a large portion of the village with bread, and much 
of the surrounding country. In 1889, he bought the Factory referred to above, and 
has since enlarged and improved it, so, that he is prepared to fill orders for shuttles 
bobbins, spools, button moulds, brush backs and everything required for cotton and 
woollen mills. 
He was fortunate in securing the service of trustworthy and efficient assistallts 
in these mills, who have long and faithfully served him; these are E. G. Spaulding, 
manager, \\ ho has recently gone to the States; F. E. Carter, B00kkeeper, and S. Duff. 
Engineer; the ingenuity and skill of the latter in repairing machinery and inventing 
tools for special purposes rendering him a handy man of inestimable value to an em- 
Mr. Hope is a man of great enterprise and energy, one who is determined to push 
to successful issue whatever he undertakes; a typical Scotchman, generous, public- 
spirited, and much attached to the games and sports of his native land. He erected 
a fine curling rink on his premises in the fall of 1893, which is a source of great 
attraction during the winter evenings-the Curling Club now formed, of \\hich :\1:-. 
Hope is president, being a large one. He was Captain of the Team of Argenteuil 
Boys, in the fall of 1894, in their Tug-of- \V ar contest at 
Iontreal with the Hoys of 
Glengarry:" He is a prominent Mason, and has been President of the Argenteuil 
Lodge three terms. He has been a member of the :\Iunicipal Council six years, and 
is a Deacon of Henry's Presbyterian Church. He was married 1 sth September, 
1871, to Jane Ennis, daughter of James Ennis, of Tienland, Morayshire, Scotland. 
Since the above was writter., a copy of the Calladillll jOltrllalof R,brics has 
come to hand, from which we take the followipg paragraphs :- 
" The machine shop is a perfect one. The Factory gives employment to a large 
number of hands, and the output is steadily increasing month by month. The woods 
which are made use of are beech, birch (yellow and white), maple, ironwood, poplar, 
white ash, apple, persimmon and dogwood; the two last named hav
ng to be sought 
for in North Carolina. In addition to the wood obtained from outside markets, be- 

* Names of those comprising the Argenteuil Team which was victOlious: Roht. Sih'erson. John 
Boa, Omer "aquelte, David Black, Eugène Thélien, Edouard The lie
, \Vm. i\Joore, Hiram 
Xiell, Duncan McOuat, Edward Berniquier, Capt, Charles Gardner. Samuel ehnor(l, J . I 
David Lindley, Wm. John Rodgers. 

25 8 


tween 4 00 and 5 00 cords are annually purchased in the vicinity, and are brought in 
in the shape of logs and cord wood, being cut up into stock as required, Before 
being used, it undergoes a thorough process of curing in the steam drying rooms, 
which are most effective and convement. 
., Among the special products of this establisment, we would call attention to the 
shuttles, this being the only factory in the Dominion where these are made. Pre- 
viously: the mills had to look across the border for their supplies of these needful 
articles; but finding that the Lachute works are quite able to compete successfully 
with the Americans, both as to quality and price, the mins are finding it to their 
advantage to patronize the home manufactory," 
HAl\IELIN AND AYERS is a name familiar in every h')usehold, not only in Argen- 
teuil, but in the County of Prescott-their woolen mills being one of the most important 
manufactories in this section. 
IAS HEì'õRY _-h-ERS is a son of the late Thomas Ayers, who, in 1858, came 
with his family from Cornwall, England, to Columbus, Ontario, and was employed 
there, in the Empire \V ooien Mills, till his death in 1891. Thomas, the son, served 
his apprenticeship in the same mills, then worked in different places till 1868, when 
he entered into partnership. in Perth, with Mr. Felix Hamelin. They first conducted 
a carding mill at Perth. In 18 7 0 , they hired the :\icGill \Voolen Mills in Hawks- 
bury, Ont., br eight years. In Ifl76, they purchased of different parties in L:lchute 
about twenty acres of land and water power for their present mills. At that time 
there was no road to the site of their pre5ent buildings-nothing but a thick growth 
of forest all along the river side, where now there is a village, fine dwellings, gardens 
and cultivated fields. In 18 7 8 , they constructed the dam and roads, and erec'ed a 
dwelling j and the following year built the mill, and put it in operation in 1880. 
::\lr. Ayers was married to Olive Paquette, a niece of Mr. Hamelin, in August, 
187 I. He has had four 
(Jl1S, three of whom are living-John Thomas, \Villiam 
Henry and Ernest Francis L. All are active, intelligent young men, and take a 
Ii vel y int crest in the business. 
:\IR. FELIX HA:\IELIN was born in St. Hennas. \Vhen he was very young, his 
father moved to the Seigniory of Longueuil, Ont., where he resided on a farm tin 
April, 1865, when he died at the age of 9 8 , Felix, the eldest son, was early engaged 
in the woolen manufacturing business, and spent some year:; in mercantile pursuits. 
'''hen in the Coun ty of Prescott, he took considerable interest in public affairs, and 
hi5 influence was often courted during election campaigns, He recently spent a 
year in England in connection with his business. That both he and Mr. Ayers are 
rem.ukably intelligent and s
.rewd business men, is obviou.., from the manner in 
which they have enlarged their business and increased their capital. . 'Vhen th
formed a co partnership 111 Perth, twenty-five years ago, each partner 111vested hIS 
entire capital-$20o. Since that period, they have made no division, their earnings 
having been devoted t:'ither to the enlargement of the business, or invested 111 real 
estate. Their property now-including real estate in different localities-is appraised 
at $ 12 5,000, which is unencumbered, They have in their principal mill two roll 
cards for farmers' work, four sets of manufacturing cards, one thousand spindles, 
eighteen looms, and all other machinery n
cessary for finishing and dyeing cloths. 
They manufacture a fine class of tweeds, flannels, blankets, paper and pulp manu- 
facturers' felts, and lllbricatmg and printers' felts. When the l11ill is run to its full 
capacity, it will manufacture 600 pounds of \vool in ten hours. The goods of this firm 
are sold throughout the D.Jminion, from Nova S :olia to British Columbia. They 
also h lve a mill for the purpose of !u
nufacturing pulp from spruce and other light 





, They employ from forty-five tu fifty hands, half of whom are married men 
with families. The pay roll amounts to about $1,000 monthly. They lease water 
power to other manufacturers, and still ha'"e as good water-power not utilized as 
there is in the county. 
On the opposite side of the river from the mills of Hamelin and Ayers is a Rope 
Factory, which was built in 1882 by the late Robert B:ll1nerman, of 
Iontre.1l. After 
being in operation a few years. it was leased for twenty-one years to the COIBumers' 
Cordage Company, by whom it was closecl, and it now stands idle. 
The iron foundry _ of 
[COUAT & )IcRAE hac; gained celebritv in the entire 
County of 
uil. Thomas McOuat is the youngest son of Andrew McOuat, 
mentioned on another page. He was m trried 16th June, 1875, to Annie Higginson 
Fraser, of Ottawa. John McRae was born in Ottawa, learned the moulder's trade, 
and has followed it the greater p:lrt of his life. He was married in the spring of 
1864 to Margaret McLean Johnson, of Scotland. She died the 12th November, 18 74, 
and he was next ma rried in June, 1876, to Elizabeth Scott. 
The followll1g history and de..cription of their business is copipd from The 
Wat.:hman's report of the County Fair held at Lachute in October, 1894. It should 
be stated, however, that since the public1tlOn of that report, this firm has doubled 
the size of their mac.hine and pattern shops :- 
.. The exhibit of l\lessr:;:. McOllat & McRae was a most creditable one, and 
surprised many of our people, who really were not aware to what extent this firm's 
business has spread and developed, since it was first organized in 1879. Messrs. 
lcOuat and John 
IcRae came from Ottawa, in that year, to Lachute. Both 
had been for years employed in the Yictori 1. Foundry, Ottawa, 
Ir, McOuat as fore- 
man pattern maker and machinist, and Mr. McRae as foreman moulder. They 
brought with them not only their experien:e, but reso!ved to retain the name ' \ric_ 
toria ;' so the Yictoria Foundry, Lachute, was launched forth. It was born in a 
building 28 x -1-5, on Foundry street, on the site of the present furniture factory, This 
enclosed the whole foundry and machine shop, and wa., only one stor
y high. fhe 
motive power W.1S neither electricity, then unknown as a motive power, nor was it 
steam, but one of the old-fashioned sweep horse-powers. It was soon evident that 
they had supplied a want in coming to Lachute, and business became so bri
k that, 
before a year had expired, the horse power was cast aside, and a boiler and engine 
"Starting out with the intention of keeping pace with the limes and abreast with 
the ùem:mds of their patrons, the firm has nev
r hesitated to invest their 
arnings in 
the business and extend their works; so when an opportunity occurred, they seized 
it, and two years laier found them building a new and larger foundry on its present 
site. and they commenced to run by water power. "Success attended this new enter- 
prise, and a new era dawned. As the town grew, and more machinery became 
instal ed, the machinery department developed quickly, and the foundry had to be 
again and again extended. X ew machines were obtained, large planers and lathes 
and drills, until now there is here, in Lachute, one of the best equipped jobbing 
shops in the country. Starting in a buildillg 28 X 45, one storey and a horse sweep, 
they no\\' occupy a large, two-storey Luilding of two wings, one extending towards 
the river 84 fed, besides outbuildings 105 feet in length. .1I1d a power house with 
fire engine. Few people have any idea of the quantity of machinery in the paper 
mill, and will be surpri-ed to learn that 
IcOuat & McRae lnve supplied forty tons 
of new work therefor. Besides this, they t:ave done the work for a large number of 
outside mills. They are now speciaUy well adapted for all kinds of castings, Tney 
have also gone somewhat into 
chool desks, and during the past year have supplied 




seats for nine schools, Their specialty, however, is machinery and machine sup- 
plies, a very important thing for the people of this locality, as it is the only place 
between here and Montreal where such can be procured. 
" In thus giving the history of one of our industries here, we de:;ire to show our 
readers that, notwithstanding the croakings of th05e who are constantly protesting 
that the country is going to the dogs, we have here in our midst positive proof that 
Lachute has made good progress as far as her manufactu ring interests are concerned, 
and in the case of this particular firm, it has not done so at the expense of any other 
class of the community, but by energy, hard work and faith in our country." 
Traveling along the LachUle Road, about a mile west of the village of Lachute, 
one reaches a branch road, which leads, as the sign announces, to Earle's :\[Ills. 
Following this road for the distance of half a mile, the traveler comes to the 
River, near which, in a deep gulJy, stand the grist and saw mills of Earle Brothers- 
John, Edward and Harland. 
The grist mill wa" built about 1836 by Geo. Hoyle, who had been agent for the 
Seignior, and had erected mills for him at St. Andrews q,nd Lachute. Through some 
disagreement with the Seignior, however, Hoyle d
cided to put up a mill on his o\yn 
account, and accordingly built one on this site, which is just outside the Seigniory, 
in Chatham. After running the mill some years he sold it to John Earle, uncle of 
the present proprietors, and it was afterwards cond'lcted for 25 years by James Earle, 
their father. This was one of the mills to which the settlers brought grists on their 
backs; the manufacture of oatmeal was one of its principal features, 
J A:\IES EARLE came from Yorkshire, England, and first settled in the County of 
Two Mountains. He was living near St. Eustache at the time of the Rebellion. and 
decided to remain when the other settlers were leaving j but the place soon bec'lme 
too hot for him, and he also was obliged to make his escape. After hiding a day in 
the woods, he started on his journey at night-fa]], and finally reached Lachute in 
safety; here, in a short time, joining Capt, Quinn's Company of Volunteers. He 
afterwards came to the mills
 and died here in :\[ay, 1886, leaving his wife, who still 
survives him, Of their five sons, Charles dIed in Nevada, and James, already men- 
tioned, lives in Bethany ; John, one of the proprietors of the mills, was married in 
18 7 1 to Mary, daughter of Stewart Boyd, of Chatham. :\[r. Earle is Captain of 
Co. No.8 Argenteuil Rangers, and has been a member of the Battalion since J 862 ; 
he has been Municipal Councillor of Chatham for six years, Edward, married to 
Mary, daughter of \Villiam Boyd, 
[ontreal, resides at the mills, and Harland, un. 
married, lives here also; the daughter, Evelyn E., is married to John A. Patterson, 
of Calgary, N. 'V. Territory. 
In 1885 the dam was washed away, and in 1886 they buiit their present on
The lumber bu
iness is one of the important industries of the place, connected 
with which is the steam mill of P. & A, :\IcGIBBON, sons of the late Finley Mc- 
Gibbon, noticed in the history of Dalesville. These two enterprising young men 
engaged in the lumber business here in 1881, having obtained a lease of a mill for 
five years, Ambitious, however, to do a larger business, and in a mill of their own, 
they purchased a mill site, and built their pres
nt steam mill in 1889. They have a 
planing mill also, and prep,:1re a large quantity of lumber for finishing. The number 
of logs sawn annually by this mill is about 20,ooo-three-fourths of which belong 
to the firm, the remainder to customers, Last year, they shipped 100 car loads of 
lumber. The energy displayed by this firm, and their honorable way of transacling 
business, has secured the esteem and good will of the community. 
A blacksmith is a necessity in every community, and when he combine') skill at 
hi!' trade with good judgment and respectability, he acquires no little popularity in the 
place, Such an one is ALEXANDER RIDDLE, 



His father, \Villiam Riddle, was born in Scotland, but he removed to Ireland, 
and several years afterwards-in 184
-came to Canada, and settled in Mille Isle, 
on a farm of 100 acres, which is now owned by his son Robert. He was married 
twice before coming to Canada, and by the first marriage he had six sons and one 
daughter; and by the second, two sons and two daughters. Alexander, the youngest 
of all, began learning the blacksmith trade, at the age of sixteen. After serving his 
apprenticeship, he spent six years in the States, then returned to Lachute, bought 
a house and lot, and has ever since followed his trade with success, and has been a 
member of the Town Council for two years. He was married 6th June, 1877, to 
Margaret Carpenter. 
SIl\lOX McKII\Iì\IE, who has an undertaker's establishment here, came from 
Morayshire, Scotland, with his father, John McKimme, in 1851, The father settled 
not far from the present Lachute Mills, and one of his sons, Joseph McKimme, now 
lives on the fine old homestea.d. )11'. 
IcKimrne died 11th October, 1882; he had five 
sons and six daughters. Simon, the fourth son, followed the carpenter's trade till 
five or six years since, when he engaged in his present occupation of undertaker. He 
keeps a hearse and a full supply of everything connected with his buslt1ess. The author 
of the saying, "Solemn as an undertaker," could never have seen )1r. McKimme, for 
his humor is pleasant, and his greeting a smile. He was married 22nd August, 
1859, to Janet Pollock. 
ANDREW Joss, from Aberdeenshire, Scotland, was one whose histor.y is identified 
with the early history of Lachute. He came here with his wife and three sons- 
William, James and George. He was employed in the grist mill a few years, and he 
then bought a farm in the vicinity of Brownsburg, on which he lived till his death. 
George, the youngest son, learned the cooper's trade, and after following it 
several years, he also opened a brewery in Lachute, which occupied the site of the 
present store of the Giles brothers, He married Mary Jane, a daughter of Patrick 
Rice j they had four sons and two daughters. 
Mr. Joss died 17th July, 1865' Three of his sons now live in Lachute j another 
one, James, resiL 1 es in Nebraska. Duncan, the eldest of the sons, was married 24th 
August, 1875, to Mary E. Hutchins. He is a carpenter by trade, and is now in 
company with his brother George, the firm being known as " Joss Brothers, Contrac- 
tors and Builders." They have a shop here, and supply all kinds oflumber for building 
and house finishing, and they have erected many of the dwellings in this section, 
They also build bridges-the \Vestover bridge, constructed in 1884, and the Barron 
bridge in 1892, are monuments of their handicraft. George Joss was married, 21st 
April, 1886, to Elizabeth Stalker. Daniel Joss, the youngest of the brothers, is a 
painter by trade, and the fact that he has been in the employ of the firm now known 
litchell & Sons, for 28 years, is evidence of his faithfulness and efficiency. He 
has been a member of the Municipal Council of Lachute, and was married 13th 
June, 1888, to Carrie Hutchins, 
E. H. McCoy is proprietor of the Marble and Granite business in Lachute, 
which is well known. His grandfather, John McCoy, carne from Ireland to Hin- 
chinbrooke, Huntingdon County, about 1820, and 
onducted a store there till his 
death in 1852. He had five sons and two daughters that grew up. Matthew S., his 
second son, continued the mercantile business in the same store, located on the Pro- 
yince Line, till 1872, when he removed to Huntingdon village, and was engaged dur- 
mg the rest of his life as Auctioneer and Agent for the Law firm of McCormick & 
Major; he died in 1893. He was married about 1849 to Harriet Howard; they 
had three sons and two daughters. Edmund H" the youngest son, went to Califor- 



nia in 1876, and was engaged in gold mining ten years, He then returned, came to 
Lachute, and entered into partnership in the marble and granite business with George 
L. Moir. Mr. Moir died in 1891, and 
lr. McCoy has since conducted the business, 
Some idea of its extent may be inferred from the fact, that within nine years the 
value of the wOIk he has done in St. Andrews cemetery alone is $22,000. 1\Ir. 
McCoy was married in 1886 to 
lary, daughter of the late John Arnott, of Lakefield ; 
he represents the East 'Yard of Lachute in the Municipal Council. 
Besides the m:1l1ufactories above noticed, O. B. LAFLFUR has quite a large 
Furniture Factory on Foundry street. 
DAVID CHRISTIE is one of the citizens of Lachllte whose faithful industry haS 
supplied him with enough of this world's goods, and whose integrity has secured him 
esteem. His father, David Christie, came from Ireland, and settled 011 a farm in the 
north part of Gore, ahout 1830; he there married Mary Good, also from Ireland. 
He was one of the militia who served in the Rebellion of 1837' He had ten children- 
five of each sex. David, the fourth son, began at the age of 14 to learn the shoe- 
maker's trade, and has followed it successfully to the present. He was married 28th 
September, 1866, to Margaret J. Johnson, daughter of the late C apt. Johnson of 
Lakefield; they have had three children: the eldest, a girl. died when three years old; 
Gilbert D., the elder son, is a clerk in \Tictoria, B.C.; 'Vm. H. is clerk in Lachute 
for J. R. McOuat. 


For the history of the newspaper enterprise we are again ind
bted to the pen of 

Ir. 1 reland. 
He says that a citizen of .c\rgenteuil, living in 
Iontreal, sent a man here from 
that city, with the sum of $50, and letters of introàuction to the principal citizens, 
which resulted in sufficient money being raised to start what was caned the Argenteuil 
A dz'ertiser, 
"The understanding between our 
[ontreal lesident and the Advertiser man was, 
that the paper should be non-politic,,-l and purely independent, and run on these 
principles, so as to be a means of good to the greatest number. 
" The establishment of this Daper caused a pleasant furore of excitem
nt in the 
county. It was the first newspaper started on the north side of the Ottawa River, 
between \lontreal and Ottawa, and was designed to aávocate the interests of the 
Ottawa Valley. and be a welcume visitor, once a week, to every home in this and the 
adjoining counties. 
" It was in June, 1872, that the first issue of the ArgmtelÚI Advertiser appeared." 
But, according to the further account of :Mr. Ireland, the editor of the Ad'l!er- 
IÙer, after a time, abanùoned his non-political attitude and became a most active 
champiun of the Liberal party. In consequence of this, Tile IVàfchmall and Ottawa 
Vahey Ad'lJocafe was established in 1877, with Dawson Kerr as editor and proprietor. 
'Yo J. Simpson (the present M.P.i".) was for some time connected with this 
paper, and, in 1892, it pas;;ed int0 the hands of the Calder Brothers, by whom it is 
still published. As is well known, it was started under the auspices of the Con- 
servative party, of whose principles it has ever been a devoted and able ad vocate. 
In 188 7, or thereabout, another paper, called TIle Indeþendent, was started in 
everal copies which are before us show that it was a vivacious little 
sheet, but decidedly bellicose in character. Its publicLHion was not long continued, 
and the lYatch1llall has remained the only newspaper in the COUlllY until recently. 


26 3 

In 1895, the proprietor of Tnt Ntws (St, Johns, Que.) began to issue the 
Lachute Ne'ltls-a sheet which devotes considerable space to the affairs of Argenteuil. 
The publication of another paper, called the Arl;enteuil Ne'ZtJs, has just been com- 
menced in I.achute, but we have not as yet had the pleasure of seeing it. 
,. There appears no record of how local affairs were administered in Lachute; but 
in 1825, the North River was spanned by the first bridge, and this was away to the 
east where White's bridge now stands. This was a great boon to the Scotch settlers, 
many of whom had located on the north side of the river, and also to the Irish 
who had located in the Gore. This most necessary improvement was not accom- 
plished without opposition and difficulty from persons interested in other parts of the 
river, but had not enterprise enough 10 begin theIr work. In ten years time another 
bridge was built, which was known as Power's bridge. This name \\" as taken from 
the fact that Orlando Powers, whose birth was referred to in an early sketch, lived 
on the north bank of the river directly facing the bridge. The building of this bridge 
was amid opposition and difficulty also. In 1840, a :\1 r. Hoyle, an eccentric but 
very enterprising Englishman, built a bndge at the mills, on tile site where Fish's 
bridge now stands. For twenty-five years there \Va
 not a single bridge across the 
river, \\ hile, fifteen years later, th,ee bridges were built, each one being opposed, and 
a strong and, in some cases, bitter rivalry existing between interested p_uties." * 
For several years, Lachute has had good railway accommodations j there are now 
four passenger trains each way daily, three of which stop nerè regularly, the other 
only occasionaliy, and there are two regular freight trains. 
Phileas :\lonette, the first station agent appointed here, still holds the position. 
The railway first took shape under the name of the Quebec, 
lontreal, Ottawa 
& Occidental Railway. It was graded as far as Lachute, :l11d the stone abutm
for the bridges here were constructed in 1873 and 1874. After that, work wa..; sus- 
pended for some time, but in the fall of 1876 the rails were Liij as far as Lachute. 
The Q. M, O. & O. Railway being unahle to complete the ro3.d, the Quebec 
Government became the owners, and the contract for construction as far as Hull was 
given to Duncan Macdonald, who ran the trains to L3.chute for a number of years, 
_\ dispute arose between the Government and 
lJ.cdonalù, and the Joly gm,-crn- 
ment seized the road and placed all the stations in charge of the Militia, who were 
called out. The Government then sold the road to the C. P. R. 
The County granted no bonus, but the P:nish of St. Jerusalem d' .\rgenteuil, 
which then included the town of Lachute, voted to the Q. 
I. O. & O. Company a 
bonus of $25,000. This was as an inducement to have the road come by Lachute 
instead of through Sr. Andrews. This bonus never \V.1.; paid The ground for 
objecting to payment was, that the Company had failed to carry out their obligations 
in constructing the road, that the bonus was not promised to the Government, and 
inasmuch as public money was being used for its construction, part of which was 
the contributions of this Parish, it would n
)t be fair to ask them to pay this bonus. 
Through the influence of the late Sir John .\bbott, legislation was passed at 
Ottawa exempting the parish from payment. 

Like most other country towns and villages at the present day, Lachute has its 
quota of merchants,-too many, is the general impression of strangers visit;ng tlte 

· From Ireland's sketches. 

26 4 


place j yet, tl
e fact that .they a
e all acco
ded s
fficient p3.tronage to encourage their 
continuance 111 the bus111ess, IS conclusIve eVIdence of the large amount of trade 
carried on here, It is much less, however, than it was a few years ago. Previous 
to the construction of a new railway in 1894, the farmers of Harrington, Arundel, 
and other parts in the rear of the County, all came to Lachute to trade; but when 
the new railway was completed as far as St. Jovite-a place in Ottawa County, 
con:iguous to Arundel-several stores were erected there, affording the farmers 
of the localities referred to a much more convenient market than Lachute; the dis- 
tance to the latter place being more than twice that to St. Jovite. 
" The first store in Lachute," says 1\1 r. Meikle in his history, "was opened by 

Ir, Robertson in 1813." 
The following paragraph is from a sketch of l\Ir. Ireland, published in 1886: 
,. For many years the centre of trade was at St. Andrews. The people from all 
parts of the country went there to do their trading. The principal store at Lachute 
was, as we have already seen, what the people familiarly called 'Meikle's,' until 

1r. P. Lane started at the old stand, where he still resides; but long since retired 
on a competency from many years of incessant attention as a country merchant. 
Shortly after Mr. Lane's store was opened, hi:) brother-in-law, Mr. John Taylor, a 
clever and energetic young Scotchman, began a store in the west end, near the mill, 
and did alaI ge business. Up to this period, the citizens seemed contented to trudge 
on in the old way of doing business by buying goods on CI edit, and selling on credit, 
at very high prices, and allowing accounts to remain for one, two, or more years by 
adding interest, and so, when Mr. Taylor commenced on the cash or ready pay 
system! and gave goods at a moderate protìt, there was quite a revolution among the 
country people in favor of ::\lr, Taylor's store, which became the centre of attraction, 
and was talked of all over the country." 
The stores are chiefly on Main street, and some of them are attractive in appear- 
ance and contain large stockS). 
That of ::\Ir. l\leikie, which has already been noticed, is the oldest one in the 
place, and occupies a commanding position, and doubtless holds as large a stock and 
receives as much patronage, as any in Lachute. 
Xot far from this is the imposing brick store of J. R, 11cOUAT, 
Mr. McOuat, in 1875, entered into partnership in the mercantile line with Hugh 
Fraser, jun., which partnership was continued till 188;, when he purchased the 
interest of Mr. Fraser, and in 1885 erected his present store. This structure has an 
attractive front of plate glass, the first in the place which presented this luxurious 
embellishment. :Mr. McOuat is one of the influential men of Lachute, and is a mem- 
ber of the School Board and Municipal Council. 
A well stocked and neatly kept store is that of HUGH FRASER, JUN. This gentle- 
man was born in Montreal and carne to Lachute when a child, In his youthful days, 
he was clerk for G. & R. Meikle five years, then spent three years in Morrisburg,Ont., 
and after his return to this place was in partnership with J. R. 1\IcOuat six years. 
In 1881, he opened his present store, in which he has since been engaged. He has 
an influence in all local and municipal affairs, and has served as School Comn1'Ïs- 
sioner and Town Councillor six years, 
McFAUL BRos.-James C. and John M. Their great-grandfather, Archibald 
McFaul, came from County Antrim, Irelanà, and settled on the farm now occupied 
by his grand-daughter, Mrs. Hugh Morrow, He lived here many years, and died at 
the home of his son Wïlliam, in \Vallace, Ont.; he had four sons and three daugh- 
ters. Archibald, the eldest son, married Mary, daughter of Jamts Carpenter. and 


26 5 

lived on a farm in Chatham till his death, which occurred 12th February, 1887. He had 
six sons and four daughters, who grew up. James, the eldest, father of the subjects 
of our present sketch, married Janet 
[cPhail about 1868, and settled on a farm of 
one hundred acres at Brownsburg, and has since bought three hundred acres adjoin- 
ing. He had five sons <.Ind five daughters. 
James C. left the farm in September, 1891, and en
ered into partnership in l/lchute, 
with Robert Banford irr the latter's store, remaining here till September. [893. He then 
bought out Banford, and took as partner his brother, John M.; tht'Y are still here in 
John street, duing a good business in general merchandise, dry goods, groceries, 
boots, sllot'!=, etc. John 1\L was married to Annie Stuart, 25th September, 1894. 
ROBERT KETTYLE, SEN., a soldier who fought at \raterloo Ill1der \\' ellington, and 
received his discharge soon after, having seen 2 [ years' service, W.1S l>.>rn in the 
north of Ireland. He come to Canad.l about 1830, and: receiving a location ticket, 
took up a lot in \Venlworlh, but finding that this was poor land, he then bought a 
farm in the north part of Gore, Lakefield. He lived in this place a few years. and 
then moved into the Seigniory where he died. He had one son and two daugh:ers : 
Robert, the son. was a young man when his father came to this country. He j0ined 
the Cavalry in 
lontreal, also married in that city, and had three sons and three 
daughtns. He finaliy settled in Lachule Ilear Hill Head, where he died about 
1885. Robert, his son, followed farming till 1885, when he opened a grocery in 
La{'hute, which he still conducts. He has been married twice, the last time in 
188, to Harriet A. Knox, 
A. J. PERIARD was born at S1. Renoit. He learned the tailor's trade, and spent 
ten years in Montreal and Ottawa; he came to Lachute in [880, and opened a mer- 
chant tailor's establishment, which he has ever since conducted. He was married 
June 22nd, [880, to 
liss Drown, daughtercf James BrowlI, contractor, of ,Montreal. 
.Mr. Periard was reared a Roman Catholic, but was converted to Protestantism about 
t\V.enty yeats ago, since which he has been actively engag
d in Christian w.lfk. He 
has preached, and still preaches, in different parts of the County on (he Sabbath. He 
also did much in the way of Christian labor in Sunday 
chools and like gatherings 
while in i\Ion treal. 
WILLIAM BANFORD is a courteous and public-spirited merchant on 
reet; he i
e eldest son. of \\ïllia
 Banforò, of whom. a sketch 
s given i
hIstory of Lqngnal. 
e was bon.l m 
85I, and began 1115 mercantile life a<; clerk 
for D. J. ]alllIeson, of \ ankleek lIlli, with Wh<:)111 he remained two years. He then 
came. to Lachute, and was cler.k for James FIsH & Co. two years, after which he 
renlamed four years as clerk 111 the employ of P. H. Lane, Esq. About 1880 he 
purchased the:: store of Mr, Lane. This was burnt in the fall of 189.J. and he then 
ren-,oved to 11ls present store. 
Ir, Banford was married in 1879 to E!iza Fraser of 
Bethan y, ' 
X. MCGILLIS & SON, from Lancaster, Ont., have a hardware store on I\Ia' 
street. Norman McGillis, who came with his family from Scotland, was one of tI

early settlers of Lancaster. He had five sons arid five daughters. Neil :\[cGillis, his 
second scn, has been engaged many years in mercantile business in L
ncaster and 
for some years has been one of the Board of Aldermen of that place. In the fall of 
189.l he purchased th
 ?tore and stock of A. J. Fraser in Lachute, which is now in 
arge of Mr, McGIllis' son; they keep a full line of hardware, tinware paints 
oils, etc. ' , 
ROBERT CRESWELL has a fine brick Llock on .Main street, in which he has a flour 



ani! feed store. His father, \Vm, Creswell, came from Donegal, Ireland, with his 
family to Lachute in 1852, being 13 weeks in crossing the Atla
tic-an unusual time 
at that late date. He settled on a farm of 100 acres in the Seigniory, and afterward 
bought a lot in Lachute and erected a house on it, but never resided here j he died 
about 18 6 4. 
'J he following obituary is copied from an Illinois paper, published in 
1 ð93 :- 
., Mrs. Sarah Creswell died here at 2.30 last Saturdav morning after a few days' 
illness. She was hem in Ireland in 1816, and came to Canada in 1852, where Mr. 
CrEswell died about 1864. She moved 10 Illinois with her children in 1872, and 
d <it Randolph; eighteen years ago she moved to H eyworth. She is the mother 
of eleven children, of whom nine are living, viz., William and John in :Montana' 
James at Paxton; Robert in Canad.
; Mrs. Matthew Smith at Lytleville; Mrs. T. :rl 
Minton at Downs; Ì\lrs. Isabella Happins in Ohio j and Maggie and Jennie at l
l\lrs. Creswell belonged to the Episcopal Church." 
Robert, the second son, was married 1st November, 1866, tJ Eliza Miller. He 
followed harness-making teu years, and was also engaged in farming till 1875, when 
he er.gaged in his present business. He has another block near the one in which 
he lrade
. . 
JOHN STEWART is proprietor of one of the meat markets with which Lachme is 
well vrovided. His father, 1?onald Stewart, came from Stirlingshire, near Glasgow, 
to Lachute in IF32. He was III the employ of James Walker about a year, then went 
to Ontario, where he was emvloyed as miller for several years, He returned to 
Lachute, and married Janet McIntyre, whose family carne from the 
ame place in 
Scotland, and at the same time, that Mr. Stewal t did. After his mauiage, he settled on 
the farm now owned and occupied by Edmund Smith, and lived on it till his death 
in 1872. He left five sons and one daughter. John, the eldest, married, in April 
18 77. Margaret Barron, and engaged in farming till 1887, when he bought a good 
house in this village, built a commodious hrick shpp, and has since been engaged in 
his present business. 
DA VID \VILSON is proprietor of a meat market at the west end of Fish's bridge. 
He carne from \ orkshire, England, in 1872. He was married 13 th April, 1881, to 
Agnes McFarlane, fron: Paisley, Scotland, and settled in Lachute in 1838. He was 
employeã three years III the market of Patenaude & MacA(thur, and then, in the 
winter of 189', opened a market himself. 
Besides the establishments above mentioned there are several others, the stores 
D. KERR, BOA, etc. 
JOSEPH AUGUSTUS BEDARD, one of the Municipal Councillors, has an attractive 
boot and shoe store on Main street, where he also sells a variety of musical instru- 
G. ROBY, merchant tailor, who carne here in 1893, during the past summer 
( 18 95), erected one of the finest looking buildings in the place, on Main street, An- 
other attractive place on the same street is the store of T. JOUSSE, jeweller. 
A .very fine builùing also is the hardware store of C. CHARLEBOIS, near the 
R. R. Station. 
Lachute has four hotels, and though the number seems large for the place, they 
are all commodious, respectable looking buildings, and apparently prosperous. 


26 7 

JA)IES Cl:RRIE is proprietor of the Victoria Hotel, the only one at Lachute Mills, 
and the oldest one in the town-a portion of thè building being one in which Milo 
Lal1e conducted an hotel when Lachute was in her infancy. It has a large share of 
the patronage of the trave1ling public, owing both to the correctness of its appoint- 
ments and the popularity and extensive acquaintance of its proprietor, who has had 
an experience of fifteen years in his present hotel. 
l\I r. Currie's grandfather on the maternal side, John 'Villiamson, was a soldier 
under \Vellington, fought at \"aterloo, and \\ as in several other engagements. Aner 
serving twenty-one Yt:ars he obtained his discharge, came to Canada, settled in Gore, 
and served in the Rebellion of J837-38. Mr. Curri
's father, Charles Currie, came from 
Castle Blarney, County of Monaghan, Ireland, in the spring of 1831. He first found 
employment on the " Feeder" at Carillon, on which his brother Isaiah, who had pre- 
viously COTPe to this country, had a contract. In the fall of 1832, he took up a lot in 
the second range of Gore, on which he lived twelve years. In 1837, he was married 
to Elizabeth Williamson. He sold out in 1844, and bought a farm in \Ventworth, on 
which he lived till his death in J879' Hehad three sons and two daughters. James, 
the eldest, at the age of 17 went to the States, where he spent twenty years, Return- 
ing, he purchased a farm on Be
ch Ridge, and engaged in farming, meam\-hile 
three rears in the St. .-\ndrews Parish Council. In 1880, he sold his farm anå 
engaged in his present business in Lachute. He was married in January, 1860, to 
Catherine, daughter of Valentine Swail, of 'Wentworth. They ha ve one son, Valentine, 
married, and living ill British Columbia, and three daughters. 
An imposing building is the "i\rgemeuil House," towards the upper end of 
Main street, of which PIERRE RODRIGUE, the present Mayor of La chute, is proprietor. 
The house is brick, 70 x 40 feet ill size, three stories beside:; the basement, with a 
two-storey extension, 60 x 25 feet in size, flat roof, and encircled by three galleries. 
It has three parlors, two sittinfI rooms, thirty-five bed rooms, a large office, and dining 
room with st:ating capacity for 100 guests. The grounds and stables connected 
therewith are equally spacious. 
Mr. Rodrigue was born in St. Scholac;lique, and his early days were spent on his 
father's farm. He took a classical course at the school of Rev. Father Bonin, after 
which he taught five years in the same school and two years in the public school. 
He was married 17th October, 1853, to Margaret, daughter of the late Alexandre 
Fortier, and spent the following eleven years on his father's farm. After devoting a 
few years to mercantile life and hotel keeping, he sold out in 1871 and bought the " Bee 
Hive "-the hotel of Alvah Burch in L3.chute, This was burnt 7th Jan
ary, 18 9 2 , 
and, the same year, :Mr, Rodrigue built his present hotel. He has been "pery success- 
ful financially since corning here, his real estate, within and outside of the Corporation, 
being valued at $25,000. He has been -in the Council five or six years, and in I89.J 
was elected Mayor, and has b
en Chairman of the Roman Catholic School Board 
since it was established in 1875, and is a trustee of the Roman Catholic Church. He 
has three sons and one daughter, two of the former, E. D., m3.rried to Mary Poitras, 
and L. P. Rodrigue, being employed in the hotel. Alexandre is an M, D, 
The daughter of :\Ir. Rodrigue is married to Charlei Charlebois, proprietor of 
the Lachute .Foundry. 
There are two other hotels near the railroad station, of one of which ALFRED 

AFLEUR is proprietor. This building also is of brick, three stories, 6:> x 40 feet 
111 size. Commodious stables are attached, in which 1\1 r. Lafleur has a good 
number of horses. He is a native of Ste. Adèle, County of Terrebonne, where he 
as engaged in hotel keeping and lumber l>usiness. He spent ten years in connec- 
tIOn with the lumber traffic in California and the ""estern States-three years in 



Marquette, Michigan, where he and his father erecteù several houses. He came to 
Lachute in 1878 and built his present hotel, which he has ever sinc:e conducted. 
The other hotel11ear the R. R. st<:..tion, and also on Foundry street, is that of 
?\IOISE PAQUETTE. Mr. Paquette was born in St, Scholastique, lived on the homestead 
farm till 18 7 8 , when he came with his father to Lachute, built his present hotel, and 
moved into it in 1879. His father, Moise Paquette, died 14th December, ]891, at 
the age of 68, Like the other public houses of Lachute, this is of a good size and 
appearance, and has ample yard and stables attached, H. Paquette, a brother of 
the hotel proprietor, has a barber shop in the establishment. 
About two miles above the Lachute Post Office, toward Hill Head, in a good 
farming section, IS a settlement where, in former years, there was a thriving business 
conducted, of which the tannery of SA)IUEL HILLS was the nucleus. 
Mr. Hills was from New Hampslllre, and after li\-ing two years at S1. Andrews, 
he came, about ] 830, to Lachute. He was a man of much enterprise, and his 
descendants are people of spirit and intelligence. Soon after his arrival, he erected 
a tannery, with which he did an active bU3iness, besides conrlucting a farm, till his 
death, The business thus started grew in importance, until" Hills' Tannery," by 
which name the locality was soon designated, became quite a noted place. Leather 
of different kinds was manufactured here, and shoemakers, harness m:1kers, and other 
men were employed, till it was said the Hills would have a village of their own. 
The founder (If this business had four sons-Frederick, Samuel Scott, William 
Matthews, and Reuben \Vatson. The latter died at the age of 14, and Frederick, the 
eldest, died at Hancock, N.H. Saml
el S. and William, each of whom had a good 
farm belonging tú the homestead, contmucd to
ether the manag
ment of the tanner.v, 
Samuel married Elizabeth Hastings, and 'Vi liam man ied her sister, Frances J. 
Hastings, who died 10th August, 1891. \Villiam was also, for a time, conducting 
quite a business at Portage du Fort; but he relinquished it and confined himself to 
that at Lachute; he is now connected with an extensive luinber firm in Montreal, 
though he still has a residence in Lachute. 
Samuel S. Hills always lived in Lachute, and died here 16th April, 1878; he had 
three sons and two daughters that grew up. 
Frederick 'V., the eldest, lives in the dwelling occupied hy his grandfather; he 
married Miss E. A. Grant, and has two daughters. Watson S. reside. at Brainard, 

linn,; Julia is deceased; and Mary F., married to Albert I Green, resides in ::\Iinnc- 
apolis, Minn. George H. was married 18th June, 1879, to Jessie Muir; they have 
three children, He engaged in farming on the homestead till August, 1882, when the 
farm was sold. After following agricultural life till .888, he bought the brick house 
and lot where he now li\'es, and, in :::892, opened a store. His dwclling and store 
are those elected and occupied by Samuel Orr, noticed on a former page. 
mND S;\IlTH, one of the enterprising and leadin g farmers of Lachute, 
resides in this locality, \Villiam Smith, his great-grandfather, came from Yorkshire, 
England, and was the first settler at what is now Dunany, in Wentworth, He recei\.ed 
a grant of Lot I, Range I, for marking out a road by blaLed trees from Sir John's 
Lake to Clear Lake. He had two sons and three daughters that grew up. 
Samuel, the eldest, married Margaret McDonald. of Gore, about 1828; settled 
near the homestead, and lived there till his death. He was the first Postmaster at 
Dunany, the post office being established there in 1853; was :\Iayor of \Ventworth 
and \[ajor of Militia; he was a loyal actor in the events of J 837, and was at Grande 
Brulé with the Yolunteers. He died 11th June, 1893, aged 96, and so remarkab
healthy had he been, that he never employed a physician till his last illness, HIS 
widow is still living; they had twelve children, six of each sex, that arrived at matur- 


26 9 

ity. Jame
, their eldest son, was married in April, 1858, to Mary Jane McLean, of 
Lachute, and settled in Gore, adjacent to Dunany, Sixteen years later, he bought 
210 acres in Lachute, to which he removed in 1874; this is the farm no,v owned and 
occupied by his son, Samuel E, Smith. He was a School Commissioner for some time, 
and took much interest in the military affairs of the County; he joined the Rangers at 
their organization as Lieutenant, and was promoted to the rank of Major. He died 
24 th January, r887, and was buried with military honors, He had two sons and 
four daughters that grew up. 
Samuel E., the only son now living, was married 30th April, 1890, to Janet 
Pattison, of Lachute, He has always remained on the homestead-a fine farm- 
which he has improved so that it sustains a large stock. 
Ir. Smith is 1st Lieutenant 
in Company No.2 of the Rangers. 
JOHN :\IcGREGOR came from Dumbarton::;hire, 
cotland, to L:lchute, with his 
family, about 1826, and bought 100 acres ofland, which is now owned and occupied by 
Robert Beatty. Sub
equently, he purchased 90 acres adjacent to his first purchase, 
which is now owned and occupied by the widow of his son, John :\IcGregor. He moved 
to the latte farm, and lived there till his death, about 1864, at the age of 87; Mrs. 
McGregor died abou t ten .rears later, aged 97. Six sons and three daughters arrived at 
maturity. James, the fourth son, now living with his son Thomas, has followed the mill- 
wright trade forty-five years in this section, huildil1g and repairing many mills. He 
was married in 1846 to Ellen Hay; she died r6th April, 1885. '\Ir. :\IcGregor's first 
permanent residence, after marriage, was at Erownsburg, where he bought a saw mill 
and carding mill, which he conducted for twel ve years. He then, about 1860, sold 
them, and purchased 80 acres of land in Lachnte, which he sold to David Pollock in 
18 9 0 . He has had three sons and two daughters, who grew up. His eldest son, 
Robert J" lives in Kansas; George is employed in the store of the Hay Brothers; 
and Thomas, with whom he lives, is on a farm which belonged to the paternal estate; 
he was married 2nd January, 1884, to :\[argaret Parker, of Montreal. 
Xear this locality is what may be termed a Ius/IS llaturæ, a singular change 
having occurred in the physical features of quite a tract of territory since the country 
was first settled. A tract two miles or more in length and many rods in breadth is 
nothing but a field of drifting white sand, where, not many decades ago, were culti. 
vated fields. This strip of worthless land extends across the middle of several farms, 
on the south side of the North River. The soil which covered this sand must, of 
course, have been very shallow, but still it is said that it once produced fine crops of 
ryt:. The sand, like snow, drifts with the win.1, and a fence crossing it does not long 
remain visible or effective aga.inst cattle. This stratum, it is claimed, is about twelve 
feet in thickness, succeeded by a substratum of blue clay, beneath which is abundance 
of water. 


This parish, as will be seen below, WLl.S not erected till long after Lachute had 
become a thriving village. As stated in the hislory of St. Andrews, it embraces the 
larger part of the Seigniory of .\.rgenteuil, and besides the town of Lachute, it contains 
other districts de')ignated as the Settlement and Bethany, which will be noticed 
in the proper place. 

· That tract or parcel of Ian:!, situate in the seigniory of Argenteuil, in the County of Two Moun- 
tains, in that part of the Province of Canada called Lower Canada, bounded ami abutted a:; follows, 
to wit: on the south by the southern line of lot numb
r fifteen in th
 we<;t settlement, the rear of the 

27 0 


PATRICK STRACHAN DUNBAR, Mayor of the Parish of St. Jerusalem d'Argenteuil, 
was born in Fones, Morayshire, Scotland, 7th March, 1824. His father was George 
Dunbar, who was a Captain in the Inverness Militia; his mother was Katherine, 
daughter of :Major Patrick Strachan, of Drumduen, Morayshire, who, on one or two 
occasions, was in active service. !vir. Dunbar came to Canada with his parents in 
18 3 2 , and settled in Brownsburg; the family remained there for two years, and then 
came to Jerusalem, wnere the son has ever since resided. He was employed on the 
first railroad ever built in this County, anrl helped to run the first engine that went 
from Carillon to Grenville in 1854; in 1856, he was first mate on the steamer " Atlas," 
plying between Lachine and Carillon. Mr. Dunbar took a most active part in helping 
to secure tne line of the present C. p, Railway-then the :Montreal, Ottawa & Occi- 
dental-through this parish, and, in 1872, took-part with the late Thomas C. Quinn, 
Provincial Land Surveyor, in running a trial line from Grenville Bay to St. Therèse, 
This line proved to be the shortest and most direct, and was afterwards adopted by 
the R, R. Company. Mr. Dunbar has been a Municipal Councillor in t}1e Parish for 
thirty-two years, and has fined the office of Mayor since 1880; he married, in 1852, 
Jessie, youngest daughter of the late Walter McOuat. Mrs. Dunbar is still living. and 
has three daug11ters. Mr. Dunbar has also filled the office of President of the Board 
of School Commissioners, here, since 1885. He is now in his seventy-third year, and 
has been a resident of this parish for upwards of sixty years, 
ROBERT GORDON., from County Down, Ireland, came to the Parish of St. Jeru- 
salem, in 1824, and bought one hundred acres of land, which is now owned ;1.l'd 
occupied by his son Robert. The latter, who is now upward of eighty years of age, 
has cleared up much of the paternal estate, and also another one hundred acres, by 
which he has augmented it. He has been one of those industrious, sober men, who 
exert a good influence, and whose presence as a neighbor is always desired. He has 

middle settlement or Beech Ridge, the southern part of Duel's purchase, and the line separating the 
East Settlement from part of Brown's Gore, and that rear of lot number thirty-five, on the River 
Rouge: on the east by the seigniory of Two Mountains; on the north by the township of Gore; on 
the west by the township of Chatham. Beginning on the line between Chatham and Argenteuil at the 
distance of three miles and three-quarters from the shore of the Ottawa River; thence, along the side 
line between lots numbers fourteen and fifteen, in the west settlement, magnetically south sixty-nine 
degrees thirty minutes east, one mile, eight arpents and six perches more or les" to an angle; thence, 
alo;:g the northerly rear line of lots numbers five, six, seven, eight, nine and ten of the middle settle- 
ment or Beech Ridge, north, 86 degrees east, nineteen arpents mOre or less, to an angle; thence, along 
the rear line from the nOlthwest corner of number eleven, to the north-east corner of number twenty. 
two, or the last lot of the middle settlement, to a point about seven miles and one. quarter from the 
Ottawa River: north 68 degrees, one mile, six arpents and two perches more or less; thence, along the 
Jine between the ea't side of the middle settlement and the tract ofland kno"n as Duel's purchase to 
the southern extremity of the said tract; south eleven degrees and ten minutes east, two miles more or 
less; thence, along the line between part of Brown's Gore and Duel's purchase south, eighty.three 
degrees east, seven arpents and six perches more or less to an angle; thence, along the eastern line of 
Duel's purchase, to the south-western angle of the East Settlement, six arpents more or less; thence, 
along the southern side line oflot number one in both ranges of the East Settlement, till it meets the 
eastern line of the seigniory of Argenteuil, at a point distant about five miles from the Grand or Otta.wa 
River south, sixty-nine degrees thirty minutes east, two miles five arpents and five perches, more or 
less; thence, along the line between the seigniories of Argenteuil and Two-Mountains, to the nor.h- 
eastern angle of the said seigniory of Argenteuil north, twenty degrees thirty minutes east, seven 
miles, eight arper.ts and seven perches more or less; thence along the rear line of the seigniory ot 
Argenteuil, which is also the front line of the townsh'p of Gore, to the north-western angle of the 
seigniory to a point on the Clear Lake north, sixty-two degrees thirty minutes west, six miles and 
fourteen arpents more or less; thence, along the line between Chatham and Argenteuil south, twenty 
degrees thirty minutes west, eight miles and seven arpents more or less, to the place of beginning. 
Approved by Order in Cour.cil of the 15th July, 1852, minus: The limits of the town of Lachute 
by 48 V., c. 72. 


27 1 

been a :\fagistrate for a quarter of a century, and has also been a member of the 
:Municipal Council of his Parish. Although an octogenarian, he is still active, and 
takes much interest in public affairs. One of the latest of his works was to secure a 
grant of $50 from Government, to pay for placing gravel on a low, marshy piece of 
road in this section-a work of much utility. Mr. Gordon has had ten children, 
nine of whom are still living. 
ROBERT CROZIER was born in County Cavan, Ireland,6th May, 18q, and came to 
Canada when four years of age. His parents first went to Montreal, and a year later 
to Chatham, where the son lived for several years, three of which he spent in lum- 
bering on the Black River and Ottawa. He was married 30th October, 1338, to 
Margaret, youngest daughter of the late Andrew \Valker, of Lane's Purchase. He pur- 
chased a farm adjoining that of his fathu-in-Iaw, remaining there until 1848, when he 
bought a farm in this section from Chauncey Davis. He had eight daughters and 
four sons, of whom 3even daughters and two sons are now living. The daughters are 
all married, and Catherine, wife of Simon McGilvray, and John Alexander, are the 
oniy children of the family in this County. Mr. Crozier was at Grand Brulé in 1837, 
and was a member of the Volunteers and Cavalry for over twenty years. He was a 
large land owner in this parish, but in 1894 sold his farm, and so
n afterward went 
to Lachute to live a retired life, but died there 1st June, 1895, after only a week's ill- 
ness. The AEolltreal Witlless said of him in a lengthy obituary notice: "Mr, Crozier 
was a true husband and kind father, and the loss of his presence to sorrowing re- 
latives will not be easily or quickly repaired." His wife still survives, at the age of 
John A., eldest son of Robert Crozier, was born 1845, and always remained in 
this section. On 21st Feb., 1878, he was married to :Miss Ryan, a teacher, daughter 
of Thomas Ryan, who was a ship carpenter, living at the time in Mille Isles. Mr. 
Crozier first settled on the farm now owned by Thomas Black, jun., which he had 
bought a few years previous to his marriage, but he afterwards sold it and returned 
home to assist his father, whù was alone. In July, 1890, he bought his present farm, 
on which he has since made many improvements. He a member of Capt. Bur- 
wash's troop of Cavalry ten ye:àrs, joining it in 1860, after receiving a diploma from 
the :Military School in Montreal. He was Corporal of his company when he retired, 
DAVID THOMAS MORIN was born 8th February, 1820, in Dumfrieshire, Scotland, 
His father, who was a guard in Dumfrieshire Jail, was killed while on duty by the 
notorious thief and pick-pocket, Davie Hagart. He struck ::\Ir. 
Iorin on the head 
with a stone concealed in a s!ocking, intending only to stun him, but the blow proved 
The son, David Thomas, who was a carpenter by trade, came to Canada with his 
mother, about 1833. In February, 1843, he was married in .Montreal to l\Iiss Janet 
Craik, sister of Dr. Craik, Dean of the l\Ieùical Faculty, McGill University. In 18-1-9, 
he came to this parish, acd bought the farm now owned by his son DJ.vid j he died 
here 20th :\lay, 1873, and Mrs Morin 17th April, 1890. They had five sons and 
five daughters j three of the latter are deceased. Thomas, Da.vid, John, Jane and 
Janet, the latter married to \Villiam Davidson, lives in this parish-Robert C, on 
Beech Ridge, and William in Prescott County, Ont. Thomas, born 31st Dec., 1843, 
remained at home until twenty-four years of age, when he went to NevadLt, where he 
remained about five years. On his return, he was married 12th February, 1873, to 

Iary, daughter of the late James Gordon, of River Rouge. lIe then came to Ills 
present farm, adjoining the old Itomestead; he has two daughters and one SOil, 
who allli\'e at home. David, born 7th July, 1850, remained on the homestead j 

27 2 


he married l\[iss Dunbar, daughter of Patrick Dunbar, Esq. ; they have one son. Mr. 
::\Iorin has a fine farm, and in 1890 received a bronze medal and a diploma from the 
Quebec Government in the competition of that year. 
DREW \V ALKER came to Canada from Barrackshire, Scotland, with his family 
in J833, and first settled on Lane's PÜrchase in Lachute, where he and Mrs. \Valker 
both died, on the farm now owned by Henry Drysdale. Tiley had five sons and four 
daugh ters; among those now living are Margaret, widow of the late Robert Crozier; 
Alice, widow o( \Villiam Blow, livÜ1g in Manitoba; and George, living in Ontario, 
ANDREW, the fourth son, born 4th \Iay, :::82 I, was r
larried in 1851 to Catherine 
.\., daughter of Capt. Dunbar; they had e!ght children-five sons ::Ind three daugh- 
ters, of whom all but one son are no\\' living. Mr. \Valker remained on the home
stead until 1895, when his son Andrew bought the farm of his late uncle, Robert 
Crozier, in Jerusalem, and 1\1r. and Mrs. \\Talker, I"dired, are now li"ing with him. 
Mr. Walker has been very active in the affairs of the County, having beèn Municipal 
Councillor of Lachute for twenty-one years; he was ",Iso a member of Major Simp
son's company uf Cavalry, having been sergeant at the time they receiv
d the Prince 
of ""ales at Carillon. George Dunbar, the eldest son, lives in Hill Head; Janet I., 
married to James R:1itt, lives in Lachute; Catherine .\., married to WIlliam Cope- 
land, lives in Lane's Purchase; Andrew is on the farm in Jerusalem; William B. and 
John R. in l\lanitoba; and ì\!aggie, married to D. McPhail, lives in Chatham. 
HUGH CLELAND, son of James Cleland, was born in the parish of St. Jerusalem, 
and lived on the farm now owned by Thomas Black; he was married to Mary Ann 
Cotter, They had five children, of whom two boys and two girls are now living. 
!\Ir. Cleland Lought the farm now owned by his son, \Villiam J" and for the last 
eighteen years has shipped milk to :Montreal, buying from a good many in this 
vicinity. Mr. Cleland is now retireõ, and, with his wife, remains on the old 
homestead with their second son, \Villiam. The latter still continues the milk busi- 
ness; he was born January, 1867, and 23rd June, 1893, was married to Mary, d:wghter 
of \Villiam Brown, of Martintown, Ont. Jant>, the eldest, is married to Malcolm 
Smith, of Beech Ridge; Mary E. to Thomas Smith, lives in Montreal. Robert 
James, the eld
st son, was born 1857, and always remained at home. In [887, 
he was married to Isabella. daughter of Andrew Bell, Postmaster of Beech 
Ridge; the same year he took his present farm of his father. He has since erected 
new builclings, and m 1de many improvements on it; with his brother, he continues 
the milk business commenced by their father. 
., eldest son of James Leishman, was born in Upper 
Lachute, 26th May, 1864; he remained at home until 1886, and then \\rent to Cali- 
fornia, where he remained eight years in the lumber business; on his return he 
bought the farm of John )lcGilvray, Jerusalem, and is now living here with his sister 


_-\. Po
t Oftice was established here in 1871, and given the name of Genoa; James 
Gordon was appointed Postmaster, which office he still ho
ds. !\ir. Gordon COIl- 
ducted a general store here some time, but having to devote his time to his trade- 
that of carpenter-he discontinued the store, in 1890. 
The first school-house was built on the farm now owned by Mrs. Black. In 184 1 , 
a log school-house was built on the site of the present brick one, near the four 



A neat wooden church was erected in 1861, on 13r
d given to the \Vesleyan Metho- 
dist Conference by ::\lr. John Burwash, and it was built by the 
Iethodists of this 
vicinity. Mr. Griffith took an active part in its erection, and has been a staunch sup- 
porter of it ever since. It is used as a Union church now, and services are held on 
alternate Sabbaths hy Revs. Clipsham and Mackie, of Lachute. The Church is 
always open to any Protestant minister who wishes to hold service in it. 
The first settlers known in this place were BarL"'er, Drcl.per, and Hyatt, U. E, 
Loyalists, who came here about the beginning of the present century. Barber was 
quite a large land owner, having ab0ut 700 acres; he built a three-story, stone build- 
ing in 1850, on the fJ.rm no\\' owned hy 
] rs. \Vm. Black, intending that his sons 
should occupy it with him, after being married. They, however, being dissatisfied, 
left Ihls p1rt of the country, and none of the descendants of the above-named men 
now live in this section. 
.-\ few years ago, considerable business was done in the East Settlement by govern- 
ment contractors, who bought several acres of land from Messrs. John Rodger, Arm- 
strong and Todd. A very fine quality of gravel was discovered here, and a side 
track was hid from the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railroad to take away the 
gravel ùug by the large gang of men employed during one summer. Ahout twenty 
miles of the C. P. R, were b..1llasted with the gravel, and a great many carloads w.
taken to 
Iontreal. The gravel pit is quite a treak of nature, being a high ridge with 
leve1land on either side. rhe ridge is about half a mile long and three acre5 wide; 
the centre, where excavated, has the appearance of having been under water at one 
time, there being towards the bottom several feet of fine gravel, and then a layer of 
stone similar to the dry bed of a river. .-\t the bottom is a very fine quality of build- 
ing sand in which are found springs of pure cold water. 
THO;\IAS :\IILLER, a cabinetmaker by trade, was born in Scotland, and came to 
Canada about 1800 j he remained about ,seven years, then returned to Scotland, and 
married ::\liss .\nna Murdoch. He then came back to Canada, and settled at River du 
Loup, Que., keeping store there for several years, after which he removed to River 
lge, rennining several years on the farm of Gregor 
IcGregor. He then came to 
this place, anù bought the farOJ now owned hy his son, Thomas G. :\Ir. and Ml's. 
Miner both died here. THO\IAS G., the eldest son, born in 18.6 at River du Loup, 
was married in 1851 to :\Iary E. Green, from County Sligo, Ireland: they have five 
hters and four sons, all living. Catherine, the eldest daughter, Ii ' in Chicago j 
Mary and .-\manda in Montreal j ð1artha and Eliza are at home. Of the sons, 
Thomas, the eldest, John H. and William, are in California, and James, the YOllngest, 
remains at hom
JOHN GRIFFITH was born in Ireland in 1819, his parents, who were Welsh, having 
previously settled there; the family came to Canada about the year 18 
6, and first 
settled in Sr, Canute. \\'hen about eighteen years of age, John went to Ontario, and 
was employed for two years on the Cornwall Canal; he then returned to St, Canute, 
and soon afterward joined the St. Andrew's V,)luntecrs, Capt. Quinn's Company, 
going with them to St. Scholastique. He was in this Company when orders were 
received to march to St. Eu,tache. :\lr. Griffith afterward went to Thomas' Gore, 
where he was married to Mary, daughter of the late \Villiam Hume
 Hill Head. They 
had eight sons and fOllr danghters, of whom five sons and all the daughter
 are still 
living. William, th
 eldest, is a farmer in Watertown, N, Y.; Henry is mining in 
Nevada; John \V, is Professor in a San Francisco College j Isaac lives at home; and 
Albert L. is in '[ontreal; Eleanor, married to Roderick 
lcDonald, lives in Vide Sac j 
Mary J., married to Henry Hadley, lives in ::\lontreal; Sarah A. is at home j and 
Grace, married to \ViIliam Shepherd, lives in East Settlement. 



JAMES ARMSTRONG came to Canada in 1824 from County Monaghan, Ireland, 
and settled in North Settlement, on the farm now owned by \Villiam 'Valkeï; he 
afterward bought the farm now owned by his son Robert, where he died 7th May, 
18 73, aged seventy-five years, JAMES, the third son, born in 1837, was married 5th 
September, 1856, to Jane Canton, of Lakefield; he then settled on the farm now 
?wned by John Graham, Thomas' Gore, and remained there five years, when he sold 
It, and in 1872 bought his present one from the late 'Villiam Todd. He has three 
daughters and two sons; Julia A, is married to John McOuat, and lives in Lachute; 
l\lary E., the second daughter, after being a very successful teacher for four years, 
is now in the Post Office at Lachute; Alice J., John E., and Albert J. are at home. 
'VILLlAl\I BLACK, born 1830, was a son of Handyside Black, who came from Scot- 
land j \Villiam, who was the third son, bought the farm now occupied by his widow 
and children-the old Barber place, on which was built the large stone house men- 
tioned above. Mr. Black was married in 1872 to Elizabeth, daughter of \Villiam 
Dickson, of this place; he died 22nd March, 1891, aged sixty-one. Mrs, Black sur- 
vives him, and has four children-one daughter and three sons, named respectively 
Aggie, John, 'Villiam and David. Mrs. Black, with her children's assistance, has 
continued to manage the farm since her husband's death. The eldest son, John, 
bids fair to be one of the successful farmers of 
\rgenteuil, having already began to 
purchase thoroughbred stock. 
'VILLIAM TODD was born in Roxburyshire, Scotland, in 1808, and came to 
Canada in 1830, with his wife, Elizabeth \Vilson, and two children; he settled in 
Beauharnois, where he remained five years, then came to Lachute, .and bought the 
farm now occupied by the family of J ames Pollock. He remained in Lachute six 
years, and afterwards-about 1841-cam,= to this place, and bought the farm now 
occupied by James Armstrong, and lived here a number of years. 1\1rs, Todd died 
in 1860. They had four sons and one daughter; the latter is deceased, \Villiam, 
the eldest son, is in \Visconsin ; Thomas lives in Lachute; Andrew, on the Lachute 
Road; and Henry in this place. Mr. Todd was married a second time, in 1865. to 
:l\Iary, daughter of Andrew McLean, of Montreal. After selling his farm to 1\1r. 
Armstrong, Mr. Todd bought the cottage of James Gordon, at the four-corners, :1nd 
died there 18th April, 189
. aged eighty-six years. Mrs, Todd still lives here, 
JOSEPH ROGER, whose father also bore the name of Joseph, was born in Scot- 
hind in 1795. He came to Canada in 1833, and the same year bought the farm in 
this place now occupied by his children i he purchased this of Isaac Hyatt, one of t'ìe 
first settlers in this section. In 1836, Mr. Roger was married to Miss Jean :\IcOuat; 
they had seven children, of whom three sons and three dc1.ughters-Joseph, Janette, 
:\Iargaret, \Villiam, Elizabeth and John-are now living. l\lr. Roger died 18 7 0 , 
ageu seventy-five; Mrs. Roger in I 888, a
ed seventy-seven. Margaret, the second 
daughter, went to India in 1873 as a missionary for the Presbyterian Church of 
Canada, spending eighteen years there, with the exc.eption of one furlough. 
Roger has the honor of being the first missionary sent by the Presbyterians to India 
from Canada. Mr. Roger's children are all living on the homestead. 
DAVID ROGER came from Glasgow, Scotland, about 1833 ; he bought the farm 
now occupied by his son John from L. Barber, :\1r. Roger was married to 
Jane Mc(juat in Scotland, and had two children when they came to Canada. SIX 
more were born to them after coming here j four sons and two daughtel's are now 
living. Mr. Roger died 24th May, 1892, aged ninety-six years, and 
lrs. Roger 
died 1872, aged seventy-six. Joseph, the eldest son, lives in Lachute. Janet, the 



widow of James McClure, and mother of thp. celebrated missionary, Dr. McClure, of 
Honan, Chin
 lives in Upper Lachute. Margaret, married to Andrew Todd, and 
David, live on the Lachute Road, \ViIliam, and John, the youngest son, reside in this 
place. The latter, who was born in 1841, has always remained on the homestead; he 
was married in 1891 to Jemima, daughter of the late Thomas Bilsland; they have one 
JAMES \VOOD, a blacksmith by trade, came, with his wife, from Scotland to 
Canada about 1830; he first worked at his trade on the old Carillon and Grenville 
Canal, and from this work went to St. Placide, from which place he was obliged to 
remove to St: Andrews on the breaking out of the Rebellion of 1837- This journey, 
made on the ice, proved a dangerous one, as the river had but just frozen; :\Ir, \Vood 
was obliged to go 011 foot before his horse, testing the ice. He left his wife and 
children in St, Andrews and returned with the troops to St, Placide. Some time later, 
he came, with his family, to this section: and bought the farm now owned by his son 
Robert, :Mr, \Vood died in 1881, aged seventy-seven, and Mrs. \Vood in December, 
1890, aged eighty-three. They had eleven children, of whom seven sons and two 
daughters reached maturity. 
ROBERT, the fifth son, born 1845, remained at home until twenty-one years of 
age, when he went to Nevada, remaining five years altogether in that State, but making 
a long visit at home durïng the time, After his final return to Canada, he went into 
partnership with Robert Summerby, and erected a ste:1m saw mill on the North River 
at St. Canute. He managed this for two years, then sold out and bought his present 
farm from his father. In 1872, 1\Ir. \Vood was married to :Miss :McGregor, daughter 
of John McGregor, of Lachute Road. They have four sons and one daughter living. 
Mr, \Vood has made many improvements on his farm, and it is now one of the best 
equipped in East Settlement, . 
I ROGER, second son of Da.vid Roger, was born in this Settlement in 
1833, p.nd has always remained here; he was married in 1866 to Miss Ann Robertson, 
of Montreal, whose father came from Aberdeen, Scotland, with his wife and children. 
Her mother died during the voyage, and Mr. Robertson died a year after reaching 
Mr. Roger bought his present farm, which had previously been owned by James 
Draper, from his sister, Mrs. McClure, in 1860, and has since made many improve- 
ments on it, besides building his present brick residence. All the surroundings of the 
place betoken intelligence and industry. :\lr. Roger has taken an active part in the 

-\gricultural Society, having been Director for several years; he has also been Coun- 
cillor of the Parish. Mrs, Roger died in 1890, leaving a family of nine children; 
one son has since died-five daughters and three sons are now living. 
J A;\lES \VILSON came from Roxburyshire, Scotland, to Canada, in 183(', and 
settled here, being one of the first to arrive in this section, 
WILLIAM, his second son, was born in 1842, on the farm where he now lives; 
he has always remained at home, with the exception of one year, which was spent in 
lumbering in \Visconsin. He was married 6th January, 1891, to Jessie B., daughter 
of Simon McKimmie, of Lachute. They have two daughters. In 1892, 1\Ir. \Vilson 
obtained the farm, his father dying in that year. 
\VILLIA:\l TODD, eldest son of Thomas Todd, was born in February, 1858, in East 
Settlement; he has been twice married, first to Margery M., daughter of Thomas 
Young, of River Rouge, by whom he had three sons and one daughter. 
Irs, Todd 
died in March, 1889. In 1881, the father of :Mr. Todd, wishing to retire from active 
business, gave up to his son the management of his farm, which he purchased about 
half a century ago from Milo Barber; he then went to live in Lachute. 

27 6 


Ir. Todd was married the second time, in June, 189 I, to Ida Catherine, daughter 
of Charies McGregor, of River Rouge; he has two sons by this marriage. 
his place in the eariy years of its history, and settled on 
the farm, then entirelv covered with bush, which is now owned by his son Peter, 
The latter was born {n 1855, and has always remained on the homestead; he was 
married in 1876 to )1iss P. Touchette, of Cote St. Louis. They have two sons living, 
l\Ir. Bigras has nude many improvements on his farm, and, il1 1895, was app.:>inted 
Director of the Agri'-:lIltural Society of Argenteuil. He, as was his father, is a mem- 
ber of the Belle Rivière Presbyterian Church. 

The following sketch has been kindly given us by a young friend of l\Irs, Gordon, 
it having been writlen at Mrs. Gordon's dictation :_ 
MR. and :\IRS. GORDON came out from Scotland about 1835, and settled in the 
bush in Geiloa. They had to erect a cabin at once, which was square in shape and 
co-r-ered with "scoops." Their only stove was tin. They had to clear their land by 
first cutting down the trees, and then rooting up the stumps by means of a pry about 
ten feet long. This, of course", was very hard work, and, on one occasion, when )1rs, 
Gordon was helping, she puJled so hard on the pry, that sheecould see "stars," and 
her sight was so injured that, from that time, she has had to use spectacles. The first 
YEar, they cleared only two acres, burning the stumps when they were puJled, then 
nlo\\ ing the land and sowing their seed. As their fields became larger, they 
times worked in harvesting till eleven o'clock at night, binding their grdin and putting 
it in to ., stooks" before the rain came. During the first years of their settlement 
they had but one child-a little girl-whom they carried to the field and home again, 
when they were drawing hay or grain, and put her on the mow till the wagon was 
unloaded. \Vhen they had drawn in all their grain, they threshed it ,,,,'ith a flail, anêl, 
after being ground, it was carried on Mr. Gordon's back to the mill at Lachute. 
"'hen returning home, it was sometimes so dark that he was obliged to hang the bag 
of flour or meal on a tree and return for it in the morning, The only pl.1ce they had 
to keep their potatoes was a hole in the ground, well covered over. Their only means 
of traveJling was with a horse and a little, low, flat-bottomed traineau, with a bundle 
of pea-straw for a seat, and .1F> robes. They had to drive to Montreal with a h >rse 
and cart to sell their produce, and often the roads were so bad that the mud and water 
came up to the axle. Their load consisted chiefly of pork and butter; the genera! 
price of pork was $
.5o per hundred, and of butter I 2 
c. per pound. Whatever 
money they received had all to go in payments on their farm. 
They lived here at the time of the Rebellion, and were often afraid that the rebels 
would come and kill them. Once, while trying to take home some of his sheep, the 
rebels took )1r. Gordon prisoner, and his sheep were killed. The next day, however, 
he obtained a stick, broke the windows of his prison, and escaped. Another time, 
a wolf carne along in the night, and began fighting with the dog, and they thought it 
was some of the rebels trying to set fire to the buildings, and were nearly frightened 
to death. 
\Volves were very numerous, and used to come in crowds every night, so that 
they had to shut up their sheep. One little pet lamb did not want to be shut up, so 
it ran away in the bush and across a ditch. It was never seen alive again; but they 
found a piece of its leg, where a wolf had killed and eaten it. For three or four years 
after they came here, the wolves used to disturb them very much at night by their 
howling. Mrs. Gordon tells of an encounter she once had with a wolf. 



She was :lway from home, and had about t\,penty miles to walk, Sl) she started 
early in the nloming, on a bush road, not very well marked out. After losing her 
way three times, she at length reached a house where her sister promised to meet her, 
and they wa!ked along together until they reached the North River flowing through 
Lachute. There was no bridge, but they got across in a scow with some school girls, 
and in a short time reached the home of her fri
nds, They wanted her to remain all 
night, but she was anxious to get home, so she went out <1gain, till she came to a 
bush where she lost her way, and presently saw a wolf among a loi. of sheep. She 
was about to strike him with the sickle carried in her hand, but save a loud scream 
instead, which so frightened him that he ran off, She then Went on, reaching home 
about 12 o'dock at night. 
In the winter evenings, :\Irs, Gordon often sat up while the others were slceping
sewing and knitting for the chiidren; she often spun one hundred pounds of wool in 
a year. By hard work and industry they cleared up a good farm, put up comfortable 
buildings, and took care of a large family, who are all doing well. When their child- 
ren were all settled in homes of their own, :\lr. and Mrs. Gordon sold their homestead, 
and built a pretty little cottage at the four corners, which is surrnunded by trees. 
They have a small piece of gïOund which they cultivate themselve
, and live very 
happily together in their old age, and delight in talking of the hardships through 
which they have passed. 


This place, so called, it is claimed, because it is "nigh unto Jerusalem," bounds 
Beech Ridge on the east. The ubiquitolls John Smith found his way hen", and pitched 
his tent,. in or about the year 1819, on the lot now owned by J, \V. \Vebster, of St, 
Andrews. A few years later, he purchased the lot now owned and occupied by his 
grandson, \Villiam Burne, Finding clay on this, of the right kind for m::mufacturing 
brick, he purchased the necessary machinery and began the wc:rk. Many of the 
dwellings in this section wel e made from the brick purchased at this yard, and Mr. 
Hume, who ice; still engaged in the enterprise, turns out annually from one hundred 
and fifty to two hundred thousand of superior quality. :\Ir. Smith, evidently, 
\vas an industrious man, and learned, in the most difficult way, the varied hardships 
incident to the life of a pioneer. He cleared up the greater part of two lots. and in 
the early years of his life here, carried his grain on his back to Lachute-three miles 
Among the first settlers here were the PAULS, who came from :\Iorayshire, Scot- 
land. The family consisted of the father, mother, one daughter and four sons, named, 
respectively, Jane, Jame
, Alexander, John and David, They first st.-ttled in Chatham, 
and, a few years later, came to this place. James, who married Janet Ker, afterw.uds 
r('turned to Chatham, and died there.:, leaving children. Alexand.:r, another of the 
four brothers, married Margaret Lowe; and John, 
Iaria Chapman. The latter sur- 
vived her husband, and now lives on Bethany Road with her family. David, the only 
remaining member of the Paul family, married Elizabeth Doig, and also resides on 
Bethany Road. 
DUNCAN, second son of Alexander Paul, was born 9th April, 1856, on the farm 
now owned by Mrs. Jame-; Kettyle. He was married 28th June, 1882, to Isabella, 
daugLter of the late Henry Griffith, of Yide Sac. In 1887, 
fr, Paul went to \\"ater- 
town, N.Y., where he remained three years. After returning, he worked on the old 
homestead until 1893, when he sold it,and bought his present farm ofeighty-fi\pe .teres, 
on which he has erected new buildings and made mallY improvements. 

27 8 


JAMES R. EARLE, third son of James Earle, was horn 14th September, 18 
9, on 
the farm where he now Jives, In 1883, he was married to \Iary, daughter of the late 

\Jexander Paul. They have had two litte girls, who are both deceased; the elder 
dying at the age of one year and nine months, and the younger at the age of five 
years. l\lr. Earle is living on the old homestead. He has been a Councillor of the 
parish during the last eight ye:Hs. 
IAS :\IORRISON W,1.s born in Scotland in 1798, and came to Canada in 1822. 
He was married here to Jemima Brown, They had seven children, of whom four 
sons are now living. After first remaining some time in LJ.chute, 
[r, Mornson 
went to the Hill Settlement, where his youngest son, Robert, was born in 18
 I. In 
1870, the latter bought his present [;um-the old Sleyberg place-in Bethany. He 
was married the same year to Mary Ann, daughter of 
he late \Vm. Barron, of Upper 
Lachute. They have had. five children. Two sons and two daughters are now living. 
The eldest son, Thomas B., is married to Janet, daughter of John Doig, of Hill 
Farro, Upper I.-achute. The other children are at home. Mr. Morrison has made 
many improvements on his Ltrm. He has been Director of the Agricultural Socicty 
of this County for se\'eral years, and also valuator of this parish. Th
 people of 
Bethany and vicinity built a cheese factory, in 1895, on 
1r. Morrison's farm. It 
is man.1ged by J. R. Ro<.:s & Sons, of Hawkesbury. 
JA;\IES K. FRASER, youngest son of \\ïlliam Fraser, was born 
-\ugust 3, 1861, 
and ha<; always rem;1.lned here. In 1891, he was married to Kathleen, daughter of 
\\'m. Henderson, of Arundel, and the same year took his father's farm, known as 
" Highland Farm," Bethany Road, on which he ha:3 made many improvement
. Mr. 
Fraser has served as School Trustee for se\'eral terms. He has kind1\." provided for 
the comfort and instruction of several orphan5, and four have, at diffaent times, 
found a good home in his own family. l\Ir, and Mrs. Fraser have one son and one 


ALEXANDER SMITH, from Ayrshire, came to Canada a short time previous to the 
\Var of 1812, and during that war lived at Lachine, and was employed in the winter, 
conveying artillery between Montreal and Kingston. Soon afterwards, he came to 
Lachute, and a þrods-verbal of the road between that town and Beech Ridge shows 
that he was here in 1816, and owned the lot on which the railroad station and the 
most populous part of Lachute is now located. Sub.,eqJ.ently, he changed this lot 
with Colonel Barron for one Dear Hill Head, on which he lived till his death, He 
had three sons-John, William and Alexander-and four daughters, that grew up. 
Alexander left the country, and no tidings of him have ever been received, John, 
the second son, remained on the homestead. married, and had a large family. 
\Villiam, the second son, in 1848, settled on a wild lot in Vide Sac-a name 
signifying Empty Sack, which was given to the place by the Frenchmen of St. 
Hermas, who came here to clear their land, each bringing his provisions in a small bag 
or sack, which was pretty sure to be empty at night. Mr, Smith spent his days here 
and cleared up a fine farm. He married Janet Henderson about 1845, and died in 
1882, aged 68. They had fi\'e children; two died in infancy, three sons grew up, 
but only one is now living. Alexander, the eldest of the three sons, died, unmarried, 
in California, in January, 1874. 
'Villiam Smith, M.D., another son, of whom a sketch is given in the histcry of 
Lachute, died in that place in September, 1895. 



Mrs. Smith was particularly desirous of having their children well educated, con- 
sequently, both she and her husband \\'01 ked hard to provide the funds requisite for 
this purpose, Walter, the youngest son, after leaving the "Mantreal Business College, 
remained on the homestead, with the exception of two or three years, when he was 
engaged in teaching in Alpena, Michigan. He was married, in 188[, to Janet, 
daughter of John Nicol, of Lachute. He is one of the influential and respected 
farmers in Argenteuil, and takes an interes: in whatever affects ner moral, social or 
political welfare. He is devoted to farming, and, in 1889. was a warded a pi ize on 
his farm hy the County Agricultural Society. He has been a member of the Parish 
Council for several years, twice has made out the'Yaluation Roll for the parish, and 
is President of the County Association and Yice-President of the Provin<:.ial Associa- 
tion of the Patrons of Industry. In Church and Sabbath School work, he is equally 
interested and active, being Elder in the Second Presbyterian Church at Lachute, and 
Superintendent of the Sabbath School. 
AHCHIBALD BOA, youngest son of Andre\v Boa, was born April, 1838, on the 
farm now owned by Paul Smith, Upper Lachute; he learned the trade of carpenter, 
and this in Lachute and other places in the vicinity for several years. In 
1838, he was married to Jessie 1\1. ,,,., daughter of Thomas Buchanan, In 1867, he 
bought the farm now occupied by hi
 son Andrew. 
Mr. Boa died in 1893, aged 55. Mrs. Boa and the five sons and five daughters 
are all living. 
Amelia D., the eldest daughter, married to Frank Bickerstaff, and Flora H., the 
second, live in l]]inois. Lydia H., the third daughter, married to 'VilIiam A. Gurdon, 
Ìives in East Settlement; and Alice \V. and Jessie, the two younger, remain at home. 
ANDREW BOA, the eldest son, after spending f,ome time in Mal1itoba and in 
different parts of the United States, returned home and took the farm in 1893. He 
is an enterprising farmer, and for scver.ll years has taken the first prize at the County 
plowing matches. Thomas B., the second son, is married and lives in Montreal; 
Robert, the third son, resides in Atlantic Highland, New Jersey; and John S., the 
fourth son: dnd Paul, the youngest, are in Illinois. 


This locality, which is located about four miles from Lachute, on the opposite 

iùe of the North River, has fine farms and has always sustained a thrifty and intelli- 
gent population. As shown on a preceding page, Philander Stephens and his 
hrothers were very early settlers here, and he is the only one of the early American 
pioneers now remaining. A Post office was established here in 1880. Thomas 
Pollock, who was the first Postmaster appointed, died in [892, and Mr. Dre\v suc- 
cet:ded him as J'ostmaster. \Ve regret that disappointment in not receiving the 
data necessary prevents our giving a biographical sketch of Mr. PoIJock. 
A cheese factory was erected here, in 1888, by Frederick Cook, and though the 
section is almost wholly an agricultural one, there is a grist and sa\v mill here in a 
romantic litt
e glen. These mills, which were formerly known as the l\1cOuat Mills, 
are now owned by Thomas Hammond. 
About 1820, \VILLIAM DREW, from Sterlingshire, Scotland, came to Montreal, 
and two years later he came to this section. where he married Janet, daughter of 
James McOuat. He Lought 100 acres of Lot 19, 2nd Range, and afterward pro- 
cured 135 acres more, adjacent to his first purchase. He was on military duty 
during the Rebellion of 1837, and faithfully performed all his duties as a worthy 



CItizen till his death, 13th Octoher, 18ó9' He had seven children-two sons and 
five daughters-that arrived at maturity, but two of the daughters are now decraied. 
James. the elder son, has always remained on th: hom
sted.d-a b
auliful and 
productive farm of 235 acres, with commodious, suhstantial buildings. 
Ir. Drew 
was married 17th April, 1862, to Elizabeth, daughter of \Villiam 
IlIir, of Lachut
They have but one child, a daughter, Elizabeth, living, She has a l\Iodel School 
Diploma, and has taught successfully several years. Another .laughter of :'\[r. 
and ::\lrs. Drew, Maggie, died in 1895-a great bereavement to the family and a 
large circle' of friends. Mr. Drew joined the Troop of the lat
 CuI. Simpson, and 
remained in it till it was disbanded, 
James Drew, the other son of 'Villiam Drew, the pioneer, married in April, r863, 
Eliza Pollock. He has a fine farm on Beech Ridge. 
Among other valuable farms at Hill Head are those of Georg'
 .i\10:-riso:1 and 
l\f r. !\1cOuat. 

\djacent to Hill Head is "THOMAS' GORE," a section comprising two ranges of 
lots, which is also inhabited by an industrious class of farmers. Arnone; these are 
James Berry, Thomas Hume, Henry Padgett, John Smith and others. 
Tne most, if not all, of the"e Ii ve on the homesteads selected by t'heir fa thers, 
and ha ve brothers and sisters residing here, and in other part5 of the Dominion. 


(Erected into a township by Proclamation, 13 th July, 1799') 
This township is bounded on the north by 'Ventworth, east by the parishes of St. 
Andrews and St. Jerusalem d' Argenteuil, sou th by the Ottawa and west by Grenville. 
At just what time the first settler located in Chatham, or who he was, are ques- 
tions w
 are unable to answer, uut from information obtained frllm different sources 
we are led to the cunclusion that the advent of the fir::.-t pioneer* must have been 
about the ueginning of the present century. 
\Ve cannot find a more appropriate introduction to the history of this township 
than the following letter of our esteemed friend, Mr. Dewar of Ottawa. 



- ---- 

Pierre L. Panet . , , . . , .... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 5 200 
do . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .. . . . . .' . 2 5 200 
do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 200 
Guy Richards. . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . 4 5 200 
Pierre L. P anet . . ,. . , , , ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 5 5 200 
do . . . . . . . . . . . .......... . . . . . , . 6 5 200 
1'. A. Stayner and Louisa Sutherland. . . . .. . . . . . . 7 5 200 
'!aria and Louisa Sutherland, . . , " . . . . . . . . . . 8 5 200 
do . . . . . . ... . .. .. . . . . . . 9 5 200 
do ...... ... . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5 200 
do . , , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II 5 200 
do , . . . , ...... . . . . . . . . 12 5 200 
do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5 200 
do . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 14 5 200 
do . . . . . . . . .... .. . . . . . . 15 5 200 




T. A. Stayner and Louisa Sutherland.".. , . . . . . . 
do , , . . ,. ... , ., .. 
do . . . , ., ..., . , . . 
Daniel Sutherland and John Robertson.,..., , . , , . 
do ...,....... 
T. A. Stayner and Louisa Sutherland...,.. ...... 
Daniel Sutherland and John Robertson. , " . ... . .. 
do , . , , " ., . . , 
do . , . . . . , , . , , 
John l' horn pson . , , . .. ..,. . . ., ..,. , , , . , , " . , . , 
John Thompson, jun. . ., .." . . " "" ...... . , . , 
Daniel Sutherland and John Robertson. ...... . .. . 
do , . , . . . . . . 
T. A. Stayner and Louisa Sutherland. .". ...... . . 
,V m, F ortu ne . , .. .... . . , . , , , , . . ., ...",.." . 
1'homas Barron,.., ...... . , " ",......",.,., 
'\ïlliam Fortune", . " . , . ... . , . . ... , " ,.., "., 
do , , . , " ,.., . , ,. ..,.,. ..,... . . . . 
do , . , , .. . . ., "".. , . , . ,. . . '" , , , 
'1'. A. Stayner."... ...,'. .,.. .... ...,'." ,... 
\V illiam Fortune..., ...,.. . . ... ..."...."." 
do . . . , .. . , , . .. . , ,. .,.,.. . , " . , . , 
Maria and Louisa Sutherland. , , . . , . . . " . .. . . .. .. 
Thomas A, Stayner.", .,. , '. . . ,. . , , . . . , , . . , , . 
do , , . , .. . , ,. , , . . .. .". . , ., ""., 
do , , .. , , , . , . . . . . . , , , .. . , . . . . .. . . 
do . . .. . . . . , , ,. . . ., ,.. ,.,. ., . . . . 
Maria and Louisa Sutherland,. 
do . . , . . , ,. .." , . , . . , . , 
T. A. Stayner. , .. ,.,. . , " ,. .. .... . , . , . . " . , , . 
Daniel Sutherland and John Robertson. . . .. . . . , . . 
do . . . , , . , . . , . , 
d3 , . , , " . . . , , , 
Thomas A. Stayner. .,. ...... .... , . " . " ..... 
Daniel Sutherland and John Robertson. ",... . , . 
do . . , . '. , . , . , , 
T. A. Stayner. ... ..,.,. ,....." ...... .,." 
Daniel Sutherland and John Robertson. . , . , , , . , , . 
do . , . . " ..... 
John Robertson. , . , " ...... .,. . " ,..,.. . . . , , , 
J ames Heat! y . , . , " ..,." , . , ,.. , . .. ."""" 
John Robertson... . ., ".", .,."..,.,.,.,..., 
John l\leikle,... ." , ,. ,.,... ,..,...",...,., 
J ames 'V álker , , . , .. ...... ..".. ,.,... ,. , . . , . 
do ..,.., ...... ...... ..,... .... ,., 
do . , , , ,. .",.. .,.,'. ."... , . .. .. . 
Thomas Barron...... , . , . .. .".,. , , . , . , . . , . , , 
James Walker. , . . " , . . , '. .'" ,. ........., ". 
do . . . . .. ,..... , , . , ,. , , . . ,. . .. . . , 
Ifenry McDowel",... '" . " ...... .. , . , . ., . , . 
James Walker" . . .. .."" """ ...... . . , , . . . 
Maria and Louisa Sutherland .,..,.."..,. ."." 
do , , . , ., """ ",., 
Ma Uhew Johnston. , .. ...... . . ..,...' . . ., . , , . , 
J ames Baxter, , , . ,. ,.. , .. ...... .,.....,.".. 

- - - 
. . . . 16 5 200 
.. .. .. .. 17 5 200 
.. .. .. .. 18 5 200 
.. .. .. .. 19 5 200 
.. .. .. .. 20 5 200 
.. .. .. .. 21 5 200 
.. .. .. .. 22 5 200 
.. .. .. .. 2" 5 200 
.. .. .. .. 24 5 200 
W I 25 5 100 
 25 5 100 
.. .. .. .. 26 5 200 
.. .. .. 010 27 5 200 
.. .. .. .. 28 S 200 
.. .. .. .. I 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 2 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 3 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 4 6 200 
...... .. 5 6 200 
.... .. .. 6 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 7 6 200 
...... .. 8 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 9 6 200 
. . 10 6 200 
.. .. .. .. II 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 12 6 200 
...... .. 13 6 200 
...... .. q. 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 15 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 16 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 17 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 18 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 19 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 20 6 200 
...... .. 21 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 22 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 2" 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 24 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 2S 6 200 
...... .. 26 6 200 
...... .. 27 6 200 
.. .. .. .. 28 6 200 
.. .. .. .. I 7 200 
.. .. .. .. 2 7 200 
.. .. .. .. 3 7 200 
.. .. .. .. 4 7 200 
.. .. .. .. 5 7 200 
...... .. 6 7 200 
.. .. .. .. 7 7 200 
.. .. .. .. 8 7 200 
.. .. .. .. 9 7 200 
.. .. .. .. 10 7 200 
.. .. .. .. II 7 200 
W J 12 7 100 
 12 7 roo 




Maria and Louisa Sutherland,.,.., ,.. , . . .. ,.".. 
Larety Tooley, . , . ., ...... ". . ., . , .. ."". ",. 
Guy Richards"",' .,..,. ...... ..., . , ., ...... 
John NIcE wen,.,.,. . . . . ,. . '" . .. .,.... 
George Brown , . , , ., .,..', """.",...".." 
John Robertson.",.. ...... , . . , , , ,.,."...., , 
do . . . . .. .,.." .",.. . ... . .. ....,. 
'fhomas Phillips. . . , ,. ".,., ,. . . ., .,.,.. ...... 
J ona than P. 1\loss , . , , .. .............'"" ...,.. 
John I{obertson... . .. .".,. ...... . . . , , ,. ...... 
do , . , , ,. .. . . .. ,..... ,..". . , , . , . . 
Lemuel Cushing. . , . . , . . .. """..",.',.,.... 
John I{obertson,..... ..,... ...... . , ,. .... . , . , . 
do . . . , .. "..., .,... .' , . " ,..", 
do , , . . " ,.... . , , , .. .,. - .. ..,." 
James Goodland".,., ..., .".. - ."." . , , . , . , . 
\Villiam Howden..,.,. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. ....,. 
John H.o bertson . , . , . . ., ,. . . .. ,." . . . ... .,. . .. 
do " ..,.. .. . . . ., ."... 
do . . . . .. .",.. ...... , .,. , ., ,... . . 
James 1\1, Perkins...... . . . . " , , .. . .., " ",., , 
Lewis Hreigher". , " ..,... .... . .. ,.,.,. ,."., 
John ltfeikle . , . , ." ,.,.",.".,. ,. , , ., .,.,.. 
Thomas Barron, . , . .. ".... . , ., . . . ...,.. ....., 
\Villiam l{ichardson.."" . . . . . ... . .. , , .. ,...., 
Andrew 1\1 cConnell . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. ...... ...... 
Henry Purse,..... " . . .. ...... .,.",."...,., 
J ames lien. y . . . . ., ..,.., ,.,.., ..,... . , , , , . . . . 
uwis Stalker. . . . ,. ",... ...,.. 
. , , . ,. . . . . ,... 
Slater Clark...... ....,. .... -. .,., .' . .,.,. . . ., 
'fhomas Barron. , . . " "..., ...." ...." . , , . , . , 
enneth McDonald. , . . .. .,..,. , , , .. "",..,.. 
Maria and Louisa Sutherland.... .. . ...... ....,. 
Lewis Stalker.,. , . . . . . .. ...." . . . . .. ........ 
Archie 1\furdoch, , ,. ,..... . . . , ,. .,..., ,. " ",. 
James McKenzie. , , ,.. ."... .,.... ..,.., ...... 
Archie Murdoch, jun.." ..,." "..,. ....., . . . . 
Willian1 Hutcbins. . . . .. ,..... . . , . " . . ,. , . . , . ., 
( -harles Green. _ .. ... . .. ,..... .,.." ...... . , , . 
do , . . , ., .,.... . . .. ".". ,." ...,.. 
Archie Murdoch,...., ,..,.. ".... .,.... .'".. 
James l\1:cIntyre . , . , ., .,.... .,. . . , . , . . . " "..,. 
John I{o l>ertson, . .. ., . , ., , . " . , , . . ",.,. "".. 
do ..,... ......,..,..,....,....... 
do . , . . " ..,. ".. .. . . . . , ,. ,." ,. . , 
J ames Calder. >, , ,. ...... ..,.., .., . '. .",.... 
John Robertson . , , . .. ,.,., . ,." . , , . , " . , . , , , , , 
do . , . . .. .,. , .. ",.,. . . . , ,. . . . , . , , 
Legal Representatives \)f John Quiry............ 
John Robert son, . . , .. . . .. . . .. ".... ..., . , . , . , , 
do . . . . .. ....,. ,."., ,. ., ...,.... 
do . , . , .. , . . . ,. . .. . . . . . . . , , . . .. .... 
Thomas Stayner... . .. ..,.., ..., . . .. ..",..." 
John Roberlsor,... . . .. .. . . . . .,.,..".,.,.,.. 
do , . ., ...... . . . . .. ",. . . . ., .., , , . 


E ! 

E 1- 

E .

E ! 

E 1 

E . 1 







John Robertson. , ., ..,.,. . , .. , , . . .. . . . .. ",.,. 
do . , . . , . ,.., ... . ,. ...." . . . ,. .,.. 
William and John Roger and Andrew Todd..",.. 
Alex:1nder f\lcGibbon . ... . ,., . . . ., ... . . . 
John Robertson.", ,.., . . . . .. .,.,.,.......,.. 
do . . . . ,. ."....,.".. .., 
M:alcolm McIntyre,..... . . . . .. ,.., . . . , .. ,..... 
Donald 1\1cPhail....... .......... .........._ 
Peter De\\'ar, jr . . . , " .. ., , , ,. . . . . . . , . . .. ...." 
Danie I Dal e . . , . .. .,. . " ... . . ., ,... . . . " . . . 
'''m. young,.,. ...... .,., . ....,. ...... .... 
do . . . .. ...... . . ., . . . . .. ...... . . . , . . 
Duncan :f\lc Arthur. . . . " ...... ..,." . . .. ...... 
John Loggie. . . . . . . . '" ...." ...... ., 
Peter l\lcFarlane... , ., ....... .."..,......... 
John McArthur. . . . .. ,..,.. ".............,., 
Peter Grant. , . . . , . , . . . . . , ,. . . . . . . . . . . .. ...... 
'fhon1as I )uncan , , . . ., . . , . " ....., ,..", .... . . 
Donald :f\lcMartin. . . . .. ......",.", ",... . . . . 
Peter Gilmour. . . . ,. , , ., . . . . .. . . .. . , . . " ,..". 
Francis Duffy. . . . , , . . . , .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . 
Thomas Spencer. . . . .. .'. . ., ...... ...... .,.... 
Geo. Blair,.,.,. ....... ...,.,.. .. ...... .". 
W m . Blair, jr ...,. ... . .. . , . , . . ,. ."... ,.,... 
John l\lorrow,... , . . . . . . . . . .. ................ 
Henry IJixon . . . . ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . " .... . . . . . . . . 
do . , , . . . . . . . . . ,.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .". 
Frank Connor. . .. .". . . . . . . . . ..., .." ., . . . . . . 

Iathew Connor. . . . . , " .,..,. ...,.. ... . . . . .". . 
Henry Connor. , .. . . .. .... ... .....,.... ...... 
James Kenned y . . , . . . .. ...." ....,........" , 
Allen Cameron, . , , .. ' . . . " . . . . . .. ..,. . . .. . . , . 
I )uncan McCalhnn. , ., , , " . . ,. . . . . . . . . . . .. . , . . 
Robert Mc Naughton. . .. . . . . " ..,. . . .. . ... .... 
Richard Farren.". . . .. .". . . . . . . . ,. . . ., ..... 
Hugh Smith. , .. . . . . . . ,. .., . . . . . . . , . ,. . . . . ., .. 
Peter Tesmin.,.. .... .,.. .... . .,.. .'.. .... .... 
D. Siñclair.,.,.. . . .. . . . . . . . ,. .,.", . . " . . . . . . 
J ames Pinkerton.". . . . . .. ..,... ...", . , ., . . . . 
Walter Kirconnell.... ...... . . .. .. .. . . ., ...,.. 
Hugh McCallum.,. .. . _ . . . ., .,.. . .. . " 
Arch, McArthur. , " . . . . . . .. . . . . " ...... .,..,. 
Alex. l\lcGibbon. ... . ... ....,..............,. 
John McFarlane,... ...... ........ ...... 
Joseph Sale. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . , . . .. ...... .. . . , . . . I 
Duncan McPhail., .. . . . . . . . .. ............ .,. I 
do , . .. .. ...............,.....,. 
::\Ialcolm McGregor,.. '" . . .. .". . _ . . . . , ,. . , " 
John McGibbon........ .... ,... ...... 
Donald McKercher. , , . , . ,. . . . . ,. .........,.,. 
!)uncan f\lc:f\IarlÍn.... ........ .,.", .... .",.. 
do . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. , . . . . , , . . . . . 
GeoTl;e l\1 oncrie ff , , . , , . . .." . . .. ...... . . " . . . . 
Peter McArthur. . .. ...... .....,., , ,. . . ,. . . . . 
Thomas Duncan. . " ,..... . . . . " .,.." .,.. . , , . 


E ! 


E I- 


S ! 


w ! 
E . ] 





. 28 3 





,Villiam Blair. . .. ,.,. .,.,.. . . .. . , ,. ,. . . ,. . . . . 
Thomas Carpenter.,...... .... ,.,." ...... .,.. 
T ohn Calder. . . . . , . . . , .. , , .. . . . , " . . .. . . .. . . . . 
} ames S wecney . . . . . . " ,.., . . . .. ....., , , . , . , . . 

Iatthew Connor. . ., . . ., .. , , " " . . " .". .... , . 
Legal Rep. of John Burke. , . . . , .. , , .. . . .. ...... 
John Howe"..,. ".. .."..'",....,.. .,.." 
'V. Anderson. . .. .,., ... ....,."............ 
.;-\rthur McArthur. ,. . " . ,.. . . . .. . . ,. . . ., .",.. 
James Campbell,..... ....... .... .... .... .,.. 
Joseph 1\lcCallum.... .". ..,. .,............,. 
Sarah Eaton, widow W m. Mason. . . . . , . . . . ., . , , . 
John Sinclair..,... ",... ,.,."..', . . .. ",... 
\\1 illian1 Myers.... . . .. . . , . . .... " . . " .... . , , . 
Nathaniel Hammond. . . , . , . , ., . . ., """ ."", 
Legal Rep. W m. Lenthall,.... ..,............ 
John Kein.". ,.., , . . . , , ,. . . , ,. .' . . " .... ,." 

 \ lexander Petillo..,. .,..,..... .", , . " ...... 
'fhomas Barron. . ., ...,.,.,..".....,., part of 
.\ndrew Walker.". ,.., .,.. .... . ... .,., ...... 
'fhomas Barron. . ., . , , . " . , , , . .. ..,. . . , . part of 
Francis Millar. . .. ,..........,....... ... , , . 
Robert Meikle.... .... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. Sou th 
Peter McArthur. . .. . . . . ,. .. ..., . . . . . North ! of 
Tames Hairshaw. , . . . . .. . . . . . . " . . " ,.,... . . . . 
Thon1as Owens. , ,. . , , , . , , , . ..,. , . . , . , . , , , . . . . 
\Villiam Gaustick. . . . . . . . . ., . , ., . . . ." . , .. . , ., 
Thomas Owens. . . . . . ., . . , .. . . . . . , .. ., . '" . , .. 
Daniel Bonner. , , . . . . .. ,....,.......", -.' , . . 
David Marshall. . ,. , , . . . . . . , . . . , . . . . .. , . .. . , . . 
J ames South (Sergeant) ,... .. . . , .. . . ... .... . . .. 
Samuel 1\lu rphy . . , . ., . . ,. .. . . , . .. "......... 
Patrick Kelly.",.... ,. . . . . . . . . , . ,. . , . . . . 
George Carpenter. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . , , " .. . . . . 
:\lartin Shannon.... .. . . . . . . , . .. . . ..,. .. . . . . .. 
J ames Goff. . . . . . . , , . , . , . . ., . . . . . . . . ,. . . . . . . . - 
James Con nor, . . . , , . , , , ,. . . . . . , ., , . . . . . . . . . . , 
John Barnet.,., ..,.".."............,...... 
Martin Oates. . .. , . . . . . . . . .. . . . . , . . , , , . . .. ,.., 
John F itz patrick. . ., ...... .. . . . . . . . . , . , . , . . . . . 1 
Richard Seddon. . .. . . , , , . " ............,...., 
James Douland . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . . . , . . . , . . . . , . , , 
Michael Shea".", ...... ..., . . , ,. ..,... ,..,., 
Patrick 110ynack...... . . , , " ,..,.. ...... , . , . .1 
John Kelly",." .'" " . , " , . . , . . , . .. , ,. ".".1 
Tames Kehoe. , .. '" , ., ..,... "" ". , , . ,.,.. . 
j ames Carpenter, , , , " .,.... .,.... ,.",. ...", 
David Bateman. , . . ,. ...... . . , , , ,. ."", . , . , , , 
Samuel Moore."... "., ". ..,......",...". 
Jeremiah O'Brien,..", ,."" ,.....,......... 
Alexander 11illor,..... . ...,.. ."". '" . ., . , . . 
Eliza Holmes,..... ,.,... ., ...", ..",. .."., 
Widow S. \Voods."... ,.....".." ..,....,.. 
1. Perkins,...... ...... .".., .",., ,.., 
Duncan McDougall,.,.,. " . , , , , ,. ,.,.,. ,"'" 
John McDougall. . . . ,. ..",.. ..",..,.....", 


E 1- 
S ! 
S 1 
E I 

E I 
E 1 

\v ! 




I I 
1 I 
I I 



28 5 

"The front of Chatham was largely settled by Americans, in the latter part of 
the last century; some of them being refugees, who had left their country for their 
country's good, and who were remarkable for nothing but their hatred of British 
institutions and love of Brother Jonathan. This was well exemplified a few years later, 
on the breaking out of the war of 1812, when all th,<: loyal inhabit3.nts of the County 
volunteered as one man, leaving their families and homes, and, amid much suffering 
and privation. marched to headquarters, which Was then at Pointe Claire, where they 
prepared themselves, as best they could, to repel the piratical Ìll'l'aders of the Prov- 
ince. Many of the above mentioned men refused to join the ranks with th e others, 
openiy declaring that they were not going to fight against their own friends. Of 
course, no action was taken against them, but they were mJ.rked for all time, and as 
their principal employment and means of subsistence was the clearing of land and 
making þotash, as the timber began to get scarce, they found it convenient to leave 
for other parts; and, for year:,;, their names have been almost forgotten, and I 
will mention only a few, viz., the Bennetts, Bates, Parchers. and Smiths. Their 
vacant places were soon filled up by a better class of men, many of whose descend- 
ants still occupy the old homesteads, and are a credit and an honor to any country; 
among these may be reckoned the Schagels, Fullers, N oyeses, Br"ldford
l Ostroms, 
Casses and many others, 
,. The early settlers were often put to great straits for breadstuffs; whene\er the 
crops failed from any cause, there were no means of supply, except by the /latural 
ltigh'loay-the Grand River,-and nothing but canoes for transport to and from 
Lachine. The trip was often very much protracted, especially by the boats getting 
" Any scarcity in the matter of cereals was made up by the plenteousness of fish 
and game, In each year about the first of June, the shad (or, as they came to be 
called, 'Carillon Beef ') made their appearance, when each t
lIl1ily, in a short time, 
could lay in their yearly supply, For many years, the North River furnished fine 
specimens of s{1lmo/l, when they regularly ascended that river to spawn; that, of 
course, was before the river was obstructed by dams. 
"The system of agriculture was, for many years, of a very primit ive character. 
While the country was being cleared, all their dependence was on the llew land crop, 
.\fter a time, when the land required breaking up, the 'hog plough' was intro- 
duced j but that implement did little more than cut a,
d co';rer, and it was not until 
the' Scotch' plough was introduced, about the year 1825, that anything approaching 
good farming was done. And from that time, the improvement was ,.ery rapid, so 
that in a few years there were as good ploughmen in the County of .\rgenteuil as in 
any part of Canada. 
" Among the early settlers the state of religion was, for many years, at a very low 
ebb. A Methodist minister, travelIing from place to place, would hold services occa- 
sionally in private houses (no other place of worship being then available), and at 
stated times camp meeting:; were held in the open air, at which all ministers within 
a re3sonable distance were expected to attend. After a time, a large building was 
er(cted, which was intended to be used as a place of worship and also as a school- 
house. The Methodist denomination had the honor of erecting in the township of 
Chatham the first building dedicated solely to the worship of God; this was in 18 3 0 , 
and it obviated the necessity of holding ctlmþ meetillgs, the last of which, I think, was 
held in the year 182 9. 
" _\n Episcopal minister, the Rev. Rich. Bradford (grandfather of the late Sir 
John J. C. Abbolt), resided in Chatham on a farm now occupied by D::>nald 
Dewar, and supplied occasional services in 51. Andrews; this was prior to the arrival, 
in 1818, of the Rev. Archibald Henderson, As you will, n0 doubt, have the as



ance of abler pens than mine, I will not enlarge on this, or the two following subjects, 
:eaving to them the task of completing what I have begun. 
" There is very little that can be chronicled in reference to Sunday Schools. A 
few pious, earnest men had endeavored to establish one in the front of Chatham, 
but owing to the povel ty of the settlers and other difficulties in the way, it was kept 
open only a few months in surÌ1mer, each year. It was different in villages, where 
they had greater facilities, but, still, there were many drawbacks. 
"The temperance question, as we understand it, was scarcely known by name 
until after the year I 820, when a society was formed allowing the ase of wine, beer 
and cider, After a time, more stringent rules were adopted, but for many years 
there was a determined opposition j those known to. be favorable to the cause were 
subjected to all sorts of ridicule, reproach and contempt; but the cause gradually 
increased, many good, earnest, zealous workers kept up the agitation, holding meet- 
ings, and disseminating t.
mperance literature, until a very different feeling was 
brought about, and many strong opponents silenced. 'Ve have not yet got prohi- 
bition, but we expect it j may the Lord hasten it, in His own good time. 
., I do not know whether it was owing to hostility of race, which always had been 
prevalent among the French, a.nd which was the principal element of discord ill the 
whole of Lower Canada, or from some other cause
 but in the early settlement of the 
County, there was something remar kable in the fact that, up to the year 1829. there 
was not one French Canadian farmer in the whole of the township of Chatham. In 
that year, PIERRE ROBERT look up land in the second Concession, and about the 
same time, or perhaps a few years prior, one by the name of MALLETTE settled on a 
farm in the River Rouge settlement, and in my early days was noted as the only 
farmer that held the original deed of concession. It was somewhat different in what 
is now known as the County of Two Mountains, as many old country farmers settled 
down among the French j but it was not until after the Rebellion of 1837 that the 
:French sEttled among the English. 
" The causes which lfd up to the troubles of 1837 are, of course, matters of his- 
tory; but whatever feeling the Liberal party had in common with them, was essentially 
different, because of their loyalty to the British Constitution. 
" The Carillon canal was opened for traffic in 1834, when small vessels could go 
through to Kingston; prior to that date all goods and supplies were brought from 
Lachine-at first by bateaux and Durham boats, and aftenvard by steamer-landed 
at Carillon, and carted by teams of horses and oxen to Grenville, and thence shipped 
to By town. 
" [ will close this rambling sketch by relating an incident which will show the 
past and present modes of transit, and also record an item of history. 
" It was on his visit to the Maritime Provinces in the summer of 1840, that the 
Governor General of Canada, Charles Poulett Thompson, Esq., afterward Lord Syden- 
ham, left Kings
on 'i'ia the Rideau Canal to By town, thence by steamer to Grenville; 
and as the roads the intervening link between Grenville and Carillon were too 
rough for a delicate man like Lord Sydenham, he was taken in a carriage along the 
banks of the c.,nal to Greece's Point, where he embarked on the steamer 'St. 
Andrews' (\\... ;1 was used as a tug for barges between that place amI the upper 
locks), commanded by Captain Lighthall, of Chute au Blondeau fame, and was 
taken through Carillon Canal, at the rate of about tlzree miles all hOltr. Think 
of this, ye votaries of rapid transit, who cannot travel without a parlor, PullllllUl 
and llillÍ'Ig car attached, and bounding along at the rate of fifty miles an hour, 
while the Governor General of Canada was carried along on the deck of a tug 
steamboat, at the rate of about three miles an hour. Truly the lines ha ve fallen 
to us in pleasant places. "Youni truly, 



As the ÐEWARS were as early settlers in this part of Chatham as any of whom 
we have heard, we insert with lJleasure the following letter :- 
" OTTAWA, December 27 th , 1
., _-\s you request me to give a sketch of my ancestors, who were early settlers 
in the front of Chatham, I will endeavor to do so, but will first give the origin of the 
name Dewar, which simply means, in plain English, 'custodian' or ' keeper.' 
"The name is sometimes spelt ' Deor' (which is presumably the Gaelic form) as 
well as 'Deweer,' and is invested with quite a romantic and historic interest on 
account of its origin, which was, that one family of the Clan Macnab was selected or 
appointed to be the custodians of the 'Quigrich' or pastoral staff of St, Fillan, the 
Abbott, w
lO lived about the year of Our Lard 720, and held his yearly festival on 
t:Je 7th January. 
" His principal Church or Priory in Scotland, and which was most closely con- 
nected with his memory, W<i.S in the upper part of Glendochart, in Perthshire, and 
which takes from him the name of Strathjillall, There are well authenticated records 
which establish the fact, tlut the 'Quigrich' has been in possession of the Dewar 
family since the time of King Robert Bruce, and in 1487 the charter was again con- 
firmed by King James II I to Malise Dewar and his successors. The precious relic of 
a bye-gone age has thus come down through successive generations, until about the 
year 1860, the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, having traced it to Canada, found 
it in pos.;ession of Alexander D
war, of Plympton, Ont., who, being then i
 his 87 th 
year, was iaduced by them to execute a deed, transferring the custody of the relic he 
had brought from his native land to that Society, thus disposing of the trust so long 
and faithfully discharged by this Highland family, and of which I am proud to bear 
the núme. 
.. Hêving said this much in reference to the name, I will now give a short sketch of 
the family. In the month of July, 1804, my grandfather, Peter Dewar, his wife and 
faì1ily, consisting of six sons and three daughters, also his brother Duncan, his wife 
and O'1e child, togeth
r with some two or three hundred other emigrants, embarked 
at Greenock on a vessel bound for the port of Quebec, A few days after leaving port, 
the vessel was captured by a French Privateer, who, arrer examining tþe ship's papers, 
and finding there was no \'aluable cargo on board, and being satisfied that it was 
only an emigrant vessel, allowed them to proceed on their voyage j the captain first 
treating the Privateer's men to a liberal supply of Highland whiskey, The passengers 
experienced the truth of the proverb that 'blood is thicker than water,' as the lieu- 
tenant in charJe of the boarding party was a Highlander of the name of McDonald, 
who generously took pity on his countrymen and let them go. A short time after the 
departure of the French vessel, another was sighted bearing down upon them, and 
when the captain saw the' Union Jack' flying at the peak, he cursed hi:; unlucky 
stars, as a British man-of-war was more to be dreaded than a French, on account of 
that abominable sy
em, the' Press Gang,' which was thell in full swing, However, 
as soon as they came within speaking distance, they demanded of the captain whether 
he had seen a strange vessel, and in what latitude. Having received the desired in- 
formation, they crowded all sail and were soon out of sight. On the arrival of the 
emigrants at Quebec, in the early part of the month of September, they learned th<tt 
the Privateer had been captured, and great sorrow was felt for the fate of Lieutenant 
McDonald. On leaving the vessel at Quebec, 
he passengers separated, going to 
different parts of the country. The two families of Dewar, with six or seven other 
families of the Harne of Cameron, were in due time landed at St, Andrews, whence the 
Camerons went to the township of Chatham and settled on farms there, 



C, :My grandfather lived for a time on the farm that is now caned 'Bellevue,' 
afterwards removing to the front of Chatham, on a property purchased from Colonel 
Daniel Robertson, and which is still in possession of his grandchildren, while he and 
all his family have long since passed over to the silent m'ljority. 
" The history of the Dewar family might very properly close here, were it not 
that you particularly desire a further sketch of my father's family. 
" On the first day of March, 1807, he was married to Margaret McCallum, of 
CaldweIl's Manor, and settled on what is known as LQLNo-=.. 4, front of Çhatham, 
which is now in possession of Mr. Fitzgerald. His family of five daughters ana four 
sons, and of which I am the youngest, were born there. :\ly mother died on the nth 
October, 1826, aged 45 years. My father died on the 4th September, 1869, in the 
94th year of his age. I am the only surviving member of his family-the last leaf on 
the family tree, all the others having long since passed away. 
" Of my grandfather's six sons, John, the eldest, was the educated man of the 
family. He graduated from Edinburgh University, and was for some time tutor in a 
gentleman's family in Scotland. A short time after he came to Canada: he received 
from the Government the appointment of teacher in the public school at Chatham, 
and held that position for over twenty years, being the only teacher receiving full 
salary ever appointed by the Government. He was a man of superior abilities, well 
read in :111 the literature of the day, of a reflective and cultured mind; but, owing to a 
retiring disposition, would take no part in the struggles of public affairs. In person 
he was of slight build and delicate constitution, in singular contrast to the rest of his 
brothers, who were all strong and rugged. He married Myra Noyes, and 
ettled on 
lots Nos. I, 2 and 3, his house standing a little in rear of 1\1r. Fitzgerald's house. He 
had a family of two sons and one daughter, and after the death of his wife in August, 
1827, he and his family resided with his brothers until his death, July 16th, 1839. 
As he did not have to depend upon the proceeds of his farm for a living, nearly 
the whole of his large farm was let out in pasture. His eldest son, John, left 
home when quite a young man, taking up his residence in New York, where he 
married, and died in 185
. His son Peter married Ann Gordon in 1849, and died 
in 1851; His daughter Eliza Jane married'Vm. Douglas in 1846, and after a few 
years' residence in Chatham removed to the State of New York. 
e( Of the re
t of my grandfather's sons, Donald and Peter never married, living 
together on the old homestead with their sister Margaret as housekeeper, until her 
death in J 857. Donald died in June, 1854, and Peter in 1872. 
" Alexander. married Agnes Dodd, and settled on a farm, and did a flourishing busi- 
ness with an oatmeal and grist mill for many years, until it was rendered useless by 
the improvements made to the Grenville Canal. He had a large family of sons and 
daughters, who are, for the most part, living in the immediate vicinity of their old 
home. He died in May, 1876, being over 90 years of age at the time of his death, 
"Colin, the youngest son, married Jane :McIntyre in April, 18..J.o, and settled on 
the farm, where his son Donald still resides, He died in September, 1866, in the 66th 
year of his age, 
"As already narrated, Duncan, my father, married l\Iargaret McCallum, a 
descendant of one of those families who left their homes in the valley of the Mohawk, 
at the breaking out of the troubles which led to the separation from Great Britain, 
After their marriage, they settled on Lot NO'4 (next to my Uncle John), which was 
then, like most of the other farms at that time, an almost unbroken wilderness. True, 
the potash makers had been over a good part of the front of Chatham at that time, 
but they had only cut down what suited their purpose for making ashes, leaving the 
rest as it was, 



" \Vhether it was law, or custom only, that gave to the Indians the right to all the 
Islands in the river, it was from an Indian Chief at the Lake of Two Mountains that 
my father obtained, for a yearly rental, the privilege of occupying- and cultivating the 
large island in front of his property, and which was afterward called after his name, 
The produce fwm that island was sufficient for the support of his family, year after 
year, as he raised good crops of fall wheat, potatoes, corn, hay, etc., besides apples, 
plums and other small fruit in abundance, which seemed to be indigenous to the place. 
Having this island to depend on for the support of his family, gave him quite an ad- 
vantage over some of his neighbors, and, also, an opportunity to get his farm cleared 
up. He was what would be called in those days a stock fancier ,. he was not satisfied 
without having the best breed of cattle and horses that could be obtained, and no 
expense or trouble was spared in order to get them. He brought home, at one time, a 
small herd of cattle and horses which he bought in the State of Vermont and Eastern 
Townships, and their descendants graced both his own and his brother's barn yards 
for many years. 
"\Vhen my parents began life together, there was only a small log house and 
barn on the farm, and not sufficient accommodation for the stock. Shortly after, a 
stable of sided cedar was built, and which, a few years ago, seemed to be as sound as 
ever; this is merely mentioned to show the durability of cedar. In that old log house, 
nearly all their family were born, as it was not until the year 1819 that he had finished a 
snug, comfortable, two-storey stone house, where my youngest sister Kate and myself 
first saw the light of day, and where my dear mother breathed her last 11th October, 
"The face of the country is very much changed since then. At that time, the 
main road ran along the bank of the river from Carillon to our place. The view from 
our house was splendid; away to the west, the river and farm houses were in full 
view; down the river could be seen the rapids and part of the village of Point Fortune j 
nearly in front of the house was a most magnificent elm tree, whose wide-spreading 
branches made a very inviting shade on a hot day. 
" .:\Iy mother was a woman of a strong and indomitable will, with much native 
energy and ambition, blended with great mildness and gentleness of character; cool 
and collected in the time of danger, as the following little incident will shúw : 
"While engaged in her domestic duties, it was customary for the eldest child to 
take charge of the younger ones; and one day, as usual, she had taken them out, and 
was amusing them for a time under the shade of the elm tree, whence she got them 
into the canoe, that was always moored at the landing place, In their fun and play, 
the boat was soon loosed frolH shore, and floating out into dangerous water. My 
sister, seeing her danger, made a gleat outcry, which not only brought my mother to 
the scene, but was aìso creating a panic among the younger ones. 
Iy mother seeing 
the peril, at once, spoke to them in a soothing, gentle way, and, by her cool and 
collected manner, quieted the little ones; while she, with the aid of a pole, and by 
wading into the deep water, managed to bring them safely to shore, It was in the 
same place where my youngest brother, Daniel, was drowned a few }'ears afterward, 
.:\fy three brothers were in bathing, and he, not knowing the danger, climbed on a 
sunken rock, and slipped off into deep water, and was never after seen alive. The 
body was recovered in a few days in an eddy, near Carillon. 
"\Vhen the Government expropriated the land required for the canal and high- 
way, and which included his dwelling house, my father sold the remainder of his 
farm to Wm. Cook, a contractor on the canal, and removed in the spring of r830 
to a rented farm, a short distance away, where he resided until 25th June, 1835. 
He then removed to the property he had purchased on the Lachute Road, which 

29 0 


was then almost in a state of nature, so that, for the second time, he began 
clearing up a new farm; and although he was pretty well advanced in life, he 
lived to see it brought to a high state of cultivation, with large and commodious buildings, comfortable dwelling, etc. When the farm was sold in 1862, he 
retired from active life, and spent the remainder of his days on the old homestead 
in Chatham, where he died 4th September, 1869, in the 94th year of his age. 
Of his family of five daughters, the eldest, Christian, born 6th October, 1809, married 
James Fraser, 26th October, 18'54; died loth July, 1858. Mary, born April, 
181 I, married James Thomson, 3 0th December, 18:H, and died 28th September, 18]2. 
Helena, born November, 1813, married Robert Thom'ìon (no relation of 
!\] ary's husband), 2nd January, I 83
, and died 26th November, 1887, leaving a 
family of two sons and two daughters, who reside in Ottawa and vicinity. Margaret, 
born 2nd January, 181S, died February, 1883; Catharine, born 3rd January, 1821, 
died 19th )[ay, 188.3, 
"Of his four sons, John, born 26th April, 18 I 7, was accidentally killed in my father's 
barn, by falling from the top of the hay mow, and was impaled on a sharp stake; he 
lived about twenty-four honr!:, and died 14th AUg'..lst, 18-1.1, He was a young man 
of great promise, of agreeable and gentle disposition, quiet and unassuming manner; 
he had a splendid voice anll was fond of music i heavy, muscular build and splendid 
physique, !!'tanding over six feet in height, and weighing 220 lbs. His sudden, untimely 
and dreadful death was a terrible shock to his father and all his family; and I cannot 
recall the sad circumstances, even now, without a shudder. I Peace to his ashes. 
Honour to his memory.' Peter, his twin brother, lived on the farm with his father 
until his death, 22nd 
:O\'ember, 1847. Daniel, born 28th March, 1819, was drowned 
in July, 1827, as previously narrated. 
" I was the youngest of the family, and was born 12th September, 1823, at the old 
homestead in Chatham, where my uncle John laid the foundation of what little education 
I possess, as I never had the advantage of a classical or college education, but had 
to put up with what was taught in the common schools (and some of them were com- 
mon enough), our text. books being the Bible and Mavor's spelling-book, Those who 
were fond of poetry had the Scottish version of the Psalms to revel in, and when the 
, English Reader' was added 10 the list of school books, it was thought we were 
very extravagant. At that time, the greatest part of the ink used in country schcols was 
made by boiling the bark of the soft maple i we used goose or turkey quills to write 
with. As my father had not the means to pay help in clearing up and doing the 
work on the farm, each one of his sons had to turn in and help, and, in consequence, 
I was taken from school before 1 was thirteen years of age, and never returned. 
-\s [ did not relish a farmer's life, I left home, and served in a store three years; 
but on the death of my brother Jolin, in 1841, thinking it was my duty to help my 
father, I went back to the farm, and after a few years took entire charge of it, and 
relieved him from all responsibility. He deeded one-half of the property for my own 
personal benefit; on the land thus obtained I built a house, and on the 13th Sept- 
ember, 1854, was marriec1. to Elizabeth, the youngest daughter of Charles Benedict of 
St. Andrews, who was born I I th August, 1823' \Ve went home, and lived there until 
the spring of 1863, when, having sold the farm in the fall of I
62 to Charles Albright, 
we remained two years in St. Andrews, and then removed, in 1865, to St, Eugene, in 
the township of Hawkesbury. My wife died there 1 Ith October, 1866, leaving to my 
care four son
, our third son, James, h:1ving died Plevious to his mother, of scarlet 
fever, 24th January, 1
65' During my residence at St. Eugene, I received the appoint- 
ment of Commissioner for taking affidavits in the 
'l s Bench, and was also 
appointed local superintendent of schools, which office I held for two years until I 
left the place in 1868. 


29 I 

" In the spring of 1869, I came to Ottawa, and having obtained a situation in 
the office of Captain Young, lumber manufacturer, sent for my family in November of 
the same year, was married to Esther, the second daughter of Charles Benedict of St, 
Andrews, who was born 1st January, 1819, and died 22nd April, 1892. 
" I remained in the employ of Captain Young for seventeen years, the greater 
part of the time as cashier and confidential clerk, :md remained with his successors 
for over t\\'o years after he sold out; and am r.ow and have been for five years in the 
Water 'Yorks department in the City Hall. I never aspired to municipal honors, 
but represented Victoria ward, as public school trustee, for a period of nine years, 
In politics, I am a Liberal, but not slavishly bound to either party; would support an 
honest government, 1
0 matter by what name it was called, if the men at the head of 
it were men of honor, who could not be bought with the spoils, nor contaminateLi 
with the Imt of office, who have in them that 'righteousness which alone exalteth a 
nation.' In religion, I can worship with any who love the Lard Jesus Christ in sincerity, 
but [1m identified more closely with the Presbyterian denomination, and have endea- 
vored, although with much f
ebleness and faltering, to do my duty in that state of 
life in which it has pleased God to call me. My family of four sons are all married, 
and living in Ottawa. John, the eldest, born 1st November, 1855, served his time as 
a machinist, afterward taking a course of mechanical dr2wing in Richmond College, 
and received an appointment from the Government as machinist and draughtsman 
in the Intercolonial shops at River-du.Loup. He left that place for a situation as 
locomotive foreman at Ottawa, which he resigned to open an office as Insurance 
Agent and Real Estate Broker. He married, June, 1880, Catharine Isabella, daughtn 
ot Ald. :Masson of Ottawa. 
"George, born 28th July, 1857, is now Agent for the Export Lumber Co. of 
New York and Boston. He was married loth December, 189[, to Mary, youngest 
daughter of l\Ir. Wro. Robertson, of Ottawa. 
" Char]e5, born 13th February, 1862, for the past eight years has been local man- 
ager of the Bell Telephone Co. at Ottawa, and is one of the Directors of the Ottawa 
Eiectric Railway. He married Aunie, youngest daughter of Mr. Arch. Acheson of 
Westmeath, 91h June, 1886 i they have three children. 
"Colin, the youngest, born 27th October, 1863: is a graduate of 
College, and has been a practising physician and surgeon in the city for the last six 
years. He married, 1st January, 1890, Laura, daughter of Rufus Fil
r of 
and they have two children. 

"Yours truly, 
"C. DE'V AR." 
'Ve think the mill referred to in the above letter of !\Ir. Dewar de "erves further 
notice, inasmuch as it performed a most important function in its day, and proved a 
at blessing to the inhabitants. Only a vestige of it remains, and the date of its 
erection could not be learned, till it was discovered in the diary of the late Captain 

ridham of Grenville, who refers to it in speaking of the masons who were employed 
10 the construction of his own house; it is thus learned that the mill was built ir 
18 35. Its location was near the Ottawa, not far above Stonefield, on a small 
which was then much larger thl.n at present. It was famed for the excellence of the 
Clatmeal it manufactured, and was patronized by farmers even from Glen 
arry. .A 11 
.Iged citizen in the vicinity remembers that many teams were often waitillg at the 
mill, in the days of its usefulness. 
. Colin Dewar, the youngest of the sons of Peter Dewar, and who is briefly men- 
tIOned in the above sketch of the Dewar family, was three years old wr.en his parents 
came to Canad:1. His father had lived on the Duke of .\rgyle's estate in Scotland, 



and the aged Duchess sometimes called at the house. She took great interest in the 
wee bairn Colin from his birth, and expressed a hope that his hair would be red. She 
presented him with a suit of kilts when the family was about leaving, and hewas in the 
full enjoyment of this Highland costume when the vessel was stopped by the Priva.teer. 
The kilts were long preserved by the family, and we believe that portions are 
still in existence, Mr. Dewar (the happy recipient of this suit) was lieutenant in the 
company of Captain Ostrom, in the Rebellion of 1837, and was an active, esteemed 
member of this community, serving it for some time as School Commissioner, 

Irs. Dewar died in 1895; they had four sons-Peter, James, Duncan and Donald, 
and four daughters-Annie, Christina, Mary and :\iargaret ; Peter lives in this soc- 
tion, James in Minnesota, and Duncan is decea
ed. Annie, the widow of \Vm. Scott, 
lives in California; Christina, widow of Geo. Noyes, in this loca
ity; Mary died in 
infancy; Margaret, married to James Rawring, :ives in British Columbia. 
Donald Dewar resides on the homestead
a fine farm with an attractive brick 
lesidence which commands a beautiful view of the Ottawa. Mr. Dewar was appointed 
commissioner for the trial of small causes in 1892, and soon afterward was appointed 
Justice of the Peace; he married Eliza J. .\fullen, of St. A.ndrclvs parish. 
l\Ir. Dewar in a later letter says: 
" I believe I did not mention the fact of a sawmill having been built on lot No. 
3, a short distance up the river from Mr. Chishl11m's distillery, and a little below my 
father's house; it was the fir
t mill erected in that part of Lower Canada. There is 
no documentary evidence to show when or by whom it was built, or the length of 
time it was in existence, how or by what means it W,lS destroyed, which was, most 
likely, by the ice in the spring. It must have been destroyed in the closing years of 
the last century, as there was not a vestige of the mill to be seen (except a part of 
the mill dam) when my fath
r sEttled on his farm in 1807. ),1r. Duncan Dewar 
remembers seeing the remains of the dam when he was :t boy, and is of the opinion l 
that it was built by Ebenezer Clarke, a well-known millwright in those days, whose 
family resided in the township of Chatham. I also frequently saw the remains of the 
dam in my younger days. II 
Great changes have occurred in the appearance of this I )C.lltty since the days 
when !\Ir. Dewar lived here j the large elm to which he refers has disappeared, as 
well as many other of the old landmarks, 
On the farm of Mr. James Edward Fitzgerald, at a little distance from the high- 
way, on the left, are the ruins of a house, which, judging from its interior finish and 
the grounds around it, was the home of some person of taste and means. At the 
time of its erection the road passed between it and the river, so that the neat fence 
and shrubbery, of which vestiges may stiil be seen, that were then in front of the 
dwelling, are now in the rear of its mins. This house was erected about 1830. by 
'Villiam Cook, a Scotchman, who had been a contractur in his native land. On 
coming to Chatham he took a large contract in the constructiùn of the Canal, made 
money, with which he purchased 500 acres of land, that was formerly owned by John 
Dewar, in this section, and erected the dwelling referred to above. He afterward lost 
heavily on a contract he had taken for the construction of the locks at Chute au 
THOMAS FITZGERALD, one of the pioneers of Beech Ridge, in the Parish of :;1. 
Andrews, received a classical education, preparatory to entrance to the priesthood; 
but, for some reason, he gave up the design of following this vocation. He was a 
nephew of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, who was executed for complicity in the Irish 
Rebellion of r 798, and was himself an exile for nine years in France, for his connection 
with the same Rebellion. But, being pardoned by the British Government, he 

returned to his native land, and, in 1836, came to Canada and settled at Beech 
Ridge. His son, JOHN FITZGE
ALD, came to Chatham, and, in 1868, bought three 
lots of land, on which his sons now live. He was married in 1848 to Elizabeth 
Delaney, and had three sons and two daughters, James, married to Joanna O'Con- 
nor, June loth, 1879; John, who was married to Martha Dixon, of Little Rideau, in 
September, 1881 j and Edward, married in 1880, to Mary Ellen Barron, of East 
Hawkesbury, all live in Chatham. Margaret, the widow of John Lennon, also 
resides in this place; Elizabeth, the other daughter, is the wife of Richard Funcheon, 
of St. Columba. Their father, Mr. John Fitzgerald, after buying his farm, about 1872 
went, with one of his sons, to California, where he earned money to pay for his land, 
returning in 1874. He was an intelligent man, a great reader, and possessed 
a very retentive memory; he was also a man of much energy and industry. The land 
he purchased at this place he divided among his sons, giving to each a good farm. 
He died very suddenly, 6th May, 1894; Mrs. Fitzgerald died 29th January, 1896. 
]A:\IES MILLER came, in 1831, with his family, from the County of Monaghan, 
Ireland, to Carleton County, Onto Four years later, his son, James MiIIer, jun., 
moved to Pembroke, where he remained till 1870, successfully engaged in lumbering 
and farming. He then came to Cushing, Que., and bought the Mair property, which 
he sold in 1888, and, in the spring of the next year, moved to another part of Chatham, 
where he bought 90 acres, known as the "Feeder Farm," on which he still lives, 
liJler has always taken an interest in schools, and was a member of a School 
Board fifteen years. He was married in 1858 to Susannah O'Brien, who has since 
died. They had ten children, of whom only one- James Henry-grew up. The latter 
was married, 28th February, 1894, to Miss Christina McMartin, of River Rouge, and 
is now employed in Montreal, in th e office of the Traveler's Insurance Company. 
PHILABERT F. FILION, a very successful business man of this section, is a son of 
Martin Filion, and was born near Rigauå, Que., and 
ame to Chatham in 1865. 
Previous to this, he attended college in St. Andrews, ar.d worked some time for 
McLaughlin & Son, lumbermen, on the Ottawa, being wi1h them, altogether, as derk 
and foreman, twenty-one years; he was also foreman on the CariIIon Dam, the Lachine 
Piers, and in the stone quarry three years at Port Arthur. He has been twice 
married: the first time in 1866 to Mary Robert, who died about a year after her 
marriage. His second marriage was in 187I to Miss Dinah Sauvie, of Montebello. 
Mr. Filion, for a number of years, has been engaged in the iumber business 
with his brother Joseph, his fine farm, meanwhile, being to a great extent managed 
 rs. Filion. 
ANTOINE ROBERT, who has lived here for nearly thirty years, has the honor of 
Leinc: the son of a centenarian. His grandfather, Joseph Robert, came from France, 
and was one of the very early settlers at St. Andrews. Joseph, the eldest of his 
children, who had lived for nearly fifty years on the River Rouge, St. Andrews, died 
there in 1885, upward of 100 years old. He was twice married, and had one son and 
seven daughters. Antoine is the only son by the last marriage. 
EDWARD BARRON is one of the respected farmers of this section; he is a grand- 
son of the Mrs. Barron mentioned in the history of Chute au Blondeau, who performed 
the ftat of riding on horseback, through the wilderness, to Toron to, to obtain the 
patent for their farm. It is but just to say, that the industry and perseverance of Mr. 
Barron emulate those of his maternal relative, His father, Joseph Barron, lived on 
the old homestead at Chute au Blondeau, and died there a few years since, He had 
six sor.s and three daughters; three, only, of the sons-James, John and Edward- 
live in this section. James conducts an hotel in Grenville ; John is a farmer in the 




same township. Edward B:1rron, in 1882, married the widow of John Thompson, 
daughter of the late John Mason, lockmaster, and s
ttled in 'Chatham. Mrs. Barron, 
by her first marriage, had five children, of whom two sons and one daughter are now 
living. By the second marriage, .Mr. and Mrs. Barron have one son and one daughter. 

1r, Barron's present farm was fOlmerly owned by Dr. Jameson, one of the 
s.ucctssful and pron 1 inent physicians of Waterloo, Shefford County, Que. 
CAPT. JOHN STEPHENS, whose early career was singularly eventful, and who, as 
his various promotions proved, did honorable service in fighting for his country, 
 born in \Vexford County, Ireland, in 1789. He joined the army at the age of 
17, entering the 87th Regt. Foot, in 1806; he was transferred, in 1808, to 4th 
G. B., and, in 1810, to the 66th Foot, commanded by his second cousin, General Sir 
Oliver Nicolls. He was promoted to the rank of Senior Quarter Master, while under 
service at Calcutta, 14th September, 181S. His length of service in the regular army 
was twenty-six years, four of which were spent in India. From India, he 
went to the Island of St, Helena, where he acted as one of the Guards of 

apoleon 1. His family had in their possession for years a ring presented to him by 
the ill.starred Emperor. He left St. Helena in 1821, retired from the 66th Regiment, 
came to Canada in 1827, and in 1830 settled in Chatham. At his own request, he was 
retired on half-pay 9th December, 1831.. III f833, he received a grant of land in 
Litchfield, County of Pontiac, for military service, but did not remove his residence 
from Chatham. In 1837, at the request of Sir John Colborne, he raised a company 
of volunteers, and served as Regiment Adjutant in 1838. It was at this time he won 
his title of Captain. He became connected with the Presbyterian Church, under the 
Rev. \Villiam Mair, in 1839, and was appointed Deacon of the same in the following 
year; he was approved by the session of the Church as Eider, but seems to have 
declined appointment to that office. His death took place 9th October, 1868. 
The REY. RICHARD BRADFORD was one of the most prominent of the early settlers 
in Chatham, chiefly because he was the first to plant the Church of England in the 
valley of the Ottawa, and was the first clergyman resident in the c,)llnty. These two 
facts alone entitle him to a long biographical sketch; but, notwithstanding the efforts 
that were made to obtain more facts with regard to him, we simply learned that he 
came from England to New York about 1782, and was there engaged in a business 
partnership with a Mr. Smith. A few years later he to Canada, and was Chaplain 
in the 49th Regiment, \Ve do not know just when he came to Chatham, but that he 
was here in 1811-12 is evident from the Church Records at St. Andrews. He pur- 
chased from Co!. Robertson his estates on the Ottawa and North River, the first 
comprising 5,000, the latter J ,000 acres. He left two sons in the States; the remain- 
der of his children, four sons, Richard, George, Charles, and 'Villiam, and two 
daughters, afterwards MiS. Abbott and Mrs. Fisk, came with him to Canada. 
George, his eldest son, married Martha Smith, daughter of a neighbor, Captain 
Johnson Smith, and he first !"oettled on the homestead near his father; but, not long 
afterward, he removed to Upper Canada, and there bought a farm. Three years later, 
in 1820, his father died, and he returned to Chatham to obtain his share of the 
patrimony. His brothers, at that time, had all left this section, and his brother-in- 
law, Rev, Joseph Abbott, wh:J was executor of the estate of the deceased, prevailed 
on George to take the 1,000 acres of land on the North River, instead of money. for 
his share of the paternal estate. In consequence of so doing, he had to give U? his 
farm in Upper Canada, on which he had paid ;/';75, and he then returned and settled 
on his new one, his house being located not far from the site of Earle's Mills, in 
Lachute. Here he lived, till near the close of his life. His children, who arrived at 



mature age, were George 
I., Henry, now living in Brandon, 
Ian.; Charles, 
who was accidentally killed on the railway a few years since; and John, now living in 
Lachu te, where he has a lime kiln. The daughters were Eliza and 
Iartha Jane; the 
former was Illarried to Henry Hammond, the latter to the late Andrew McConnell. 
In 1838, George married Matilda Stephens, a daughter of Capt. John Stephens, and 
Henry Bradford married Mary Ann, her sister, These two brothers were members 
of Captain Stephens' Volunteer Company, and went with it to Grande Brulé. 
George, the elder brother, purchased a lot on the Ottawa
 formerly belonging to 
his grandfather's estate, and built a house contiguous to that of his father-in-law. 
About J 84 6 , he opened a store here in a part of the house where his grandsire lived, 
and, in company with his brother Henry, did a large business. George, who is still 
alive, though upward of eighty, engaged in lumbering and piloting at an early age, and 
followed this many years. He employed many men, and, at times, had as many as 
seventy-five in his employ. After opening the store, he still followed his old vocation, 
while his brother Henry managed the store. A few years afterward, George built a 
saw mill, a few miles away from his home, on a stream called 
[udd)' Branch. The 
brothers then dissolved partnership-Henry and his nephew John (a son of George 
Bradford) taking the saw mill, and George prepared to build a large steam miJI near 
his o\\"n dwelli'lg. This he er
cted on a smal
 bay on the Ottawa in 18 7 1 -7 2 , and 
for a few years did a large business manufacturing lalh, shingle, and all kinds of 
lumber, which he sold to dealers and others, These mills were destroyed by fire in 
18 77, when they were owned by the Owens Brothers, of 
tonefieìd. _-\t one tin1P, 
Mr. Bradford owned eighty-six square miles of timber in Ottawa County, which, after 
reserving a strip nine rods wide, he sold for $13,000. 
M r, Bradford has been an ardent disciple of Nimrod, and during IllS lifetime has 
killed over five hundred deer, about a dozen bears and three or four lynxes. Sports- 
men from the cities have often employed him as a guide and companion in their 
huntiJ1g tours, and many times he has spent weeks alone in the forest. 
He has five sons now living-John, George, 'Villiam R., Edmund* and Frederick 
Xorman. Thlee of these live in Hawksbury, one in L:lchute and one on the home- 
stead. Of the three daughters, Edith mélrried to James McAllister, Postmaster at 
Chute au Blondeau ; Gertrude to Jas. Cook, farmer, of Arundel; and Martha to Joseph 
Thompson, a farmer of Portland, Que, The N oyeses ha ve always been acti\"e citizens 
of Chatham. 
..., THO:\lAS NC)YES was a U. E. Loyalist, and before coming to Chatham lived in 

ew Hampslllre. On removÏ1.g to this place, accomp
nied by his wife, three sons 
and three daughters, he bought two lots of land. John, his eldest son, took part of 
the homestead, on which he lived till his death. Clark and \Villiam, his brothers, 
built the large brick house now owned by Edward Barron. This they sold to Mont- 
marque!, and he sold to Dr. Jameson, Both these brothers also died in Chatham. 
John, the eldest son, mentioned above, was married to Lydia Dexter, of Vermont, 
and had six sons and two daughters. 
Of the sons, Thomas, the eldest, married Mary Ann Ostrom, and lives in a pleasant 
brick residence on a fine farm, about half a mile from the homestead. They have 
five sons and three daughters. John, their eldest son, who has spent much of his life 
on the Ottawa, and is regarded as a skillful engineer, is engineer on the steamer " Hall," 
which plies between Montreal and Ottawa, and is much esteemed by the Company by 
which he is employed. His wife was :\Iiss Fanny Roe, of 
IontreaJ. Benjamin, his 
youngest brother, and Ida, his youngest sister, remain with their parents on the home- 

'It Killed in a mill in 18 95- 

29 6 


John, the second son, and Cha.rles, fourth son of John Noyes, sen" live in Butte 
City, Montana, the former being one of the pioneers of that place, \Villiam, their 
brother, lives in Muskegon, :Mich. Benjamin, their youngest brother, when last heard 
frpm was in Africa. 
George, sixth son of the same family, was married in 1868 to Christina, daughter 
of the late Colin Dewar, of Chatham, and moved to .Minnesota, where he died in 
18 7 0 . His widow, with her two children, returned, and bought a part of her family 
(Dewar) homestead, on which she still resides with her son John and daughter 
Of the two daughters of John Noyes, sen., Frances, the eldest, unmarried, lives 
with her brother Thomas. Lydia, the second daughter, married Mr. WilJiams, of 
Burlington, Vt., and died at that place. \Vhen but a young child, Frances was one 
day playing on the bank of the river, not far from the house, and a band of Indians 
ascending the Ottawa enticed her into a canoe and carried her away, By good fortune 
the Indians at Grenville met Mr. Noyes and Mr. McPhie, his partner in the Jt1mber 
business, coming down the river. The child, recognizing her father, gave a joyful 
cry, and was thus rescued from captivity. 
About a mile on the road leading from Mr. George Bradford's, on the Ottawa, 
to St, Philippe, the travelJer comes to a good farmhouse and commodious barns. 
Descending a smalJ hiB, he crosses a bridge over a creek and, at his right, lies 
a small picturesque pond, in a tract of level ground, encircled by gentle hills, and at 
a point where these hills so nearly meet as to leave only a narrow outlet for the 
stream is a mill for sawing wood. Farther off, at some little distance beyond the 
hiJls, the upper part of a wind mill frame looms in sight. The whole surroundings.. 
the creek, the rond, the well-tilled fields, good fences and sleek herds, afford a picture 
and suggest a phase of happy farm life on which the traveller delights to linger, 
This was the home of EPHRAIM FULLER, a pensioner of the United States Govern- 
ment for service in the Revolution, and here he subsequently settled, the earliest 
pioneer, it is believed, in this immediate section. On the spot where now his grand- 
son has his mill for sawing wood, he also had a saw mill for transforming the pines, 
spruce, hemlock, etc., into lumber-a single instance of the enterprise of which he 
was possessed. He had thirteen children-eight sons and five daughters; three of 
the former, Rinaldo, I vory and Calvin, were the only ones who remained in this 
section. Rinaldo lived on the homestead, and had two sons and one daughter. The 
latter, Marion, married to Daniel, a son of their neighbor, John Casso 
Albert, the son, who married Minnie Douglass, lives on the homestead, and 
is engaged in farming on improved plans, He has a silo, cuts his ensilage and 
all h is feed by water power, and the same motor is employed to thresh his grain. 
He keeps a large stock of cattle, and under his able management his farm will soon 
be in condition to sustain more. l\Ir. Fuller is a young man of great energy: and his 
enterprise is a worthy example to the other farmers of Chatham. 
At a little distance farther west-where we saw the wind mill, which is used for 
hydraulic purposes-on a fine farm, resides the widow of [vory Fuller and her son 
Frank. Her maiden name was Marietta Schagel. She is a daughter of Captain 
Schagel, and her married life has been spent on this farm. Mr. Fuller died in Sep- 
tember, 1887. They had eleven children, two sons and nine daughters. 
Albert, the eldest son, is in Carievale, Assiniboia, Frank, the younger, and the 
only one of the children unmarried, remains on the homestead. 
Calvin, the third son of Ephraim Fuller, who remained in the vicinity of his 
ear1y home, married, and raised a large family, but was accidentally killed while 
engaged in lumbering, His family afterward sold their homestead and went to 
the \Vest. 



Passing onwa.rd toward St. Philippe, through a low lying belt of thick, second 
arowth forest, we arrive at another fine level farm, attractive from its intensely rural 

spect and quiet seclusion. This is the home of Mr. John Casso 
JOSIAH CASS, his grandfather, was one of the U. E. Loyalists who left the Genesee 
Yalley at the breaking out of the Revolution, and he first made his home at the Baie 
des Chaleurs, There his wife died, leaving four sons and two daughters. He again mar- 
ned, and some years later, yet previous to 1800, carne to Hawksbury, Ont., and took 
up 400 acres of land at the head of the Rapids. By his second marriage, he 
had one son and three daughters, to whom he bequeathed the bulk of his property, 
at which his children by the first marriage, being displeased, left home. Two settled 
in Treadwell's Seigniory, and Daniel, the youngest, came to the second concession in 
Chatham, and took up 160 acres of ]and, now owned and occupied by his son, 
John. Another man had made a small beginning here, but the great amount of pioneer 
work remained for 1\1r. Casso For twenty years he prosecuted his labors without the 
help and companionship of a wife, but about 1821 he married a widow named Eleanor 
Brundage, who had five children. In 1837-38 he and his stepson, Le,'i Brundage, 
served as volunteers in the Company of Capt. Schagel. 
This locality seems to have been a favorite resort for wolves in early days, as, 
besides the loss of sheep by Leavitt, mentioned elsewhere, they continued to m1ke 
raids on the flocks of Messrs. Cass, Fulltr and others, the former having lost ten, 
and the latter twenty, sheep, at different times, in one night. 
1\1r. Cass had, of his own children, three sons and one daughter. Jacob, the 
youngest of the former, now lives in Illinois. John, another of the sons, who re- 
mained on the homestead, married in August, 1845, to E!izabeth Ramsey, and has 
had nine children, of whom three sons and four daughters are still living. The two 
youngest, Johiel and Amelia, still live with their parents on the homestead, 
Several years ago Mr, Cass sustained a heavy loss by fire, his buildings, hay, grain, 
fanning implements, wagons, five hor
es and five cattle all being burned, without 
insurance. He has the respect of his fdlow-citizens, and has b
en a School Com- 
missioner a number of years, and Assessc,r fifteen. 
It should be stated that the road on which the above mentioned families have 
settled, and which is known as the "Fuller Road," was settled at a very early period; 
the þrocès-vcrbal, which is dated 1821, being the oldest known in this part of the 

1\0 one, who travels the road from Carillon to Grenville will fail to admire the 
section of country through which he passes. The stately trees by the way-side, good 
buildings, well-tilled farms, the neat stone church with its pretty manse, are objects 
that will attract one's attention. But he will soon arrive at a spot which, not only 
frem the beauty of the scenery, but from the elegance of the buildings, though few in 
number, will enhance his interest and arouse his curiosity. An air of profound quiet 
pervades the place, but it is evident, that it was once a locality of business and 
activity. This is Cushing, a name which belonged to its founder, who, for half a 
century, was a leading spirit in the County of Argenteuil. \Ve cannot give a more 
complete biographical sketch of Mr. Cushing, than will be found in the following 
obituary, copied from the .Montreal Herald of .May 20t
l, 1875 :- 
" MR. LEMUEL CUSHING, whose death we announced yesterday, was one of the 
early settlers of the Ottawa Valley, He was born at Three Rivers in 1806, educated 
at Peacham, Vermont, and commenced business for himself in the then lumbering 
district of Chatham, County of Argenteuil, at the early age of seventeen. Like all 

29 8